Graphene as a conductive, transparent material, with a low cost and low environmental impact is reported to be ideal for sensor application. It is broadly investigated and promises an improvement of sensing performance due to its unique electrical transport properties. Therefore the use in active sensor elements such as ultrathin field-effect transistors for the detection of cellular signals is very novel. In this contribution the fabrication of ultrathin reduced graphene oxide (rGO) micropatterns via a soft lithography approach can be demonstrated using the Micromolding in Capillaries (MIMIC) technique. Graphene oxide (GO) patterns with 5 to 50 µm width and less...
Om wille van de vroegere aanwezigheid van zinksmelterijen in de Kempen is deze streek sterk gecontamineerd met verschillende zware metalen, waaronder zink, cadmium en lood. De vervuiling van ecosystemen met zware metalen heeft een invloed op de biodiversiteit in de betreffende gebieden. Er heerst namelijk een selectiedruk voor een verhoogde resistentie tegen zware metalen die kan leiden tot het ontstaan van genetische adaptaties, of tolerantiemechanismen, bij een beperkt aantal soorten en tot een wijziging in de soortensamenstelling. In dit onderzoek wordt het effect van contaminatie met zware metalen onderzocht op de biodiversiteit en soortensamenstelling bij schimmels in pionier bossen. Er...
An array of four Au-IDEs was fabricated on Si/SiO2 and glass substrates. The active area of the fabricated IDEs has been functionalized with a GO layer using dielectrophoresis (DEP). The GO layer was reduced using L-Ascorbic Acid (L-AA). Finally, the surface of each rGO-IDE was functionalized with single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) molecules with perfectly matched or fully mismatched DNA-sequences to that of the complementary ssDNA (cDNA) molecules. For detection of the DNA hybridization and denaturation, the developed DNA-chip was mounted in a measurement cell and characterized by impedance spectroscopy (IS). The DNA hybridization and denaturation experiments were carried out in a...
Expression of Nramp1 in Noccaea caerulescens after cadmium exposure
Alterations in oxidative stress related genes in Arabidopsis thaliana subsequent to mixed exposure to cadmium and zinc
Cardiorespiratory effects and mechanisms of particulate air pollution have been largely investigated and an association with adverse outcomes has been well established. However, little is known regarding neurobehavioral effects. Studies in animals suggest a biological plausability for a link between ultrafine particles (UFP) and neurological impairment. However, information based on studies in humans is very limited. Objectives: In a panel of primary schoolchildren, the effect of chronic and acute exposure to fine and ultrafine particulate air pollution on cognitive performance was investigated. Methods: 70 children, aged 9 to 12 years, were recruited at a primary school in Flanders, Belgium. A...
Background: Understanding more about root development under stress conditions is essential for future crop improvement, which may be aimed at safe biomass production or clean up of polluted soils. Sublethal stress-exposed roots exhibit stress-induced morphogenic responses (SIMRs). However, for the metals cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu) and Zinc (Zc) in Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings, metalspecific
growth responses were found instead of the general SIMR. It is
hypothesised that LOX-genes are involved in these metal-specific growth
adaptations. Objectives: The aim of this study is to participate in unravelling the molecular mechanims underlying these metal-specific growth responses in Arabidopsis thaliana and to understand more about local and...
Background: A variety of dietary components can alter gene expression and at the same time the genetic makeup of an individual may coordinate its response to diet. Antioxidants, such as blueberry, are known to have protective effects against age related diseases but studies that examine their mechanism of action in human are lacking.
Objective: This study aims to investigate the possible interactions between blueberry-apple juice and single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in drug metabolizing and DNA repair genes, in particular GSTT1 and XRCC1, in order to identify molecular pathways associated with polymorphisms which may be contributing to health benefits of blueberry intervention....
Introduction Researchers at The Connecticut Agricultural Experiment Station observed a
remarkable difference in DDE accumulation at the subspecies level of Cucurbita pepo. C.
pepo ssp pepo accumulates DDE, while C. pepo ssp ovifera did not possess this capacity. In a
first part, this study investigates whether the the differences in DDE accumulation can be
related to differences in the plant-associated bacterial populations of the different subspecies .
Bacteria were isolated from both seeds and plants of accumulating and non-accumulating
Cucurbita pepo subspecies. The plants were exposed to 100 μg L-1 DDE.
The second part of this projects concentrates on silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) and their
capability to increase the...
Schmidtea mediterranea beschikt over een enorme populatie totipotente stamcellen, neoblasten genoemd. Deze cellen omvatten 30% van het totaal aantal cellen in dit organisme en het zijn bovendien de enige delende cellen in S. mediterranea. Aangezien vele kankers ontstaan door een defect regulatiemechanisme van de (stam)celdeling, is het een zeer geschikt modelorganisme voor het bestuderen van carcinogene processen. Eerder werd aangetoond dat een blootstelling aan cadmium (Cd) en hexavalent chroom (Cr(VI)) de stamcelproliferatie verhoogt in deze platworm. Het is echter nog niet geweten of deze metaal-geïnduceerde stamcelproliferatie gelinkt kan worden aan schade (kanker) of aan een herstelmechanisme. De onderliggende mechanismen van...
AL Hamdani, Wasen
Background: The novel urinary biomarkers for the early detection of kidney injury after ischemic or toxic insults have recently been well studied, including neutrophil gelatinase associated lipocalin (NGAL), kidney injury molecule-1 (KIM-1), cystatin C (Cys-C)and Nacetyl-
β Dglucosaminidase (NAG). The lack of reference values have greatly impeded progress in the diagnosis and treatment of patients with AKI and have a detrimental effect on the possibly outcomes of clinical trials of cardiac surgery. Objective: The first objective of this study was to estimate the normal value of urinary NGAL, KIM-1, Cys-C and NAG in a healthy population. The second objective was to...
MS is characterized by CNS demyelination and a chronic disturbed cytokine balance. Some symptoms can lead to the development of secondary health problems, like insulin resistance (IR). These problems are also seen in other inactive populations. Physical exercise proved to be effective in reducing and preventing IR in other populations. Moreover, physical exercise therapy is also used to improve MS-related inactivity symptoms. Nonetheless, the effect of physical exercise therapy on IR in MS and EAE, an animal model for MS, has not been investigated before. Also the effect of training on the pro-/anti-inflammatory cytokine balance will be investigated.
Present data suggest...
Stem cells are an ideal cell source to use in tissue engineering as they are able to differentiate into multiple cell lineages and tissues. Besides cells, a scaffold and blood vessels are required in this promising technique for treating the loss or failure of tissues or organs. The scaffold provides a three-dimensional support desirable for the adhesion, proliferation, migration and differentiation of the responding cells. In this study, titanium scaffolds will be used as they are biocompatible, have a high strength to weight ratio and are highly corrosion resistant. Blood vessels are necessary for the delivery of oxygen, nutrients and...
Introduction. Chronic heart failure (CHF) is a complex disorder in which the heart is unable to maintain normal cardiac output without elevated intracardiac filling pressures. It has been proven that CHF is associated with glucose abnormalities and that patients suffering from both CHF and diabetes mellitus type 2 (DMT2) have a far worse prognosis than non-diabetic CHF patients. The presented study investigates the link between CHF and disturbances in glucose metabolism and focuses on the time course of the development of both disorders. It is hypothesized that development of cardial hypertrophy is related to the development of glucose intolerance and...
Not only are dendritic cells (DC) the main inducers of a primary T cell response, they also determine the profile of that response. This makes DC interesting immune modulating agents. In Multiple Sclerosis (MS), tolerogenic DC could be used to restore tolerance. To date, there is no consensus concerning the stimuli that produce that type of DC. We therefore hypothesized that treatment of DC with specific stimuli generates tolerogenic DC able to restore the immune balance in EAE mice, an MS animal model. In this study, 3 stimuli were compared. Treatment of immature DC with SAHA produced semi-mature DC after...
B cell multiple sclerosis (MS) research has focused on antibody (Ab)-dependent B cell functions, since a definite hallmark of MS is an elevated intrathecal Ab production. The advent of Rituximab has shown that B cells play a role as antigen presenting cells in MS. This B cell depleting Ab reduced the T cell number as well as MS lesions, but did not alter Ab levels. Little research has studied the capability of B cells to participate in MS pathogenesis by antigen presentation. We hypothesized that the antigen presentation capacity of B cells is increased in MS. Indeed, the expression of...
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA), a chronic autoimmune disorder, is characterized by inflammation of synovial joints and is mainly diagnosed through clinical manifestations and the presence of serological markers (RF and ACPA). However, approximately one third of the established RA patients are seronegative for both RA disease markers and the sensitivity of these markers is proven to be even lower in the early disease phase. Therefore, there is a need for additional RA disease markers in order to diagnose undifferentiated arthritis patients, early and seronegative RA patients.
Novel candidate autoantibody markers for early and seronegative RA patients were identified during a previous...
Multiple Sclerosis is an autoimmune disease, characterized by chronic inflammation and demyelination in the central nervous system (CNS). Macrophages play a central role in the disease process of MS and its animal model experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) by phagocytizing myelin and releasing inflammatory and toxic mediators in the CNS. Although tradiionally regarded to be detrimental, it was recently demonstrated that myelin-laden macrophages present in MS and EAE lesions seem to exert an anti-inflammatory 'M2'-phenotype. However, it is still not completely clear by which mechanisms myelin affects the phenotype of macrophages and how this phenotype can affect lesion progression. Research at...
Spontaneous regeneration of the CNS after spinal cord injury (SCI) is limited, due to intrinsic inhibition of neuroregeneration, but also resulting from SCI-associated inflammation. Therefore, research on new therapeutic strategies focuses on modulation of this inflammatory response. We hypothesize that the immunomodulatory and regenerative functions of IL-4-producing stem cells (SCs) promote axon regeneration and SC-survival to improve functional recovery after SCI. To investigate this hypothesis, IL-4 secreting BMSCs will be used in a pilot study to investigate whether the use of SCs is a good way of delivering IL-4 to the site of injury to promote recovery after SCI, as...
MS is characterized by muscle weakness and fatigue, resulting in an inactive lifestyle. Inactivity can lead to secondary health risks like insulin resistance (IR). In other pathologies, physical exercise is used in the treatment of IR. Exercise is also used for the improvement of MS symptoms due to inactivity. However, the effect of exercise on IR in MS and EAE, an MS animal model, is unknown. The study aims to investigate the exercise effect on IR in EAE and MS; and on characteristics and contractile properties of skeletal muscles in EAE and muscle power in MS. The data of this...
Therapeutic angiogenesis is very promising, however, current revascularization strategies are unsuccessful. Since angiogenesis is key to the development of the tooth, this study compared the angiogenic potential of 3 dental stem cell (DSC) types: dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs), dental follicle stem cells (FSCs) and stem cells from the apical papilla (SCAPs). Angiogenic factors secreted by the DSCs were identified in a Human Angiogenesis Array, followed by validation by means of ELISA and RT-PCR. In vitro assays with a Human Microvascular Endothelial Cell line (HMEC-1) were performed to gain more insights in the effect of the DSCs on HMEC-1 proliferation,...