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PubMed Central (PMC3 - NLM DTD) (2,823,233 recursos)
Archive of life sciences journal literature at the U.S. National Institutes of Health (NIH), developed and managed by NIH's National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) in the National Library of Medicine (NLM).

PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases

Mostrando recursos 1 - 20 de 1,254

1. Social Pathways for Ebola Virus Disease in Rural Sierra Leone, and Some Implications for Containment - Richards, Paul; Amara, Joseph; Ferme, Mariane C.; Kamara, Prince; Mokuwa, Esther; Sheriff, Amara Idara; Suluku, Roland; Voors, Maarten
The current outbreak of Ebola Virus Disease in Upper West Africa is the largest ever recorded. Molecular evidence suggests spread has been almost exclusively through human-to-human contact. Social factors are thus clearly important to understand the epidemic and ways in which it might be stopped, but these factors have so far been little analyzed. The present paper focuses on Sierra Leone, and provides cross sectional data on the least understood part of the epidemic—the largely undocumented spread of Ebola in rural areas. Various forms of social networking in rural communities and their relevance for understanding pathways of transmission are described....

2. Using Hospital Discharge Database to Characterize Chagas Disease Evolution in Spain: There Is a Need for a Systematic Approach towards Disease Detection and Control - Herrador, Zaida; Rivas, Eva; Gherasim, Alin; Gomez-Barroso, Diana; García, Jezabel; Benito, Agustín; Aparicio, Pilar
After the United States, Spain comes second in the list of countries receiving migrants from Latin America, and, therefore, it is the European country with the highest expected number of infected patients of Chagas disease. We have studied the National Health System’s Hospital Discharge Records Database (CMBD) in order to describe the disease evolution from 1997 to 2011 in Spain. We performed a retrospective descriptive study using CMBD information on hospitalizations including Chagas disease. Data was divided in two periods with similar length in time: 1997-2004 and 2005-2011. Hospitalization rates were calculated and clinical characteristics were described. We used multivariable...

3. Correction: A Colour Opponent Model That Explains Tsetse Fly Attraction to Visual Baits and Can Be Used to Investigate More Efficacious Bait Materials - Santer, Roger D.

4. Release of Lungworm Larvae from Snails in the Environment: Potential for Alternative Transmission Pathways - Giannelli, Alessio; Colella, Vito; Abramo, Francesca; do Nascimento Ramos, Rafael Antonio; Falsone, Luigi; Brianti, Emanuele; Varcasia, Antonio; Dantas-Torres, Filipe; Knaus, Martin; Fox, Mark T.; Otranto, Domenico
Gastropod-borne parasites may cause debilitating clinical conditions in animals and humans. The infection occurs by consumption of intermediate hosts (i.e., snails). However, the ingestion of fresh vegetables contaminated by water and/or snail mucus has been proposed as a transmission source for some zoonotic metastrongyloids (e.g., Angiostrongylus cantonensis). Aelurostrongylus abstrusus and Troglostrongylus brevior cause severe clinical conditions in cats and their prevalence is increasing in feline populations. The epidemiology of feline lungworm infections is poorly understood and the role of gastropod molluscs, as vectors of the disease, is questioned. Since metastrongyloid nematodes may use other little-studied infection pathways, the presence of...

5. A Recombinant Vesicular Stomatitis Virus-Based Lassa Fever Vaccine Protects Guinea Pigs and Macaques against Challenge with Geographically and Genetically Distinct Lassa Viruses - Safronetz, David; Mire, Chad; Rosenke, Kyle; Feldmann, Friederike; Haddock, Elaine; Geisbert, Thomas; Feldmann, Heinz
Lassa fever (LF) is an acute viral infection which is often associated with hemorrhagic manifestations and multi-organ failure in humans. The etiological agent responsible for LF is Lassa virus (LASV), a rodent-borne Arenavirus which is endemic in several West African countries. Up to 500,000 cases of LF are diagnosed annually, primarily in Nigeria, Liberia, Guinea and Sierra Leone. The high incidence rate combined with the significant morbidity and mortality associated with LASV infection highlights the need for an effective prophylactic vaccine for LF. Importantly, an ideal LASV vaccine should provide protection against genetically and geographical divergent viral strains. Previously a...

6. Trypanosomiasis-Induced Megacolon Illustrates How Myenteric Neurons Modulate the Risk for Colon Cancer in Rats and Humans - Kannen, Vinicius; de Oliveira, Enio C.; Motta, Bruno Zene; Chaguri, Annuar Jose; Brunaldi, Mariângela Ottoboni; Garcia, Sérgio B.
The myenteric neuronal activity on colon carcinogenesis is a matter of debate. Chagas disease (a trypanosomiasis-related chronic infection) induces megacolon damaging myenteric neurons. Puzzling, tumors have been rarely reported in chagasic megacolon patients. We reveal here hyperplasia-related high-proliferation occurs in chagasic megacolon, although the risk for colon cancer is reduced. Having carcinogen-exposed rats infected with Trypanosoma cruzi reduced the numbers of myenteric neurons and colon preneoplastic lesions. An experimental model for chemical myenteric denervation was applied in carcinogen-exposed rats revealing that myenteric neurons promote the development of colon preneoplastic lesions. Yet, activity of the fecal content had to be secluded...

7. High Prevalence of HTLV-1 Infection among Japanese Immigrants in Non-endemic Area of Brazil - Bandeira, Larissa M.; Uehara, Silvia N. O.; Asato, Marcel A.; Aguena, Gabriela S.; Maedo, Cristiane M.; Benites, Nikolas H.; Puga, Marco A. M.; Rezende, Grazielli R.; Finotti, Carolina M.; Cesar, Gabriela A.; Tanaka, Tayana S. O.; Castro, Vivianne O. L.; Otsuki, Koko; Vicente, Ana C. P.; Fernandes, Carlos E.; Motta-Castro, Ana R. C.
The population of Okinawan immigrants is considered vulnerable to human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) infection because the Okinawa region in Japan is an endemic area. The second Brazilian largest Okinawan community is set in Campo Grande, Middle-West Brazil. This study aimed to estimate the prevalence and risk factors associated with HTLV infection among Japanese immigrants and their descendants living in Campo Grande. The prevalence of 6.8% of HTLV-1 infection that was found is considered high. The HTLV-1 infection was associated with age ranged from 45 years old or older. Most infected individuals are Okinawan descendants. The HTLV-1 rate found...

8. Estimating Dengue Transmission Intensity from Sero-Prevalence Surveys in Multiple Countries - Imai, Natsuko; Dorigatti, Ilaria; Cauchemez, Simon; Ferguson, Neil M.
With an estimated 390 million infections each year, dengue imposes a significant global public health burden. Yet estimates of the intensity of dengue transmission in different settings are still sparse, making it difficult to plan efficient control programs. Since many dengue infections have no symptoms, cases reported through hospitals are only a small proportion of true cases. The authors used seroprevalence surveys which can detect all past infections to estimate dengue transmission intensity in 22 countries. Estimates derived from data collected using cheaper diagnostic tests were comparable to those making use of more expensive tests, an important conclusion for surveillance...

9. Extending the “Social”: Anthropological Contributions to the Study of Viral Haemorrhagic Fevers - Brown, Hannah; Kelly, Ann H.; Marí Sáez, Almudena; Fichet-Calvet, Elisabeth; Ansumana, Rashid; Bonwitt, Jesse; Magassouba, N’Faly; Sahr, Foday; Borchert, Matthias

10. Shifts in the Spatiotemporal Dynamics of Schistosomiasis: A Case Study in Anhui Province, China - Hu, Yi; Li, Rui; Chen, Yue; Gao, Fenghua; Wang, Qizhi; Zhang, Shiqing; Zhang, Zhijie; Jiang, Qingwu
We investigated changes in dynamics of schistosomiasis transmission over space and time in Anhui Province of East China. Parasitological data were obtained through repeated cross-sectional surveys that were carried out during 1997–2010. A multivariate autoregressive model, combined with principal oscillation pattern (POP) analysis, was used to evaluate the spatio-temporal variation of schistosomiasis risk. The schistosomiasis risk changed temporally as a damped oscillatory mode with a fluctuation, indicating that the disease risk declined periodically but with a temporal ascent during the study period. This change might result from national control strategies on schistosomiasis. The POP analysis also demonstrated a shifting spatial...

11. Intravital Imaging of a Massive Lymphocyte Response in the Cortical Dura of Mice after Peripheral Infection by Trypanosomes - Coles, Jonathan A.; Myburgh, Elmarie; Ritchie, Ryan; Hamilton, Alana; Rodgers, Jean; Mottram, Jeremy C.; Barrett, Michael P.; Brewer, James M.
Peripheral infection by Trypanosoma brucei, the protozoan responsible for sleeping sickness, activates lymphocytes, and, at later stages, causes meningoencephalitis. We have videoed the cortical meninges and superficial parenchyma of C56BL/6 reporter mice infected with T.b.brucei. By use of a two-photon microscope to image through the thinned skull, the integrity of the tissues was maintained. We observed a 47-fold increase in CD2+ T cells in the meninges by 12 days post infection (dpi). CD11c+ dendritic cells also increased, and extravascular trypanosomes, made visible either by expression of a fluorescent protein, or by intravenous injection of furamidine, appeared. The likelihood that invasion...

12. Estimating the Global Burden of Endemic Canine Rabies - Hampson, Katie; Coudeville, Laurent; Lembo, Tiziana; Sambo, Maganga; Kieffer, Alexia; Attlan, Michaël; Barrat, Jacques; Blanton, Jesse D.; Briggs, Deborah J.; Cleaveland, Sarah; Costa, Peter; Freuling, Conrad M.; Hiby, Elly; Knopf, Lea; Leanes, Fernando; Meslin, François-Xavier; Metlin, Artem; Miranda, Mary Elizabeth; Müller, Thomas; Nel, Louis H.; Recuenco, Sergio; Rupprecht, Charles E.; Schumacher, Carolin; Taylor, Louise; Vigilato, Marco Antonio Natal; Zinsstag, Jakob; Dushoff, Jonathan;
Rabies is a fatal viral disease largely transmitted to humans from bites by infected animals—predominantly from domestic dogs. The disease is entirely preventable through prompt administration of post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) to bite victims and can be controlled through mass vaccination of domestic dogs. Yet, rabies is still very prevalent in developing countries, affecting populations with limited access to health care. The disease is also grossly underreported in these areas because most victims die at home. This leads to insufficient prioritization of rabies prevention in public health agendas. To address this lack of information on the impacts of rabies, in this...

13. Neglected Tropical Diseases among the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN): Overview and Update - Hotez, Peter J.; Bottazzi, Maria Elena; Strych, Ulrich; Chang, Li-Yen; Lim, Yvonne A. L.; Goodenow, Maureen M.; AbuBakar, Sazaly
The ten member states of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) constitute an economic powerhouse, yet these countries also harbor a mostly hidden burden of poverty and neglected tropical diseases (NTDs). Almost 200 million people live in extreme poverty in ASEAN countries, mostly in the low or lower middle-income countries of Indonesia, the Philippines, Myanmar, Viet Nam, and Cambodia, and many of them are affected by at least one NTD. However, NTDs are prevalent even among upper middle-income ASEAN countries such as Malaysia and Thailand, especially among the indigenous populations. The three major intestinal helminth infections are the most...

14. Case Report: Actinomycetoma Caused by Nocardia aobensis from Lao PDR with Favourable Outcome after Short-Term Antibiotic Treatment - Vongphoumy, Inthanomchanh; Dance, David A. B.; Dittrich, Sabine; Logan, Julie; Davong, Viengmon; Rattanavong, Sayaphet; Blessmann, Joerg
Mycetoma is a neglected tropical disease caused either by fungi or aerobic actinomycetes. It predominantly affects poor people in remote communities, where access to health care is very limited and people usually rely on traditional treatment. The incidence of mycetoma in the Lao PDR is not known, although the first case of mycetoma from the northern part of the country was published only recently. The present case report is the second case from the Lao PDR and the first published case of actinomycetoma caused by Nocardia aobensis. Data from the literature and the present case suggest that far shorter courses...

15. Insensitivity to the Spatial Repellent Action of Transfluthrin in Aedes aegypti: A Heritable Trait Associated with Decreased Insecticide Susceptibility - Wagman, Joseph M.; Achee, Nicole L.; Grieco, John P.
There is growing evidence to support the expanded use of spatial repellents for vector control, but there are still many uncertainties about how repellents work and how their long term use may impact vector populations over time. Here, we conducted a series of in vitro experiments that investigated spatial repellent (SR) behaviors in Aedes aegypti mosquitoes exposed to airborne transfluthrin, a volatile pyrethroid commonly used in repellent products. We were able to show that repellent insensitivity is linked to reduced insecticide susceptibility and increased knock down resistance allele frequency, indicating that sub-lethal doses of airborne transfluthrin can elicit SR behaviors...

16. Correction: Leishmania (L.) mexicana Infected Bats in Mexico: Novel Potential Reservoirs -

17. Tsetse Fly (G.f. fuscipes) Distribution in the Lake Victoria Basin of Uganda - Albert, Mugenyi; Wardrop, Nicola A; Atkinson, Peter M; Torr, Steve J; Welburn, Susan C
Tsetse flies transmit trypanosomes, the causative agent of human and animal African trypanosomiasis. The tsetse vector is extensively distributed across sub-Saharan Africa. Trypanosomiasis maintenance is determined by the interrelationship of three elements: vertebrate host, parasite and the vector responsible for transmission. Mapping the distribution and abundance of tsetse flies assists in predicting trypanosomiasis distributions and developing rational strategies for disease and vector control. Given scarce resources to carry out regular full scale field tsetse surveys to up-date existing tsetse maps, there is a need to devise inexpensive means for regularly obtaining dependable area-wide tsetse data to guide control activities. In...

18. Overexpression of Cytoplasmic TcSIR2RP1 and Mitochondrial TcSIR2RP3 Impacts on Trypanosoma cruzi Growth and Cell Invasion - Ritagliati, Carla; Alonso, Victoria L.; Manarin, Romina; Cribb, Pamela; Serra, Esteban C.
Sirtuins are a family of deacetylases, evolutionary conserved from bacteria to mammals. They participate in the regulation of a wide range of nuclear, cytoplasmic and mitochondrial pathways, and are considered pro-life enzymes. In the last years the search for sirtuin inhibitors was a very active field of research, with potential applications in a large number of pathologies, including parasitic diseases. We are interested in the study of the two sirtuins present in the protozoan parasite Trypanosoma cruzi, being our objective to understand their function. First, we determined the localization of these enzymes in the parasite: TcSIR2RP1 is a cytoplasmic enzyme...

19. Plasmodium vivax Populations Are More Genetically Diverse and Less Structured than Sympatric Plasmodium falciparum Populations - Jennison, Charlie; Arnott, Alicia; Tessier, Natacha; Tavul, Livingstone; Koepfli, Cristian; Felger, Ingrid; Siba, Peter M.; Reeder, John C.; Bahlo, Melanie; Mueller, Ivo; Barry, Alyssa E.
The neglected human malaria parasite Plasmodium vivax is responsible for a large proportion of the global malaria burden. Efforts to control malaria have revealed that P. vivax is more resilient than the other major human malaria parasite, Plasmodium falciparum. This study utilised population genetics to compare patterns of P. vivax and P. falciparum transmission in Papua New Guinea, a region where infection rates of the two species are similar. The results demonstrated that P. vivax populations are more genetically diverse than those of P. falciparum suggestive of a parasite population that is more resilient to environmental challenges, undergoing higher levels...

20. The Availability and Consistency of Dengue Surveillance Data Provided Online by the World Health Organization - Ruberto, Irene; Marques, Ernesto; Burke, Donald S.; Van Panhuis, Willem G.
The use of high quality data and information has become essential for public health agencies to monitor and protect population health. Technological advancement has enabled the development of sophisticated disease surveillance systems by many countries. Increasingly, countries are making surveillance data publicly available to their constituencies. A key role of international agencies such as the World Health Organization is the integration and curation of country data at the global level. Because it can be confusing to navigate the current online disease data landscape, we assessed the availability and consistency of online available surveillance data for dengue provided by the World...

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