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Morphological architecturing is one of the smart and efficient ways to maximize the number of excitons harvested from the known photoactive materials and existing fabrication technologies. Surfaces and interfaces play a vital role in absorbing light and therefore when patterned regularly, aid in the improvement of light absorption. This thesis deals with the study of light management by morphologically architecturing the organic electroactive materials. Here, morphological architecturing is carried out using electrospinning technique by optimizing various parameters. In the first part, organic photovoltaic system is tailored by morphologically modifying the conjugated polymer active layer and analyzing the enhancement in light collection and hence performance of photovoltaic devices. In the second part, the prospects of using free standing buffer layer instead of thin film buffer layer in a solar cell is evaluated. Furthermore, the study on morphological engineering of conjugated small molecule is carried out, by varying the solvents and derivatives, in order to control morphologies by understanding the underlying mechanism. Overall this thesis attempts to understand the fundamentals in morphological architecturing, by physical architecturing of the small molecules in a device for light management applications as well as demonstrating improvement in light absorption in existing organic photovoltaic systems. In the introduction chapter, a brief description of organic photovoltaics is given followed by highlighting the importance of processing methods in light management and in organic photovoltaics. The significance of structured architecture in improving the device characteristics is presented. The issues and challenges in existing architecturing techniques available in literature are discussed. Electrospinning as a tool for morphological modification for organic photovoltaics is demonstrated. This is followed by an outline of the thesis. In Chapter 2, brief description of procedures carried out for fabrication, characterization and optimization of electrospinning process parameters are discussed. The description of fabrication procedures including electrospinning, spincoating and thermal evaporation are given. Characterization techniques used in this thesis for surface and feature analysis, structural, compositional, optical and opto-electrical analyses are described. Optimization of electrospinning process parameters in obtaining various morphologies are evaluated. In Chapter 3, enhancement of device characteristics of poly (3-hexylthiophene): phenyl C61-butyric acid methyl ester (P3HT: PCBM) by changing active layer film morphology into network structure is elucidated. Network structure is provided by electrospraying assisted hierarchical assembly of short fibrils. Effect of electrospraying parameters such as solvent, polymer blend concentration, applied voltage, tip to collector distance, flow rate and deposition time are analyzed. Solvent and applied voltage are observed to be the major parameters governing the formation of network structure. The optimized conditions are used to investigate the optical and structural properties. Percent reflectance studies showed improvement in light absorption due to increase in surface area. Structural characterization studies indicate an increase in orientation of crystallites and crystallinity as compared to spincoated samples. The optimized conditions along with additional spincoated layer of P3HT:PCBM are used to fabricate bulk heterojunction device. Device characteristics exhibited an increase in short circuit current and thus increase in efficiency from 2.18% to 3.66%. There is a enhancement of 37.5% going from maximum external quantum efficiency of 40%-55% for electrosprayed and spincoated devices. It is anticipated that network morphology could be the next possible structure to be explored in organic photovoltaic materials. In Chapter 4, photonic structure is analyzed and compared. A photonics device requires uniform periodic structural arrangement. Various techniques are used to fabricate these types of structures, employing several steps of fabrication. This work proposes single step hierarchical array of equal submicron size porous structure fabricated by tuning electrospinning processing parameters. The dictating process parameters on evolving structure are high voltage, tip to collector distance and solvent. Morphological and optical investigations suggest that uniform periodic topography helps in light scattering leading to multi reflection and thus enhancement in light absorption. This structure is evaluated as active layer in organic photovoltaic devices using poly (3 hexyl thiophene) (P3HT) and phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) blend and its device characteristics are analyzed. Consistent and reliable device characteristics obtained through photonic structure is demonstrated. Finally, comparison is drawn to network structure to assess the advantages and limitations of both morphologies as active layer in organic photovoltaics. In Chapter 5, instead of architecturing active layer the next polymer film layer in the organic solar cells, that is the hole transport layer is transformed into free standing nanofiber mats. Morphological, structural and surface wetting properties are assessed for these nanofiber mats followed by fabrication of inverted organic solar cell. The free standing nanofibers mats are obtained by electrospinning the blend of Poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) Polystyrene sulfonate (PEDOT:PSS) a conducting water soluble polymer with other water soluble polymers such as poly vinyl alcohol (PVA) and poly ethylene oxide (PEO). The study is further extended by employing two batches of PEDOT:PSS of varying conductivity that are analyzed side by side for six ternary and two binary blends each. Electrospinning parameters such as applied voltage and flow rate are optimized and fibers of diameter 150-200 nm are obtained. Maximum content of PEDOT:PSS with which free standing fiber mats could be achieved are 98 and 99%. Subsequent increase in PEDOT:PSS results in formation of beads. Surface wetting behavior showed that hydrophillicity increases with increase in PEDOT:PSS content. Devices are fabricated and the variation in characteristics and charge collection with respect to addition of PEO and PVA are discussed. In Chapter 6, a conjugated small molecule is taken as case study unlike the use of the conjugated polymer studies in previous chapters. A mechanism is proposed for tuning the sphere-spike morphology and also to control the crystallite size through solvent management using a conjugated small molecule. Electrospraying of an organic molecule is carried out using various solvents, obtaining fibril structures along with a range of distinct morphologies. Solvent characteristics play a major role in achieving the morphology of the organic material. A thiophene derivative (7, 9-di (thiophen-2-yl)-8H-cyclopenta [a]acenaphthylen-8-one) (DTCPA) of donor-acceptor-donor (DAD) architecture is used to study this solvent effect. Seven solvents with decreasing vapor pressure are selected for experiments. Electrospraying is conducted at a solution concentration of 1.5 wt % and a constant applied voltage of 15 kV. Gradual transformation in morphology of the electrospun product from spikes-sphere to only spikes is observed. A mechanism describing this transformation is proposed based on the electron micrograph analysis and XRD analysis. These data indicate that the morphological change is due to the synergistic effect of both vapor pressure and dielectric constant of the solvents. Through a reasonable control over the crystallites size and morphology along with supporting transformation mechanism theory, the work in this chapter elucidates electrospraying as a prospective method for designing the architectures in organic electronics. In Chapter 7, light management studies are carried out by morphologically architecturing the carbazole derivatives through electrospraying. The effect of derivatives on morphology is analyzed. The two carbazole derivatives; carbazole-benzothiadiazole (Cz-Bz) resulted in 2D structures and carbazole-benzothiadiazole-bithiophene (Cz-Bz-Bt) resulted in 3D structures after electrospraying. These structures are further analyzed to study the effect of vapor pressure of solvents and solution concentration. Structural characteristics indicate that electrospraying imparts change in molecular structure orientation. Optical studies showed 19 – 31% enhancement in light absorption. Further, three types of organic photovoltaic devices are fabricated and the opto-electrical properties are evaluated. Also, the effect of substrate on morphological formation is assessed. In Chapter 8, the major contributions and conclusions drawn from the morphological architecturing of both conjugated polymers and small molecules are summarized, along with few recommendations for future research.

Pertenece a

ETD at Indian Institute of Science  


Khanum, Khadija Kanwal - 

Id.: 71305057

Idioma: inglés (Estados Unidos)  - 

Versión: 1.0

Estado: Final

Palabras claveMaterials Engineering - 

Tipo de recurso: Thesis  - 

Tipo de Interactividad: Expositivo

Nivel de Interactividad: muy bajo

Audiencia: Estudiante  -  Profesor  -  Autor  - 

Estructura: Atomic

Coste: no

Copyright: sí

Requerimientos técnicos:  Browser: Any - 

Relación: [References] G27561

Fecha de contribución: 12-may-2018



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