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PubMed Central (PMC3 - NLM DTD) (2.616.353 recursos)
Archive of life sciences journal literature at the U.S. National Institutes of Health (NIH), developed and managed by NIH's National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) in the National Library of Medicine (NLM).

PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases

Mostrando recursos 1 - 20 de 1.050

1. Correction: Whole-Organ Isolation Approach as a Basis for Tissue-Specific Analyses in Schistosoma mansoni - Hahnel, Steffen; Lu, Zhigang; Wilson, R. Alan; Grevelding, Christoph G.; Quack, Thomas

2. Global Burden of Human Mycetoma: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis - van de Sande, Wendy W. J.
Mycetoma is a chronic infectious disease of the subcutaneous tissue with a high morbidity. This disease has been reported from countries between 30°N and 15°S since 1840 but the exact burden of disease is not known. It is currently unknown what the incidence, prevalence and the number of reported cases per year per country is. In order to estimate what the global burden of mycetoma is, a meta-analysis was performed. In total 50 studies were included, which resulted in a total of 8763 mycetoma cases. Most cases were found in men between 11 and 40 years of age. The foot...

3. Relative Risk of Visceral Leishmaniasis in Brazil: A Spatial Analysis in Urban Area - de Araújo, Valdelaine Etelvina Miranda; Pinheiro, Letícia Cavalari; Almeida, Maria Cristina de Mattos; de Menezes, Fernanda Carvalho; Morais, Maria Helena Franco; Reis, Ilka Afonso; Assunção, Renato Martins; Carneiro, Mariângela
Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a vector-borne disease whose factors involved in transmission are poorly understood, especially in more urban and densely populated counties. In Brazil, the increasing occurrence of human VL cases in urban centers is a challenge for the control program. We aimed to identify the risk areas for VL and the risk factors involved in transmission in Belo Horizonte, a large urban area of the Brazil. At the same geographical space, we analyzed human VL cases (n = 412), canine infection and socioeconomic and environmental features. We identified a concentration of high-risk small-areas of human VL cases in the northern...

4. Risk Factors for Visceral Leishmaniasis among Residents and Migrants in Kafta-Humera, Ethiopia - Argaw, Daniel; Mulugeta, Abate; Herrero, Mercè; Nombela, Nohelly; Teklu, Tsegemariam; Tefera, Teodros; Belew, Zewdu; Alvar, Jorge; Bern, Caryn
Visceral leishmaniasis is a lethal parasitic disease transmitted by sand flies. The largest focus of VL in Ethiopia is located in the lowland region bordering Sudan, where hundreds of thousands of agricultural workers migrate for work every year during the planting and harvest seasons. We conducted two parallel studies in residents and migrants to determine the living conditions and behaviors that put people at higher risk of VL risk. We found that sleeping under an acacia tree at night, indicators of poverty and lower educational status were associated with increased risk in both populations. Sleeping under a bed net was...

5. A Population Growth Trend Analysis for Neotricula aperta, the Snail Intermediate Host of Schistosoma mekongi, after Construction of the Pak-Mun Dam - Attwood, Stephen W.; Upatham, E. Suchart
There is much controversy over the effects of water resource development on the transmission of schistosomiasis in the lower Mekong Basin. Impact assessments are urgently required because there are currently 12 such projects planned in the region. The key to understanding the effects of impoundment is the impact on the snail intermediate host, which, in the case of Mekong schistosomiasis, is Neotricula aperta. Surprisingly, we have almost no data on N. aperta population trends nor on the impact of dams. To address this, the present work focused on a population near the Pak-Mun dam in Thailand. The analysis suggested that...

6. Leveraging Information Technology to Improve Control of Neglected Tropical Diseases - Gupta, Rajesh; Wise, Paul H.

7. Combinatory Microarray and SuperSAGE Analyses Identify Pairing-Dependently Transcribed Genes in Schistosoma mansoni Males, Including Follistatin - Leutner, Silke; Oliveira, Katia C.; Rotter, Björn; Beckmann, Svenja; Buro, Christin; Hahnel, Steffen; Kitajima, Joao P.; Verjovski-Almeida, Sergio; Winter, Peter; Grevelding, Christoph G.
Schistosomiasis is an important infectious disease caused by worm parasites of the genus Schistosoma and directly affects more than 240 million people in 78 tropical and sub-tropical countries but also animals. Pathogenesis is triggered by eggs that are produced by paired females and get trapped in liver and gut causing severe inflammation. While studies have concentrated on the reproductive biology of schistosome females in the past, not much is known about males even though they are indispensable for female sexual development and egg production. Therefore, we studied pairing-dependent processes in S. mansoni males using two independent transcriptomics approaches providing a...

8. High Prevalence of Skin Disorders among HTLV-1 Infected Individuals Independent of Clinical Status - Okajima, Renata; Oliveira, Augusto C. P.; Smid, Jerusa; Casseb, Jorge; Sanches, Jose Antonio
HTLV-1 infection may increase the risk of developing skin disorders. A total of 193 HTLV-1 infected subjects were studied, including asymptomatic carriers and HAM/TSP patients. Of the subjects, 76% had an abnormal skin condition, with a high prevalence both among HTLV-1 asymptomatic carriers and HAM/TSP patients. The most prevalent SD-HTLV-1 was xerosis/acquired ichthyosis (48%), followed by seborrheic dermatitis (28%). Patients with SD-HTLV-1 were older (51 vs. 47 years), had a higher prevalence of myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP) (75%) and an increased first HTLV-1 proviral load compared with patients without SD-HTLV-1. When excluding HAM/TSP patients, the first HTLV-1 proviral load of...

9. Preclinical Evaluation of the Immunogenicity and Safety of an Inactivated Enterovirus 71 Candidate Vaccine - Hwa, Shi-Hsia; Lee, Yock Ann; Brewoo, Joseph N.; Partidos, Charalambos D.; Osorio, Jorge E.; Santangelo, Joseph D.
Human enterovirus 71 (EV71) is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality from Hand, Foot and Mouth Disease (HFMD) and neurological complications, particularly in young children in the Asia-Pacific region. There are no vaccines or antiviral therapies currently available for prevention or treatment of HFMD caused by EV71. Therefore, the development of therapeutic and preventive strategies against HFMD is of growing importance. We report the immunogenic and safety profile of inactivated, purified EV71 preparations formulated with aluminum hydroxide adjuvant in preclinical studies in mice and rabbits. In mice, the candidate vaccine formulations elicited high neutralizing antibody responses. A toxicology study...

10. A Scientometric Evaluation of the Chagas Disease Implementation Research Programme of the PAHO and TDR - Carbajal-de-la-Fuente, Ana Laura; Yadón, Zaida E.
The Special Programme for Research and Training in Tropical Diseases (TDR) is an independent global programme of scientific collaboration cosponsored by the United Nations Children's Fund, the United Nations Development Program, the World Bank, and the World Health Organization. TDR's strategy is based on stewardship for research on infectious diseases of poverty, empowerment of endemic countries, research on neglected priority needs, and the promotion of scientific collaboration influencing global efforts to combat major tropical diseases. In 2001, in view of the achievements obtained in the reduction of transmission of Chagas disease through the Southern Cone Initiative and the improvement in...

11. The Burden of Rabies in Tanzania and Its Impact on Local Communities - Sambo, Maganga; Cleaveland, Sarah; Ferguson, Heather; Lembo, Tiziana; Simon, Cleophas; Urassa, Honorati; Hampson, Katie
Rabies remains a major public health problem, although the means to control and prevent this disease are available through mass dog vaccination and provision of post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) to people exposed to bites by rabid or suspect rabid animals. Despite its necessity as a life-saving measure to prevent the fatal onset of rabies, access to PEP is a major problem in developing countries. We used extensive investigative interviews to estimate rabies incidence (deaths and exposures) and questionnaires to bite victims and their families to investigate health-seeking behaviour and costs associated with receiving PEP, in four districts covering both rural and...

12. Developing Eradication Investment Cases for Onchocerciasis, Lymphatic Filariasis, and Human African Trypanosomiasis: Rationale and Main Challenges - Tediosi, Fabrizio; Steinmann, Peter; de Savigny, Don; Tanner, Marcel

13. An Aspartic Protease of the Scabies Mite Sarcoptes scabiei Is Involved in the Digestion of Host Skin and Blood Macromolecules - Mahmood, Wajahat; Viberg, Linda T.; Fischer, Katja; Walton, Shelley F.; Holt, Deborah C.
Scabies is an infectious disease of the skin caused by infestation with the parasitic mite Sarcoptes scabiei. It is a disease that has a considerable impact on humans and other animals, including livestock, wildlife and companion animals. Scabies mites burrow into the skin of their host, consuming host skin and blood molecules. Aspartic proteases play a key role in invasion and digestion processes in many parasitic organisms. We have identified a scabies mite aspartic protease and have shown that it is capable of digesting human haemoglobin, serum albumin, fibrinogen and fibronectin in vitro, indicating that it plays a role in...

14. The Improbable Transmission of Trypanosoma cruzi to Human: The Missing Link in the Dynamics and Control of Chagas Disease - Nouvellet, Pierre; Dumonteil, Eric; Gourbière, Sébastien
Chagas disease has a major impact on human health in Latin America and is becoming of global concern due to international migrations. Trypanosoma cruzi, the etiological agent of the disease, is one of the rare human parasites transmitted by the feces of its vector, as it is unable to reach the salivary gland of the insect. This stercorarian transmission is notoriously poorly understood, despite its crucial role in the ecology and evolution of the pathogen and the disease. The objective of this study was to quantify the probability of T. cruzi vectorial transmission to humans, and to use such an...

15. Understanding the Persistence of Plague Foci in Madagascar - Andrianaivoarimanana, Voahangy; Kreppel, Katharina; Elissa, Nohal; Duplantier, Jean-Marc; Carniel, Elisabeth; Rajerison, Minoarisoa; Jambou, Ronan
Plague, a zoonosis caused by Yersinia pestis, is still found in Africa, Asia, and the Americas. Madagascar reports almost one third of the cases worldwide. Y. pestis can be encountered in three very different types of foci: urban, rural, and sylvatic. Flea vector and wild rodent host population dynamics are tightly correlated with modulation of climatic conditions, an association that could be crucial for both the maintenance of foci and human plague epidemics. The black rat Rattus rattus, the main host of Y. pestis in Madagascar, is found to exhibit high resistance to plague in endemic areas, opposing the concept...

16. Regulatory T Cells in Peripheral Blood and Cerebrospinal Fluid of Syphilis Patients with and without Neurological Involvement - Li, Kang; Wang, Cuini; Lu, Haikong; Gu, Xin; Guan, Zhifang; Zhou, Pingyu
Syphilis, caused by the bacterium Treponema pallidum, can progress to affect the central nervous system (CNS) and cause damage in the brain and spinal cord, which is called neurosyphilis. While many affected neurosyphilis patients may not have any symptoms, some of the patients will develop severe symptoms that can be life-threatening. Regulatory T cells (Tregs) are a subpopulation of CD4+ T cells functioning in suppression of immune-mediated bacterial clearance and tissue damage. In this study, we conduct a comparative analysis of regulatory T cells (Tregs) in the blood and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of syphilis patients without neurological abnormalities, and neurosyphilis...

17. The Impact of Climatic Risk Factors on the Prevalence, Distribution, and Severity of Acute and Chronic Trachoma - Ramesh, Anita; Kovats, Sari; Haslam, Dominic; Schmidt, Elena; Gilbert, Clare E.
Trachoma – the leading cause of infectious blindness – is spread through contact with infected persons by hands and towels, and by ‘eye-seeking flies.’ Trachoma prevalence is high in areas characterised by poverty, inadequate water supply, and poor sanitation. Trachoma is controlled by the SAFE strategy: S = surgery to the upper eyelids; A = antibiotics for active infection; F = facial cleanliness; and E = environmental improvement. In this study we reviewed the scientific literature to assess the extent to which climatic factors (e.g., rainfall, heat, dust, altitude) influence trachoma distribution. A systematic review of the literature found eight papers that measured an association between a climatic...

18. Concurrent Infection with Murine Typhus and Scrub Typhus in Southern Laos—the Mixed and the Unmixed - Phommasone, Koukeo; Paris, Daniel H.; Anantatat, Tippawan; Castonguay-Vanier, Josée; Keomany, Sommay; Souvannasing, Phoutthalavanh; Blacksell, Stuart D.; Mayxay, Mayfong; Newton, Paul N.

19. A Cross-Reactive Monoclonal Antibody to Nematode Haemoglobin Enhances Protective Immune Responses to Nippostrongylus brasiliensis - Nieuwenhuizen, Natalie E.; Meter, Jeanne M.; Horsnell, William G.; Hoving, J. Claire; Fick, Lizette; Sharp, Michael F.; Darby, Matthew G.; Parihar, Suraj P.; Brombacher, Frank; Lopata, Andreas L.
Nematode haemoglobins are fascinating molecules with unusually high affinity for oxygen. This is one example of many unique adaptations that nematodes have acquired to survive in their hosts, as nematode haemoglobin is thought to sequester oxygen to maintain an anaerobic environment, and can break down nitric oxide (NO) and hydrogen peroxide produced by host defences. This study describes the characterization of nematode haemoglobins using a novel monoclonal antibody (anti-Hb) generated against Anisakis haemoglobin, which was found to be highly expressed in stage 3 larvae and associated with the excretory-secretary ducts. Anisakis haemoglobin is an IgE-binding molecule in infected mice, while...

20. Synthesising 30 Years of Mathematical Modelling of Echinococcus Transmission - Atkinson, Jo-An M.; Williams, Gail M.; Yakob, Laith; Clements, Archie C. A.; Barnes, Tamsin S.; McManus, Donald P.; Yang, Yu Rong; Gray, Darren J.
Echinococcosis is a complex zoonosis for which there is sparse evidence on the effectiveness of control strategies in diverse settings. This presents significant challenges for the design of effective public health policy against this disease. Mathematical modelling is a useful tool for simulating control packages under locally specific transmission conditions to inform optimal timing and frequency of phased interventions for cost-effective control of echinococcosis. This systematic review of 30 years of Echinococcus modelling discusses the importance of six key epidemiological mechanisms underpinning models of Echinococcus granulosus and E. multilocularis transmission and establishes the need to include a human transmission component....

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