Recursos de colección

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AI Technical Reports (1964 - 2004)

Mostrando recursos 1 - 20 de 327

  1. Trajectory and Force Control of a Direct Drive Arm

    An, Chae Hun
    Using the MIT Serial Link Direct Drive Arm as the main experimental device, various issues in trajectory and force control of manipulators were studied in this thesis. Since accurate modeling is important for any controller, issues of estimating the dynamic model of a manipulator and its load were addressed first. Practical and effective algorithms were developed fro the Newton-Euler equations to estimate the inertial parameters of manipulator rigid-body loads and links. Load estimation was implemented both on PUMA 600 robot and on the MIT Serial Link Direct Drive Arm. With the link estimation algorithm, the inertial parameters of the direct...

  2. Interaction and Intelligent Behavior

    Mataric, Maja J.
    We introduce basic behaviors as primitives for control and learning in situated, embodied agents interacting in complex domains. We propose methods for selecting, formally specifying, algorithmically implementing, empirically evaluating, and combining behaviors from a basic set. We also introduce a general methodology for automatically constructing higher--level behaviors by learning to select from this set. Based on a formulation of reinforcement learning using conditions, behaviors, and shaped reinforcement, out approach makes behavior selection learnable in noisy, uncertain environments with stochastic dynamics. All described ideas are validated with groups of up to 20 mobile robots performing safe--wandering, following, aggregation, dispersion, homing, flocking,...

  3. Geometric Aspects of Visual Object Recognition

    Breuel, Thomas M.
    This thesis presents there important results in visual object recognition based on shape. (1) A new algorithm (RAST; Recognition by Adaptive Sudivisions of Tranformation space) is presented that has lower average-case complexity than any known recognition algorithm. (2) It is shown, both theoretically and empirically, that representing 3D objects as collections of 2D views (the "View-Based Approximation") is feasible and affects the reliability of 3D recognition systems no more than other commonly made approximations. (3) The problem of recognition in cluttered scenes is considered from a Bayesian perspective; the commonly-used "bounded-error errorsmeasure" is demonstrated to correspond to an independence assumption....

  4. Pose Determination of a Grasped Object Using Limited Sensing

    Siegel, David M.
    This report explores methods for determining the pose of a grasped object using only limited sensor information. The problem of pose determination is to find the position of an object relative to the hand. The information is useful when grasped objects are being manipulated. The problem is hard because of the large space of grasp configurations and the large amount of uncertainty inherent in dexterous hand control. By studying limited sensing approaches, the problem's inherent constraints can be better understood. This understanding helps to show how additional sensor data can be used to make recognition methods more effective and robust.

  5. The Kineticist's Workbench: Combining Symbolic and Numerical Methods in the Simulation of Chemical Reaction Mechanisms

    Eisenberg, Michael A.
    The Kineticist's Workbench is a program that simulates chemical reaction mechanisms by predicting, generating, and interpreting numerical data. Prior to simulation, it analyzes a given mechanism to predict that mechanism's behavior; it then simulates the mechanism numerically; and afterward, it interprets and summarizes the data it has generated. In performing these tasks, the Workbench uses a variety of techniques: graph- theoretic algorithms (for analyzing mechanisms), traditional numerical simulation methods, and algorithms that examine simulation results and reinterpret them in qualitative terms. The Workbench thus serves as a prototype for a new class of scientific computational tools---tools that provide symbiotic collaborations...

  6. Building Grounded Abstractions for Artificial Intelligence Programming

    Hearn, Robert A.
    Most Artificial Intelligence (AI) work can be characterized as either ``high-level'' (e.g., logical, symbolic) or ``low-level'' (e.g., connectionist networks, behavior-based robotics). Each approach suffers from particular drawbacks. High-level AI uses abstractions that often have no relation to the way real, biological brains work. Low-level AI, on the other hand, tends to lack the powerful abstractions that are needed to express complex structures and relationships. I have tried to combine the best features of both approaches, by building a set of programming abstractions defined in terms of simple, biologically plausible components. At the ``ground level'', I define a primitive, perceptron-like computational...

  7. BioJADE: A Design and Simulation Tool for Synthetic Biological Systems

    Goler, Jonathan A.
    The next generations of both biological engineering and computer engineering demand that control be exerted at the molecular level. Creating, characterizing and controlling synthetic biological systems may provide us with the ability to build cells that are capable of a plethora of activities, from computation to synthesizing nanostructures. To develop these systems, we must have a set of tools not only for synthesizing systems, but also designing and simulating them. The BioJADE project provides a comprehensive, extensible design and simulation platform for synthetic biology. BioJADE is a graphical design tool built in Java, utilizing a database back end, and supports...

  8. Learning Commonsense Categorical Knowledge in a Thread Memory System

    Stamatoiu, Oana L.
    If we are to understand how we can build machines capable of broad purpose learning and reasoning, we must first aim to build systems that can represent, acquire, and reason about the kinds of commonsense knowledge that we humans have about the world. This endeavor suggests steps such as identifying the kinds of knowledge people commonly have about the world, constructing suitable knowledge representations, and exploring the mechanisms that people use to make judgments about the everyday world. In this work, I contribute to these goals by proposing an architecture for a system that can learn commonsense knowledge about the...

  9. Generative Temporal Planning with Complex Processes

    Kennell, Jonathan
    Autonomous vehicles are increasingly being used in mission-critical applications, and robust methods are needed for controlling these inherently unreliable and complex systems. This thesis advocates the use of model-based programming, which allows mission designers to program autonomous missions at the level of a coach or wing commander. To support such a system, this thesis presents the Spock generative planner. To generate plans, Spock must be able to piece together vehicle commands and team tactics that have a complex behavior represented by concurrent processes. This is in contrast to traditional planners, whose operators represent simple atomic or durative actions. Spock represents...

  10. Fluorescence Assay for Polymerase Arrival Rates

    Che, Austin
    To engineer complex synthetic biological systems will require modular design, assembly, and characterization strategies. The RNA polymerase arrival rate (PAR) is defined to be the rate that RNA polymerases arrive at a specified location on the DNA. Designing and characterizing biological modules in terms of RNA polymerase arrival rates provides for many advantages in the construction and modeling of biological systems. PARMESAN is an in vitro method for measuring polymerase arrival rates using pyrrolo-dC, a fluorescent DNA base that can substitute for cytosine. Pyrrolo-dC shows a detectable fluorescence difference when in single-stranded versus double-stranded DNA. During transcription, RNA polymerase separates...

  11. Representation and Detection of Shapes in Images

    Felzenszwalb, Pedro F.
    We present a set of techniques that can be used to represent and detect shapes in images. Our methods revolve around a particular shape representation based on the description of objects using triangulated polygons. This representation is similar to the medial axis transform and has important properties from a computational perspective. The first problem we consider is the detection of non-rigid objects in images using deformable models. We present an efficient algorithm to solve this problem in a wide range of situations, and show examples in both natural and medical images. We also consider the problem of learning an accurate...

  12. Compact Representations for Fast Nonrigid Registration of Medical Images

    Timoner, Samson
    We develop efficient techniques for the non-rigid registration of medical images by using representations that adapt to the anatomy found in such images. Images of anatomical structures typically have uniform intensity interiors and smooth boundaries. We create methods to represent such regions compactly using tetrahedra. Unlike voxel-based representations, tetrahedra can accurately describe the expected smooth surfaces of medical objects. Furthermore, the interior of such objects can be represented using a small number of tetrahedra. Rather than describing a medical object using tens of thousands of voxels, our representations generally contain only a few thousand elements. Tetrahedra facilitate the creation of...

  13. Gait Analysis for Classification

    Lee, Lily
    This thesis describes a representation of gait appearance for the purpose of person identification and classification. This gait representation is based on simple localized image features such as moments extracted from orthogonal view video silhouettes of human walking motion. A suite of time-integration methods, spanning a range of coarseness of time aggregation and modeling of feature distributions, are applied to these image features to create a suite of gait sequence representations. Despite their simplicity, the resulting feature vectors contain enough information to perform well on human identification and gender classification tasks. We demonstrate the accuracy of recognition on gait video...

  14. Teaching an Old Robot New Tricks: Learning Novel Tasks via Interaction with People and Things

    Marjanovic, Matthew J.
    As AI has begun to reach out beyond its symbolic, objectivist roots into the embodied, experientialist realm, many projects are exploring different aspects of creating machines which interact with and respond to the world as humans do. Techniques for visual processing, object recognition, emotional response, gesture production and recognition, etc., are necessary components of a complete humanoid robot. However, most projects invariably concentrate on developing a few of these individual components, neglecting the issue of how all of these pieces would eventually fit together. The focus of the work in this dissertation is on creating a framework into which such...

  15. Online Learning of Non-stationary Sequences

    Monteleoni, Claire
    We consider an online learning scenario in which the learner can make predictions on the basis of a fixed set of experts. The performance of each expert may change over time in a manner unknown to the learner. We formulate a class of universal learning algorithms for this problem by expressing them as simple Bayesian algorithms operating on models analogous to Hidden Markov Models (HMMs). We derive a new performance bound for such algorithms which is considerably simpler than existing bounds. The bound provides the basis for learning the rate at which the identity of the optimal expert switches over...

  16. Safe Distributed Coordination of Heterogeneous Robots through Dynamic Simple Temporal Networks

    Wehowsky, Andreas F.
    Research on autonomous intelligent systems has focused on how robots can robustly carry out missions in uncertain and harsh environments with very little or no human intervention. Robotic execution languages such as RAPs, ESL, and TDL improve robustness by managing functionally redundant procedures for achieving goals. The model-based programming approach extends this by guaranteeing correctness of execution through pre-planning of non-deterministic timed threads of activities. Executing model-based programs effectively on distributed autonomous platforms requires distributing this pre-planning process. This thesis presents a distributed planner for modelbased programs whose planning and execution is distributed among agents with widely varying levels of...

  17. From First Contact to Close Encounters: A Developmentally Deep Perceptual System for a Humanoid Robot

    Fitzpatrick, Paul
    This thesis presents a perceptual system for a humanoid robot that integrates abilities such as object localization and recognition with the deeper developmental machinery required to forge those competences out of raw physical experiences. It shows that a robotic platform can build up and maintain a system for object localization, segmentation, and recognition, starting from very little. What the robot starts with is a direct solution to achieving figure/ground separation: it simply 'pokes around' in a region of visual ambiguity and watches what happens. If the arm passes through an area, that area is recognized as free space. If the...

  18. A Statistical Image-Based Shape Model for Visual Hull Reconstruction and 3D Structure Inference

    Grauman, Kristen
    We present a statistical image-based shape + structure model for Bayesian visual hull reconstruction and 3D structure inference. The 3D shape of a class of objects is represented by sets of contours from silhouette views simultaneously observed from multiple calibrated cameras. Bayesian reconstructions of new shapes are then estimated using a prior density constructed with a mixture model and probabilistic principal components analysis. We show how the use of a class-specific prior in a visual hull reconstruction can reduce the effect of segmentation errors from the silhouette extraction process. The proposed method is applied to a data set of pedestrian...

  19. Segmentation and Alignment of Speech and Sketching in a Design Environment

    Adler, Aaron D.
    Sketches are commonly used in the early stages of design. Our previous system allows users to sketch mechanical systems that the computer interprets. However, some parts of the mechanical system might be too hard or too complicated to express in the sketch. Adding speech recognition to create a multimodal system would move us toward our goal of creating a more natural user interface. This thesis examines the relationship between the verbal and sketch input, particularly how to segment and align the two inputs. Toward this end, subjects were recorded while they sketched and talked. These recordings were transcribed, and a...

  20. Stereo-Based Head Pose Tracking Using Iterative Closest Point and Normal Flow Constraint

    Morency, Louis-Philippe
    In this text, we present two stereo-based head tracking techniques along with a fast 3D model acquisition system. The first tracking technique is a robust implementation of stereo-based head tracking designed for interactive environments with uncontrolled lighting. We integrate fast face detection and drift reduction algorithms with a gradient-based stereo rigid motion tracking technique. Our system can automatically segment and track a user's head under large rotation and illumination variations. Precision and usability of this approach are compared with previous tracking methods for cursor control and target selection in both desktop and interactive room environments. The second tracking technique is...

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