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PubMed Central (PMC3 - NLM DTD) (3.020.751 recursos)

Archive of life sciences journal literature at the U.S. National Institutes of Health (NIH), developed and managed by NIH's National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) in the National Library of Medicine (NLM).

PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases

Mostrando recursos 1 - 20 de 1.383

  1. Assessment of Local Mosquito Species Incriminates Aedes aegypti as the Potential Vector of Zika Virus in Australia

    Hall-Mendelin, Sonja; Pyke, Alyssa T.; Moore, Peter R.; Mackay, Ian M.; McMahon, Jamie L.; Ritchie, Scott A.; Taylor, Carmel T.; Moore, Frederick A.J.; van den Hurk, Andrew F.
    Zika virus was first isolated in Uganda in 1947 and exists in a transmission cycle between mosquitoes and non-human primates or humans. Whilst most clinical infections result in a self-limiting febrile illness, Zika virus has recently been linked to neurological syndromes, such as Guillain-Barré syndrome and congenital birth defects. Since 2007, Zika virus has undergone a dramatic range expansion, causing epidemics in nations and territories of the western Pacific and South America. To assess the emergence and transmission risk of Zika virus emerging in Australia, we evaluated the ability of local mosquitoes to become infected with and transmit the prototype...

  2. Urinary Biomarkers KIM-1 and NGAL for Detection of Chronic Kidney Disease of Uncertain Etiology (CKDu) among Agricultural Communities in Sri Lanka

    De Silva, Pallagae Mangala C. S.; Mohammed Abdul, Khaja Shameem; Eakanayake, Eakanayake M. D. V.; Jayasinghe, Sudheera Sammanthi; Jayasumana, Channa; Asanthi, Hewa Bandulage; Perera, Hettiarachigae S. D.; Chaminda, Gamage G. Tushara; Chandana, Ediriweera P. S.; Siribaddana, Sisira H.
    Chronic Kidney Disease of uncertain etiology (CKDu) is an emerging epidemic among farming communities in rural Sri Lanka. Victims do not exhibit common causative factors, however, histopathological studies revealed that CKDu is a tubulointerstitial disease. Urine albumin or albumin-creatinine ratio is still being used as a traditional diagnostic tool to identify CKDu, but accuracy and prevalence data generated are questionable. Urinary biomarkers have been used in similar nephropathy and are widely recognised for their sensitivity, specificity and accuracy in determining CKDu and early renal injury. However, these biomarkers have never been used in diagnosing CKDu in Sri Lanka. Male farmers...

  3. Public Health Responses to and Challenges for the Control of Dengue Transmission in High-Income Countries: Four Case Studies

    Viennet, Elvina; Ritchie, Scott A.; Williams, Craig R.; Faddy, Helen M.; Harley, David
    Dengue has a negative impact in low- and lower middle-income countries, but also affects upper middle- and high-income countries. Despite the efforts at controlling this disease, it is unclear why dengue remains an issue in affluent countries. A better understanding of dengue epidemiology and its burden, and those of chikungunya virus and Zika virus which share vectors with dengue, is required to prevent the emergence of these diseases in high-income countries in the future. The purpose of this review was to assess the relative burden of dengue in four high-income countries and to appraise the similarities and differences in dengue...

  4. Cross-Sectional Surveys of the Prevalence of Follicular Trachoma and Trichiasis in The Gambia: Has Elimination Been Reached?

    Burr, Sarah E.; Sillah, Ansumana; Sanou, Anselme S.; Wadagni, Anita C.; Hart, John; Harding-Esch, Emma M.; Kanyi, Sarjo; Bailey, Robin L.
    Trachoma, the world’s leading infectious cause of blindness, is caused by ocular infection with the bacterium Chlamydia trachomatis. The Gambia, situated in West Africa, has implemented all facets of the World Health Organization-recommended SAFE strategy for trachoma control including surgery to correct the in-turning of eyelashes (trichiasis), mass drug administration with antibiotics, promotion of facial hygiene and environmental improvements. In 2011, The Gambia’s National Eye Health Programme began three years of rolling surveys to determine the prevalence of trachoma in the country and to evaluate whether trachoma elimination has been reached. The results suggest the country has reached the elimination...

  5. Efficacy and Safety of Moxidectin, Synriam, Synriam-Praziquantel versus Praziquantel against Schistosoma haematobium and S. mansoni Infections: A Randomized, Exploratory Phase 2 Trial

    Barda, Beatrice; Coulibaly, Jean T.; Puchkov, Maxim; Huwyler, Jörg; Hattendorf, Jan; Keiser, Jennifer
    Schistosomiasis is a parasitic infection that affects millions of people all over the world and it is due to schistosomes, helminths (worms) that infect the intestine and the urinary bladder. Treatment options are limited, with praziquantel being the only used drug. The antimalarial Synriam and the anthelminthic moxidectin revealed good action against this worm in previous studies. We conducted two studies in Schistosoma mansoni and S. haematobium-infected adolescents in Côte d’Ivoire. Subjects positive for the infection were allocated by chance to the four groups of treatment (moxidectin, Synriam, Synriam plus praziquantel or praziquantel); participants did not know which drug they...

  6. Prevalence and Identification of Burkholderia pseudomallei and Near-Neighbor Species in the Malabar Coastal Region of India

    Peddayelachagiri, Bhavani V.; Paul, Soumya; Nagaraj, Sowmya; Gogoi, Madhurjya; Sripathy, Murali H.; Batra, Harsh V.
    Accurate identification of pathogens with biowarfare importance requires detection tools that specifically differentiate them from near-neighbor species. Burkholderia pseudomallei, the causative agent of a fatal disease melioidosis, is one such biothreat agent whose differentiation from its near-neighbor species is always a challenge. This is because of its phenotypic similarity with other Burkholderia species which have a wide spread geographical distribution with shared environmental niches. Melioidosis is a major public health concern in endemic regions including Southeast Asia and northern Australia. In India, the disease is still considered to be emerging. Prevalence surveys of this saprophytic bacterium in environment are under-reported...

  7. Development and Assessment of a Geographic Knowledge-Based Model for Mapping Suitable Areas for Rift Valley Fever Transmission in Eastern Africa

    Tran, Annelise; Trevennec, Carlène; Lutwama, Julius; Sserugga, Joseph; Gély, Marie; Pittiglio, Claudia; Pinto, Julio; Chevalier, Véronique
    Rift Valley fever (RVF), a mosquito-borne disease affecting ruminants and humans, is one of the most important viral zoonoses in Africa. The objective of the present study was to develop a geographic knowledge-based method to map the areas suitable for RVF amplification and RVF spread in four East African countries, namely, Kenya, Tanzania, Uganda and Ethiopia, and to assess the predictive accuracy of the model using livestock outbreak data from Kenya and Tanzania. Risk factors and their relative importance regarding RVF amplification and spread were identified from a literature review. A numerical weight was calculated for each risk factor using...

  8. The Hygiene Hypothesis and Its Inconvenient Truths about Helminth Infections

    Briggs, Neima; Weatherhead, Jill; Sastry, K. Jagannadha; Hotez, Peter J.
    Current iterations of the hygiene hypothesis suggest an adaptive role for helminth parasites in shaping the proper maturation of the immune system. However, aspects of this hypothesis are based on assumptions that may not fully account for realities about human helminth infections. Such realities include evidence of causal associations between helminth infections and asthma or inflammatory bowel disease as well as the fact that helminth infections remain widespread in the United States, especially among populations at greatest risk for inflammatory and autoimmune diseases.

  9. Meta-transcriptome Profiling of the Human-Leishmania braziliensis Cutaneous Lesion

    Christensen, Stephen M.; Dillon, Laura A. L.; Carvalho, Lucas P.; Passos, Sara; Novais, Fernanda O.; Hughitt, V. Keith; Beiting, Daniel P.; Carvalho, Edgar M.; Scott, Phillip; El-Sayed, Najib M.; Mosser, David M.
    Host and parasite gene expression in skin biopsies from Leishmania braziliensis-infected patients were simultaneously analyzed using high throughput RNA-sequencing. Biopsies were taken from 8 patients with early cutaneous leishmaniasis and 17 patients with late cutaneous leishmaniasis. Although parasite DNA was found in all patient lesions at the time of biopsy, the patients could be stratified into two groups: one lacking detectable parasite transcripts (PTNeg) in lesions, and another in which parasite transcripts were readily detected (PTPos). These groups exhibited substantial differences in host responses to infection. PTPos biopsies contained an unexpected increase in B lymphocyte-specific and immunoglobulin transcripts in the...

  10. Field Evaluation of Two Different Treatment Approaches and Their Ability to Control Fleas and Prevent Canine Leishmaniosis in a Highly Endemic Area

    Brianti, Emanuele; Napoli, Ettore; Gaglio, Gabriella; Falsone, Luigi; Giannetto, Salvatore; Solari Basano, Fabrizio; Nazzari, Roberto; Latrofa, Maria Stefania; Annoscia, Giada; Tarallo, Viviana Domenica; Stanneck, Dorothee; Dantas-Torres, Filipe; Otranto, Domenico
    This study investigated the efficacy of two collars for the treatment and prevention of flea infestations. Additionally the effect of these collars on the incidence of Leishmania infantum infection as compared with a group of vaccinated dogs was evaluated. A total of 224 young dogs from private animal shelters were enrolled in April/May into four groups: G1, 55 dogs treated with 10% imidacloprid + 4.5% flumethrin collar (Seresto, Bayer Animal Health); G2, 60 dogs treated with 4% deltamethrin collar (Scalibor protector band, MSD Animal Health); G3, 54 dogs vaccinated with CaniLeish (Virbac Animal Health); and G4, 55 dogs left non-treated...

  11. The Role of Nurses and Community Health Workers in Confronting Neglected Tropical Diseases in Sub-Saharan Africa: A Systematic Review

    Corley, Andrew G.; Thornton, Clifton P.; Glass, Nancy E.

  12. Aedes aegypti D7 Saliva Protein Inhibits Dengue Virus Infection

    Conway, Michael J.; Londono-Renteria, Berlin; Troupin, Andrea; Watson, Alan M.; Klimstra, William B.; Fikrig, Erol; Colpitts, Tonya M.
    Aedes aegypti is the primary vector of several medically relevant arboviruses including dengue virus (DENV) types 1–4. Ae. aegypti transmits DENV by inoculating virus-infected saliva into host skin during probing and feeding. Ae. aegypti saliva contains over one hundred unique proteins and these proteins have diverse functions, including facilitating blood feeding. Previously, we showed that Ae. aegypti salivary gland extracts (SGEs) enhanced dissemination of DENV to draining lymph nodes. In contrast, HPLC-fractionation revealed that some SGE components inhibited infection. Here, we show that D7 proteins are enriched in HPLC fractions that are inhibitory to DENV infection, and that recombinant D7...

  13. Bacterial Larvicide, Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis Strain AM 65-52 Water Dispersible Granule Formulation Impacts Both Dengue Vector, Aedes aegypti (L.) Population Density and Disease Transmission in Cambodia

    Setha, To; Chantha, Ngan; Benjamin, Seleena; Socheat, Doung
    A multi-phased study was conducted in Cambodia from 2005–2011 to measure the impact of larviciding with the bacterial larvicide, Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis (Bti), a water dispersible granule (WG) formulation on the vector, Aedes aegypti (L.) and the epidemiology. In our studies, all in-use containers were treated at 8 g/1000 L, including smaller containers and animal feeders which were found to contribute 23% of Ae aegypti pupae. The treated waters were subjected to routine water exchange activities. Pupal production was suppressed by an average 91% for 8 weeks. Pupal numbers continued to remain significantly lower than the untreated commune (UTC) for...

  14. Efficacy and Safety of AmBisome in Combination with Sodium Stibogluconate or Miltefosine and Miltefosine Monotherapy for African Visceral Leishmaniasis: Phase II Randomized Trial

    Wasunna, Monique; Njenga, Simon; Balasegaram, Manica; Alexander, Neal; Omollo, Raymond; Edwards, Tansy; Dorlo, Thomas P. C.; Musa, Brima; Ali, Mohammed Hassan Sharaf; Elamin, Mohammed Yasein; Kirigi, George; Juma, Rashid; Kip, Anke E.; Schoone, Gerard J.; Hailu, Asrat; Olobo, Joseph; Ellis, Sally; Kimutai, Robert; Wells, Susan; Khalil, Eltahir Awad Gasim; Strub Wourgaft, Nathalie; Alves, Fabiana; Musa, Ahmed
    Visceral leishmaniasis, or kala-azar, is a parasitic disease which is fatal without treatment. A 17-day treatment of sodium stibogluconate (SSG) with paromomycin (PM) is the recommended treatment in eastern Africa, but requires painful injections, causes adverse events, and patients need to stay in the hospital during treatment. An affordable, safe and effective oral treatment would be preferable. Whilst research to identify entirely new drugs is underway, existing treatments are being optimized as a short-term solution. Combination regimens based on AmBisome and miltefosine have been shown to be safe and effective in treating Indian patients, but there are no published data...

  15. Succinyl-CoA Synthetase: New Antigen Candidate of Bartonella bacilliformis

    Gomes, Cláudia; Palma, Noemí; Pons, Maria J.; Magallón-Tejada, Ariel; Sandoval, Isabel; Tinco-Valdez, Carmen; Gutarra, Carlos; del Valle-Mendoza, Juana; Ruiz, Joaquim; Matsuoka, Mayumi
    B. bacilliformis is a neglected pathogen causing Carrion’s disease, a febrile illness with two distinct phases, the acute so-called Oroya fever that can be life-threatening, and the chronic so-called Peruvian wart. This illness is currently limited to poor inhabitants of Andean valleys of Ecuador, Colombia and Peru and for this reason is understudied. One of the most significant limitations is the lack of an adequate diagnostic tool able to be implemented in rural areas. It is imperative to unequivocally detect cases of Carrion’s disease as well as identify asymptomatic carriers who perpetuate the illness. The present study describes the identification...

  16. High Leptospira Diversity in Animals and Humans Complicates the Search for Common Reservoirs of Human Disease in Rural Ecuador

    Barragan, Veronica; Chiriboga, Jorge; Miller, Erin; Olivas, Sonora; Birdsell, Dawn; Hepp, Crystal; Hornstra, Heidie; Schupp, James M.; Morales, Melba; Gonzalez, Manuel; Reyes, Soraya; de la Cruz, Carmen; Keim, Paul; Hartskeerl, Rudy; Trueba, Gabriel; Pearson, Talima
    Leptospirosis is a febrile disease responsible for high morbidity rates all around the world. It is caused by spirochete bacteria in the genus Leptospira and transmitted to humans through animal urine or contaminated soil or water. The epidemiology of leptospirosis has been extensively studied in urban communities, where rats are thought to be the main animal reservoir of the disease. However, leptospirosis has been under-reported and under-studied in low-income rural areas where different conditions may result in different transmission risks. In two low-income rural communities near the coast of Ecuador, we detected and characterized leptospira from febrile patients and putative...

  17. Stimulating Neoblast-Like Cell Proliferation in Juvenile Fasciola hepatica Supports Growth and Progression towards the Adult Phenotype In Vitro

    McCusker, Paul; McVeigh, Paul; Rathinasamy, Vignesh; Toet, Hayley; McCammick, Erin; O’Connor, Anna; Marks, Nikki J.; Mousley, Angela; Brennan, Gerard P.; Halton, David W.; Spithill, Terry W.; Maule, Aaron G.
    Fascioliasis (or fasciolosis) is a socioeconomically important parasitic disease caused by liver flukes of the genus Fasciola. Flukicide resistance has exposed the need for new drugs and/or a vaccine for liver fluke control. A rapidly improving ‘molecular toolbox’ for liver fluke encompasses quality genomic/transcriptomic datasets and an RNA interference platform that facilitates functional genomics approaches to drug/vaccine target validation. The exploitation of these resources is undermined by the absence of effective culture/maintenance systems that would support in vitro studies on juvenile fluke development/biology. Here we report markedly improved in vitro maintenance methods for Fasciola hepatica that achieved 65% survival of...

  18. Leptospira Immunoglobulin-Like Protein B (LigB) Binds to Both the C-Terminal 23 Amino Acids of Fibrinogen αC Domain and Factor XIII: Insight into the Mechanism of LigB-Mediated Blockage of Fibrinogen α Chain Cross-Linking

    Hsieh, Ching-Lin; Chang, Eric; Tseng, Andrew; Ptak, Christopher; Wu, Li-Chen; Su, Chun-Li; McDonough, Sean P.; Lin, Yi-Pin; Chang, Yung-Fu
    The coagulation system provides a primitive but effective defense against hemorrhage. Soluble fibrinogen (Fg) monomers, composed of α, β and γ chains, are recruited to provide structural support for the formation of a hemostatic plug. Fg binds to platelets and is processed into a cross-linked fibrin polymer by the enzymatic clotting factors, thrombin and Factor XIII (FXIII). The newly formed fibrin-platelet clot can act as barrier to protect against pathogens from entering the bloodstream. Further, injuries caused by bacterial infections can be confined to the initial wound site. Many pathogenic bacteria have Fg-binding adhesins that can circumvent the coagulation pathway...

  19. West Nile Virus Spreads Transsynaptically within the Pathways of Motor Control: Anatomical and Ultrastructural Mapping of Neuronal Virus Infection in the Primate Central Nervous System

    Maximova, Olga A.; Bernbaum, John G.; Pletnev, Alexander G.
    West Nile virus (WNV) is a mosquito-borne neurotropic flavivirus that has emerged as a human pathogen of global scale. During recent WNV outbreaks in the US, half of the reported human cases were classified as neuroinvasive disease. Although much research has been done, there are still gaps in our understanding of WNV neuropathogenesis. While WNV neuroinvasion is proposed to occur by the hematogenous route and/or by axonal transport along the peripheral nerves, how virus spreads once within the central nervous system (CNS) remains unknown. In this study, we examined the expression of viral antigens in the CNS of monkeys that...

  20. DenHunt - A Comprehensive Database of the Intricate Network of Dengue-Human Interactions

    Karyala, Prashanthi; Metri, Rahul; Bathula, Christopher; Yelamanchi, Syam K.; Sahoo, Lipika; Arjunan, Selvam; Sastri, Narayan P.; Chandra, Nagasuma
    Dengue virus (DENV) is a human pathogen and its etiology has been widely established. There are many interactions between DENV and human proteins that have been reported in literature. However, no publicly accessible resource for efficiently retrieving the information is yet available. In this study, we mined all publicly available dengue–human interactions that have been reported in the literature into a database called DenHunt. We retrieved 682 direct interactions of human proteins with dengue viral components, 382 indirect interactions and 4120 differentially expressed human genes in dengue infected cell lines and patients. We have illustrated the importance of DenHunt by...

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