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PubMed Central (PMC3 - NLM DTD) (2,750,487 recursos)
Archive of life sciences journal literature at the U.S. National Institutes of Health (NIH), developed and managed by NIH's National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) in the National Library of Medicine (NLM).

PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases

Mostrando recursos 1 - 20 de 1,099

1. Bartonella spp. Bacteremia in Blood Donors from Campinas, Brazil - Pitassi, Luiza Helena Urso; de Paiva Diniz, Pedro Paulo Vissotto; Scorpio, Diana Gerardi; Drummond, Marina Rovani; Lania, Bruno Grosselli; Barjas-Castro, Maria Lourdes; Gilioli, Rovilson; Colombo, Silvia; Sowy, Stanley; Breitschwerdt, Edward B.; Nicholson, William L.; Velho, Paulo Eduardo Neves Ferreira
Bartonella species are blood-borne, re-emerging organisms, capable of causing prolonged infection with diverse disease manifestations, from asymptomatic bacteremia to chronic debilitating disease and death. This pathogen can survive for over a month in stored blood. However, its prevalence among blood donors is unknown, and screening of blood supplies for this pathogen is not routinely performed. We investigated Bartonella spp. prevalence in 500 blood donors from Campinas, Brazil, based on a cross-sectional design. Blood samples were inoculated into an enrichment liquid growth medium and sub-inoculated onto blood agar. Liquid culture samples and Gram-negative isolates were tested using a genus specific ITS...

2. Effect of Antenatal Parasitic Infections on Anti-vaccine IgG Levels in Children: A Prospective Birth Cohort Study in Kenya - Malhotra, Indu; McKibben, Maxim; Mungai, Peter; McKibben, Elisabeth; Wang, Xuelei; Sutherland, Laura J.; Muchiri, Eric M.; King, Charles H.; King, Christopher L.; LaBeaud, A. Desiree
Parasitic infections are prevalent among pregnant women in sub-Saharan Africa. Prenatal exposure to parasitic infections can generate several potential effects on fetal immune responses and affect functional antibody generation during subsequent vaccination. There is a paucity of data on the detrimental effects of chronic parasitic infections during pregnancy on the response to vaccine from birth to childhood. This paper highlights the overwhelming presence of helminth infection and malaria in pregnant women in rural Kenya. The study shows that the presence of single and multiple antenatal parasitic infections is associated with impaired infant IgG levels against Haemophilus influenzae (Hib) and diphtheria...

3. Bilateral Conjunctivitis in a Returned Traveller - Fehily, Sasha R.; Cross, Gail B.; Fuller, Andrew J.

4. Characterization of Plasmodium ovale curtisi and P. ovale wallikeri in Western Kenya Utilizing a Novel Species-specific Real-time PCR Assay - Miller, Robin H.; Obuya, Clifford O.; Wanja, Elizabeth W.; Ogutu, Bernhards; Waitumbi, John; Luckhart, Shirley; Stewart, V. Ann
Humans can be infected with five malaria parasite species: Plasmodium falciparum, P. vivax, P. malariae, P. knowlesi, and P. ovale. Although the vast majority of malaria morbidity and mortality worldwide can be attributed to P. falciparum, non-falciparum malaria parasites can also cause clinical disease. Researchers use nucleic acid based detection methods, such a polymerase chain reaction (PCR), to detect low-density malaria parasitemias that can evade microscopic detection. P. ovale was recently identified to exist as two subspecies, P. ovale curtisi and P. ovale wallikeri, that look identical but differ genetically. In this study, we developed a novel real-time PCR (qPCR)...

5. Th17 Down-regulation Is Involved in Reduced Progression of Schistosomiasis Fibrosis in ICOSL KO Mice - Wang, Bo; Liang, Song; Wang, Yu; Zhu, Xing-Quan; Gong, Wei; Zhang, Hui-Qin; Li, Ying; Xia, Chao-Ming
The full activation and differentiation of T cells into Th1, Th2 or Th17 cells requires costimulatory molecules and cytokines. ICOS has also been implicated in chronic inflammation and is critical for Th17 cell development. CD4+ IL-17-secreting T cells have been shown to contribute to pathology in some models of liver fibrosis. However, neither the significance nor the immunopathogenesis of this pathway have been elucidated in schistosomiasis fibrosis. The present study used the ICOSL KO mice to assess the role of the ICOSL/ICOS interaction in the mediation of the Th17 response in host granulomatous inflammation, particularly in liver fibrosis during S.japonicum...

6. Household Costs of Leprosy Reactions (ENL) in Rural India - Chandler, David J.; Hansen, Kristian S.; Mahato, Bhabananda; Darlong, Joydeepa; John, Annamma; Lockwood, Diana N. J.
Erythema nodosum leprosum (ENL) is a common complication of leprosy and an important cause of nerve damage and disability. In most cases, ENL causes chronic or recurrent episodes of ill-health over many years. In this study, we show that having a family member affected by ENL places considerable financial burden on households in rural India. Household costs resulted predominantly from the impact of ENL on the productivity (ability to earn money) of household members. Out of pocket expenditure on treatment-seeking in the private sector accounted for the remaining costs. Leprosy affects poor and marginalised communities in low- and middle-income countries...

7. Associations between Schistosomiasis and the Use of Human Waste as an Agricultural Fertilizer in China - Carlton, Elizabeth J.; Liu, Yang; Zhong, Bo; Hubbard, Alan; Spear, Robert C.
Many people use human waste as an agricultural fertilizer, often called “night soil.” If the waste is not properly treated, the use of night soil may promote the spread of infectious diseases. We suspected that night soil use may facilitate the spread of the water-borne disease, schistosomiasis, as some schistosomiasis eggs can survive in the environment for weeks. We conducted a study in 36 villages in rural China in order to see if the amount of night soil used in a village was associated with schistosomiasis. The study was conducted in an area where schistosomiasis reemerged and persisted despite an...

8. Microsatellite Alterations Are also Present in the Less Aggressive Types of Adult T-Cell Leukemia-Lymphoma - Magalhães, Marcelo; Oliveira, Pedro D.; Bittencourt, Achiléa L.; Farre, Lourdes
Adult T cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATL) is a severe neoplasia caused by a retrovirus named human T cell lymphotropic virus type-1 (HTLV-1). There are 5 to 10 million carriers worldwide, but only 2% to 5% will manifest ATL. The patients present different clinical and laboratory features. Therefore, this neoplasia was classified in acute and lymphoma types which presented poor prognosis, with a median survival time around 6 months and the less aggressive chronic and smoldering types. The mechanisms involved in the development of this disease are not well known. Microsatellites are short tandem repeats of DNA spread throughout the genome. Alterations...

9. Nematode-Induced Interference with Vaccination Efficacy Targets Follicular T Helper Cell Induction and Is Preserved after Termination of Infection - Haben, Irma; Hartmann, Wiebke; Breloer, Minka
One-third of the human population is infected with parasitic worms. To avoid being eliminated, these parasites actively dampen the immune response of their hosts. This immune modulation also suppresses immune responses to third-party antigens such as vaccines. Here, we used Litomosoides sigmodontis-infected BALB/c mice to analyse nematode-induced interference with vaccination. Chronic nematode infection led to complete suppression of the humoral response to thymus-dependent vaccination. Thereby the numbers of antigen-specific B cells as well as the serum immunoglobulin (Ig) G titres were reduced. TH2-associated IgG1 and TH1-associated IgG2 responses were both suppressed. Thus, nematode infection did not bias responses towards a...

10. Strong Type 1, but Impaired Type 2, Immune Responses Contribute to Orientia tsutsugamushi-Induced Pathology in Mice - Soong, Lynn; Wang, Hui; Shelite, Thomas R.; Liang, Yuejin; Mendell, Nicole L.; Sun, Jiaren; Gong, Bin; Valbuena, Gustavo A.; Bouyer, Donald H.; Walker, David H.
Scrub typhus is a neglected, but important, tropical disease, which puts one-third of the world's population at risk. The disease is caused by Orientia tsutsugamushi, an obligately intracellular Gram-negative bacterium. Dysregulation in immune responses is known to contribute to disease pathogenesis; however, the nature and molecular basis of immune alterations are poorly defined. This study made use of a newly developed murine model of severe scrub typhus and focused on innate regulators and vascular growth factors in O. tsutsugamushi-infected liver, lungs and spleen. We found no activation or even reduction in base-line expression for multiple molecules (IL-7, IL-4, IL-13, GATA3,...

11. Comparison of Biotinylated Monoclonal and Polyclonal Antibodies in an Evaluation of a Direct Rapid Immunohistochemical Test for the Routine Diagnosis of Rabies in Southern Africa - Coetzer, Andre; Sabeta, Claude T.; Markotter, Wanda; Rupprecht, Charles E.; Nel, Louis H.
The major etiological agent of rabies, rabies virus (RABV), accounts for tens of thousands of human deaths per annum. The majority of these deaths are associated with rabies cycles in dogs in resource-limited countries of Africa and Asia. Although routine rabies diagnosis plays an integral role in disease surveillance and management, the application of the currently recommended direct fluorescent antibody (DFA) test in countries on the African and Asian continents remains quite limited. A novel diagnostic assay, the direct rapid immunohistochemical test (dRIT), has been reported to have a diagnostic sensitivity and specificity equal to that of the DFA test...

12. RNAi Dynamics in Juvenile Fasciola spp. Liver Flukes Reveals the Persistence of Gene Silencing In Vitro - McVeigh, Paul; McCammick, Erin M.; McCusker, Paul; Morphew, Russell M.; Mousley, Angela; Abidi, Abbas; Saifullah, Khalid M.; Muthusamy, Raman; Gopalakrishnan, Ravikumar; Spithill, Terry W.; Dalton, John P.; Brophy, Peter M.; Marks, Nikki J.; Maule, Aaron G.
RNA interference (RNAi) is a method for selectively silencing (or reducing expression of) mRNA transcripts, an approach which can be used to interrogate the function of genes and proteins, and enables the validation of potential targets for anthelmintic drugs or vaccines, by investigating the impact of silencing a particular gene on parasite survival or behaviour. This study focuses on liver fluke parasites, which cause serious disease in both humans and animals. We have only a handful of drugs with which to treat these infections, to which flukes are developing resistance, and no anti-fluke vaccines have yet been developed. New options...

13. Evaluation of Biochemical, Hematological and Parasitological Parameters of Protein-Deficient Hamsters Infected with Ancylostoma ceylanicum - Pacanaro, Carina P.; Dias, Sílvia R.; Serafim, Luciana R.; Costa, Mariana P.; Aguilar, Edenil; Paes, Paulo R.; Alvarez-Leite, Jacqueline I.; Rabelo, Élida M.
Hookworm's infection is a health problem that affects areas of poverty worldwide. Nutritional diseases, including dietary protein deficiency are also prevalent in those areas. It is well known that nutritional status can influence parasite infection, reducing host responses to infection. However, the influence of nutritional status and Hookworm's infection is less explored. Our goal was to study the consequences of coexistence of low-protein malnutrition and Hookworm's infection in hamsters that are good models of this infection. For that, we established a model of protein malnutrition by feeding hamsters on standard diet or isocaloric, low-protein diet for 50 days. Hamsters fed...

14. Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever Virus Clades V and VI (Europe 1 and 2) in Ticks in Kosovo, 2012 - Sherifi, Kurtesh; Cadar, Daniel; Muji, Skender; Robaj, Avni; Ahmeti, Salih; Jakupi, Xhevat; Emmerich, Petra; Krüger, Andreas
Despite being a small country, Kosovo represents one of the few foci of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) in Europe. The distribution of Kosovar tick vectors and the evolution of CCHF virus in ticks are both as yet unknown. A better description of the extent and the genetic diversity of CCHFV in ticks from endemic settings is essential, in order to be controlled. We investigated the 2012 distribution of Kosovar ticks alongside the prevalence and the phylogeography of tick-derived CCHFV. Hyalomma marginatum dominated in the endemic municipalities with 90.2% versus 24.3% in the non-endemic regions. Of 1,102 tested ticks, 40 (3.6%)...

15. Cathepsin B in Antigen-Presenting Cells Controls Mediators of the Th1 Immune Response during Leishmania major Infection - Gonzalez-Leal, Iris J.; Röger, Bianca; Schwarz, Angela; Schirmeister, Tanja; Reinheckel, Thomas; Lutz, Manfred B.; Moll, Heidrun
Resistance and susceptibility to Leishmania major infection in the murine model is determined by the capacity of the host to mount either a protective Th1 response or a Th2 response associated with disease progression. Previous reports involving the use of cysteine cathepsin inhibitors indicated that cathepsins B (Ctsb) and L (Ctsl) play important roles in Th1/Th2 polarization during L. major infection in both susceptible and resistant mouse strains. Although it was hypothesized that these effects are a consequence of differential patterns of antigen processing, the mechanisms underlying these differences were not further investigated. Given the pivotal roles that dendritic cells...

16. Dynamics of Japanese Encephalitis Virus Transmission among Pigs in Northwest Bangladesh and the Potential Impact of Pig Vaccination - Khan, Salah Uddin; Salje, Henrik; Hannan, A.; Islam, Md. Atiqul; Bhuyan, A. A. Mamun; Islam, Md. Ariful; Rahman, M. Ziaur; Nahar, Nazmun; Hossain, M. Jahangir; Luby, Stephen P.; Gurley, Emily S.
Japanese encephalitis (JE) virus infection can cause severe neurological disease in man. More JE cases are seen in northwestern districts in Bangladesh. Pigs are the most common amplifying host of the virus and can act as a potential environmental source. We conducted a comprehensive census of pigs in three JE endemic districts and tested a sample of them for evidence of previous JEV infection. We built a compartmental model to describe JEV transmission dynamics in this region and to estimate the potential impact of pig vaccination. We identified 11,364 pigs in our study area, mostly raised in backyards. About 30%...

17. Strongyloides stercoralis: Systematic Review of Barriers to Controlling Strongyloidiasis for Australian Indigenous Communities - Miller, Adrian; Smith, Michelle L.; Judd, Jenni A.; Speare, Rick
Strongyloides stercoralis, a nematode parasite, has a well-documented history of infecting human hosts in tropic and subtropic regions mainly through skin contact with inhabited soil. The result is strongyloidiasis, a human parasitic disease, with a unique cycle of auto-infection contributing to a variety of symptoms, of which, hyper-infection causing fatality may occur. In Australia, Indigenous community members often located in rural and remote settings, are exposed to and infected with strongyloides. Previous researchers report strongyloidiasis as a recurrent health issue for Indigenous Australians. This is a systematic review to determine the barriers to control for this pernicious pathogen. Barriers to...

18. Development of a Rapid Agglutination Latex Test for Diagnosis of Enteropathogenic and Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli Infection in Developing World: Defining the Biomarker, Antibody and Method - Rocha, Letícia B.; Santos, Anna R. R.; Munhoz, Danielle D.; Cardoso, Lucas T. A.; Luz, Daniela E.; Andrade, Fernanda B.; Horton, Denise S. P. Q.; Elias, Waldir P.; Piazza, Roxane M. F.
A rapid and low-cost diagnosis for EPEC/EHEC infections is extremely required considering their global prevalence, the severity of the diseases associated with them, and the fact that the use of antibiotics to treat EHEC infections can be harmful. For EHEC, the detection of Stx toxins has already been developed, but for EPEC, an internationally recognized standard diagnostic test is lacking. Thus, the approach for their rapid detection in this study was the use of the secreted proteins EspA and/or EspB, since they are the major secreted proteins in both pathogens. EspB was defined as a biomarker and its corresponding monoclonal...

19. Public Awareness and Knowledge of Neglected Tropical Diseases (NTDs) Control Activities in Abuja, Nigeria - Olamiju, Olatunwa J.; Olamiju, Francisca O.; Adeniran, Adebiyi A.; Mba, Ifeanyi C.; Ukwunna, Chidera C.; Okoronkwo, Chukwu; Ekpo, Uwem F.
The need to engage the public in Neglected Tropical Diseases (NTDs) control activities has become imperative in the context of morbidity reduction through preventive chemotherapy and community participation. Therefore, a survey was conducted among the general public to assess their knowledge and awareness of NTDs control activities in Nigeria. A simple questionnaire was administered to the general public attending a job fair in Abuja, Nigeria. Of the 461 respondents, a significant proportion 337 (73.1%) have heard of NTD before, but only 291 (63.1%) have good knowledge about NTDs. However, among the specific NTDs, only the control of onchocerciasis (50.8%) was...

20. Where the Road Ends, Yaws Begins? The Cost-effectiveness of Eradication versus More Roads - Fitzpatrick, Christopher; Asiedu, Kingsley; Jannin, Jean
A disabling and disfiguring disease that “begins where the road ends” (among poor and isolated communities), yaws is targeted by WHO for eradication by the year 2020. The global campaign is not yet financed. We provide benchmarks for the cost and health effects of global yaws eradication, based on evidence from four yaws eradication pilot sites and other mass treatment campaigns. We suggest that a global yaws eradication campaign could be established with a relatively modest investment in the period 2015–2020 — as little as US$ 100 million in the 12 known endemic countries. Eradication would cost about US$ 26...

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