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PubMed Central (PMC3 - NLM DTD) (2,928,005 recursos)
Archive of life sciences journal literature at the U.S. National Institutes of Health (NIH), developed and managed by NIH's National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) in the National Library of Medicine (NLM).

PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases

Mostrando recursos 1 - 20 de 1,283

1. Bacterial Infection and Immune Responses in Lutzomyia longipalpis Sand Fly Larvae Midgut - Heerman, Matthew; Weng, Ju-Lin; Hurwitz, Ivy; Durvasula, Ravi; Ramalho-Ortigao, Marcelo
The midgut microbial community in insect vectors of disease is crucial for an effective immune response against infection with various human and animal pathogens. Depending on the aspects of their development, insects can acquire microbes present in soil, water, and plants. Sand flies are major vectors of leishmaniasis, and shown to harbor a wide variety of Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria. Sand fly larval stages acquire microorganisms from the soil, and the abundance and distribution of these microorganisms may vary depending on the sand fly species or the breeding site. Here, we assess the distribution of two bacteria commonly found within...

2. A Spatio-temporal Model of African Animal Trypanosomosis Risk - Dicko, Ahmadou H.; Percoma, Lassane; Sow, Adama; Adam, Yahaya; Mahama, Charles; Sidibé, Issa; Dayo, Guiguigbaza-Kossigan; Thévenon, Sophie; Fonta, William; Sanfo, Safietou; Djiteye, Aligui; Salou, Ernest; Djohan, Vincent; Cecchi, Giuliano; Bouyer, Jérémy
African animal trypanosomosis (AAT) is a major constraint to sustainable development of cattle farming in sub-Saharan Africa. The habitat of the tsetse fly vector is increasingly fragmented owing to demographic pressure and shifts in climate, which leads to heterogeneous risk of transmission both in space and time. In Burkina Faso and Ghana, the most important vectors are riverine species that are more resilient to human-induced changes than savannah and forest tsetse species. Therefore, understanding the spatio-temporal distribution of AAT risk remains an important task in order to design effective disease management approaches. The model developed in this research provides a...

3. A Cholera Conjugate Vaccine Containing O-specific Polysaccharide (OSP) of V. cholerae O1 Inaba and Recombinant Fragment of Tetanus Toxin Heavy Chain (OSP:rTTHc) Induces Serum, Memory and Lamina Proprial Responses against OSP and Is Protective in Mice - Sayeed, Md. Abu; Bufano, Meagan Kelly; Xu, Peng; Eckhoff, Grace; Charles, Richelle C.; Alam, Mohammad Murshid; Sultana, Tania; Rashu, Md. Rasheduzzaman; Berger, Amanda; Gonzalez-Escobedo, Geoffrey; Mandlik, Anjali; Bhuiyan, Taufiqur Rahman; Leung, Daniel T.; LaRocque, Regina C.; Harris, Jason B.; Calderwood, Stephen B.; Qadri, Firdausi; Vann, W. F.; Kováč, Pavol; Ryan, Edward T.
Cholera is a severely dehydrating diarrheal disease that remains an important global public health problem especially in developing countries. Globally, almost all cases of cholera are caused by V. cholerae O1. V. cholerae O1 organisms can be classified into two serotypes, Ogawa and Inaba, based on the presence or absence of a methyl group on the upstream terminal moiety of OSP. Immunity against cholera is serogroup-specific and serogroup specificity is determined by the O-specific polysaccharide (OSP) of V. cholerae lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Previous infection with Ogawa provides protection against subsequent Ogawa infection, while previous infection with Inaba provides more complete protection...

4. Taenia solium Human Cysticercosis: A Systematic Review of Sero-epidemiological Data from Endemic Zones around the World - Coral-Almeida, Marco; Gabriël, Sarah; Abatih, Emmanuel Nji; Praet, Nicolas; Benitez, Washington; Dorny, Pierre
Human cysticercosis is a neglected zoonotic disease caused by the larval stage of the parasite Taenia solium. This disease is responsible for severe health disorders such as seizures, and in some cases even death. T. solium cysticercosis is endemic in countries in Africa, Latin America and Asia where conditions such as inadequate hygiene, poor sanitary conditions, open defecation, free roaming pigs and poverty permit the transmission of the disease. Diagnostic tools are capable of detecting exposure to eggs and infection levels in a population through antibody and antigen detection, respectively. This review focused on gathering epidemiological data from endemic communities...

5. Correction: Prevalence and Transmission of Trypanosoma cruzi in People of Rural Communities of the High Jungle of Northern Peru - Alroy, Karen A.; Huang, Christine; Gilman, Robert H.; Quispe-Machaca, Victor R.; Marks, Morgan A.; Ancca-Juarez, Jenny; Hillyard, Miranda; Verastegui, Manuela; Sanchez, Gerardo; Cabrera, Lilia; Vidal, Elisa; Billig, Erica M. W.; Cama, Vitaliano A.; Náquira, César; Bern, Caryn; Levy, Michael Z.;

6. Haemophilus ducreyi Cutaneous Ulcer Strains Are Nearly Identical to Class I Genital Ulcer Strains - Gangaiah, Dharanesh; Webb, Kristen M.; Humphreys, Tricia L.; Fortney, Kate R.; Toh, Evelyn; Tai, Albert; Katz, Samantha S.; Pillay, Allan; Chen, Cheng-Yen; Roberts, Sally A.; Munson, Robert S.; Spinola, Stanley M.
Cutaneous ulcers (CU) in children living in equatorial Africa and the South Pacific islands have long been attributed to yaws, which is caused by Treponema pallidum subsp. pertenue. However, PCR-based cross sectional surveys done in yaws-endemic regions show that Haemophilus ducreyi is the leading cause of CU in these regions. H. ducreyi classically causes the genital ulcer (GU) disease chancroid and was once thought to be exclusively sexually transmitted. We show that CU strains obtained from Samoa and Vanuatu are genetically nearly identical to class 1 GU strains and contain no additional genetic content. The CU strains are highly susceptible...

7. Differential Activation of Human Monocytes and Lymphocytes by Distinct Strains of Trypanosoma cruzi - Magalhães, Luísa M. D.; Viana, Agostinho; Chiari, Egler; Galvão, Lúcia M. C.; Gollob, Kenneth J.; Dutra, Walderez O.
Chagas disease remains a major public health problem in Latin America with over 13 million people infected. It is believed that the host immune response and genetic diversity of the parasite play an important role in the progression of Chagas disease, which presents a variety of clinical forms ranging from indeterminate to cardiac and digestive forms. Since parasite genetic diversity may influence the development of Chagas disease, our study aims to understand the immune response of human peripheral blood cells upon infection with two T. cruzi strains with different genetic backgrounds (Col cl1.7 – Tc I, and Y strain –...

8. Human IgG1 Responses to Surface Localised Schistosoma mansoni Ly6 Family Members Drop following Praziquantel Treatment - Chalmers, Iain W.; Fitzsimmons, Colin M.; Brown, Martha; Pierrot, Christine; Jones, Frances M.; Wawrzyniak, Jakub M.; Fernandez-Fuentes, Narcis; Tukahebwa, Edridah M.; Dunne, David W.; Khalife, Jamal; Hoffmann, Karl F.
Adult schistosome parasites can live in the human bloodstream for years without being adversely affected by the host immune response. Identifying which proteins are on the surface of the parasite and understanding how they contribute to long-term host/parasite relationships is an essential step in developing novel intervention strategies. Here, utilising a comprehensive bioinformatics approach to identify Schistosoma mansoni gene products sharing distinct surface-associated features including signal peptides, hydrophobic C-termini, disulfide bonds and uPAR/Ly6 domains, we identified eleven proteins of interest. These proteins, reassuringly, include three representatives previously found associated with the schistosome surface (here termed SmLy6A, SmLy6B and SmLy6D) as...

9. An Epitope-Substituted DNA Vaccine Improves Safety and Immunogenicity against Dengue Virus Type 2 - Tang, Chung-Tao; Li, Pi-Chun; Liu, I-Ju; Liao, Mei-Ying; Chiu, Chiung-Yi; Chao, Day-Yu; Wu, Han-Chung
Dengue virus (DENV), a global disease, is divided into four serotypes (DENV1-4). Cross-reactive and non-neutralizing antibodies against envelope (E) protein of DENV bind to the Fcγ receptors (FcγR) of cells, and thereby exacerbate viral infection by heterologous serotypes via antibody-dependent enhancement (ADE). Identification and modification of enhancing epitopes may mitigate enhancement of DENV infection. In this study, we characterized the cross-reactive DB21-6 and DB39-2 monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) against domain I-II of DENV; these antibodies poorly neutralized and potently enhanced DENV infection both in vitro and in vivo. In addition, two enhancing mAbs, DB21-6 and DB39-2, were observed to compete with...

10. Development of a Biosensor-Based Rapid Urine Test for Detection of Urogenital Schistosomiasis - Mach, Kathleen E.; Mohan, Ruchika; Patel, Shailja; Wong, Pak Kin; Hsieh, Michael; Liao, Joseph C.

11. Population Pharmacokinetics of an Indian F(ab')2 Snake Antivenom in Patients with Russell's Viper (Daboia russelii) Bites - Isbister, Geoffrey K.; Maduwage, Kalana; Saiao, Ana; Buckley, Nicholas A.; Jayamanne, Shaluka F.; Seyed, Shahmy; Mohamed, Fahim; Chathuranga, Umesh; Mendes, Alexandre; Abeysinghe, Chandana; Karunathilake, Harindra; Gawarammana, Indika; Lalloo, David G.; de Silva, H. Janaka
Snake envenoming is a neglected tropical disease that affects hundreds of thousands of people in the rural tropics. Antivenom is the main treatment for snake bites but there is limited information on the pharmacokinetics and appropriate dosing regimen. Most studies have been done in animals and dosing guidelines are based on arbitrary and often irreversible clinical signs. In this study we measured serial antivenom concentrations in patients with Russell’s viper envenoming given antivenom. Using this data we modelled the pharmacokinetics of antivenom in the population and showed that antivenom concentrations had a bi-exponential decay with an initial decrease over 12...

12. Suppression of a Field Population of Aedes aegypti in Brazil by Sustained Release of Transgenic Male Mosquitoes - Carvalho, Danilo O.; McKemey, Andrew R.; Garziera, Luiza; Lacroix, Renaud; Donnelly, Christl A.; Alphey, Luke; Malavasi, Aldo; Capurro, Margareth L.
The increasing burden of dengue, and the relative failure of traditional vector control programs highlight the need to develop new control methods. SIT using self-limiting genetic technology is one such promising method. A self-limiting strain of Aedes aegypti, OX513A, has already reached the stage of field evaluation. Sustained releases of OX513A Ae. aegypti males led to 80% suppression of a target wild Ae. aegypti population in the Cayman Islands in 2010. Here we describe sustained series of field releases of OX513A Ae. aegypti males in a suburb of Juazeiro, Bahia, Brazil. This study spanned over a year and reduced the...

13. Echinococcosis: An Economic Evaluation of a Veterinary Public Health Intervention in Rural Canada - Schurer, Janna M.; Rafferty, Ellen; Farag, Marwa; Zeng, Wu; Jenkins, Emily J.
Echinococcosis is a rare but endemic condition in people in Canada, caused by a zoonotic cestode for which the source of human infection is ingestion of parasite eggs shed by canids. The objectives of this study were to identify risk factors associated with infection and to measure the cost-utility of introducing an echinococcosis prevention program in a rural area. We analyzed human case reports submitted to the Canadian Institutes for Health Information between 2002 and 2011. Over this 10 year period, there were 48 cases associated with E. granulosus/E. canadensis, 16 with E. multilocularis, and 251 cases of echinococcosis for...

14. Development of an Immunochromatographic Test for Diagnosis of Visceral Leishmaniasis Based on Detection of a Circulating Antigen - Gao, Chun-hua; Yang, Yue-tao; Shi, Feng; Wang, Jun-yun; Steverding, Dietmar; Wang, Xia
Visceral leishmaniasis is a neglected disease caused by different species of protozoan parasites of the genus Leishmania. The disease is endemic in 61 countries, and in many of them it poses a serious public health issue. As visceral leishmaniasis is fatal if left untreated, early diagnosis is essential for treatment and control of the disease. Current available diagnostic tests are either difficult to carry out under field conditions or insufficiently accurate. In this study we developed a new diagnostic test which detects a circulation parasite-derived antigen in serum or blood samples of patients with visceral leishmaniasis. We found that our...

15. Failure of PCR to Detect Treponema pallidum ssp. pertenue DNA in Blood in Latent Yaws - Marks, Michael; Katz, Samantha; Chi, Kai-Hua; Vahi, Ventis; Sun, Yongcheng; Mabey, David C.; Solomon, Anthony W.; Chen, Cheng Y.; Pillay, Allan
Yaws, caused by Treponema pallidum ssp. pertenue, is a neglected tropical disease closely related to venereal syphilis and is targeted for eradication by 2020. Latent yaws represents a diagnostic challenge, and current tools cannot adequately distinguish between individuals with true latent infection and individuals who are serofast following successful treatment. PCR on blood has previously been shown to detect T. pallidum DNA in patients with syphilis, suggesting that this approach may be of value in yaws. We performed real-time PCR for Treponema pallidum ssp. pertenue on blood samples from 140 children with positive T. pallidum Particle Agglutination (TPPA) and Rapid...

16. Plasmodium vivax Diversity and Population Structure across Four Continents - Koepfli, Cristian; Rodrigues, Priscila T.; Antao, Tiago; Orjuela-Sánchez, Pamela; Van den Eede, Peter; Gamboa, Dionicia; van Hong, Nguyen; Bendezu, Jorge; Erhart, Annette; Barnadas, Céline; Ratsimbasoa, Arsène; Menard, Didier; Severini, Carlo; Menegon, Michela; Nour, Bakri Y. M.; Karunaweera, Nadira; Mueller, Ivo; Ferreira, Marcelo U.; Felger, Ingrid
Plasmodium vivax is the geographically most widespread human malaria parasite. To analyze patterns of microsatellite diversity and population structure across countries of different transmission intensity, genotyping data from 11 microsatellite markers was either generated or compiled from 841 isolates from four continents collected in 1999–2008. Diversity was highest in South-East Asia (mean allelic richness 10.0–12.8), intermediate in the South Pacific (8.1–9.9) Madagascar and Sudan (7.9–8.4), and lowest in South America and Central Asia (5.5–7.2). A reduced panel of only 3 markers was sufficient to identify approx. 90% of all haplotypes in South Pacific, African and SE-Asian populations, but only 60–80%...

17. Identification of Burkholderia pseudomallei Near-Neighbor Species in the Northern Territory of Australia - Ginther, Jennifer L.; Mayo, Mark; Warrington, Stephanie D.; Kaestli, Mirjam; Mullins, Travis; Wagner, David M.; Currie, Bart J.; Tuanyok, Apichai; Keim, Paul
Identification and characterization of near-neighbor species are critical to the development of robust molecular diagnostic tools for biothreat agents. One such agent, Burkholderia pseudomallei, a soil bacterium and the causative agent of melioidosis, is lacking in this area because of its genomic diversity and widespread geographic distribution. The Burkholderia genus contains over 60 species and occupies a large range of environments including soil, plants, rhizospheres, water, animals and humans. The identification of novel species in new locations necessitates the need to identify the true global distribution of Burkholderia species, especially the members that are closely related to B. pseudomallei. In...

18. Neglected Tropical Diseases in the Ebola-Affected Countries of West Africa - Hotez, Peter J.

19. Minimizing the Risk of Disease Transmission in Emergency Settings: Novel In Situ Physico-Chemical Disinfection of Pathogen-Laden Hospital Wastewaters - Sozzi, Emanuele; Fabre, Kerline; Fesselet, Jean-François; Ebdon, James E.; Taylor, Huw
The operation of a health care facility, such as a cholera or Ebola treatment center in an emergency setting, results in the production of pathogen-laden wastewaters that may potentially lead to onward transmission of the disease. The research presented here evaluated the design and operation of a novel treatment system, successfully used by Médecins Sans Frontières in Haiti to disinfect CTC wastewaters in situ, eliminating the need for road haulage and disposal of the waste to a poorly-managed hazardous waste facility, thereby providing an effective barrier to disease transmission through a novel but simple sanitary intervention. The physico-chemical protocols eventually...

20. Canine Antibodies against Salivary Recombinant Proteins of Phlebotomus perniciosus: A Longitudinal Study in an Endemic Focus of Canine Leishmaniasis - Kostalova, Tatiana; Lestinova, Tereza; Sumova, Petra; Vlkova, Michaela; Rohousova, Iva; Berriatua, Eduardo; Oliva, Gaetano; Fiorentino, Eleonora; Scalone, Aldo; Gramiccia, Marina; Gradoni, Luigi; Volf, Petr
Canine leishmaniasis (CanL) is a widespread zoonosis caused by protozoan parasite Leishmania infantum. CanL is endemic in more than 70 countries, including regions of southwestern Europe, where the main vector is Phlebotomus perniciosus. Saliva inoculated into the host during blood feeding provoke species-specific antibody response. They could be used as a serological marker of exposure to sand flies and, in leishmaniasis endemic areas, also as an indication of Leishmania infection risk. However, in case of large-scale serological studies, it is difficult to obtain appropriate amounts of crude salivary antigen from laboratory-reared sand flies. Therefore, we studied if specific salivary recombinant...

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