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PubMed Central (PMC3 - NLM DTD) (2,692,467 recursos)
Archive of life sciences journal literature at the U.S. National Institutes of Health (NIH), developed and managed by NIH's National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) in the National Library of Medicine (NLM).

PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases

Mostrando recursos 1 - 20 de 1,073

1. The Spatial Dynamics of Dengue Virus in Kamphaeng Phet, Thailand - Bhoomiboonchoo, Piraya; Gibbons, Robert V.; Huang, Angkana; Yoon, In-Kyu; Buddhari, Darunee; Nisalak, Ananda; Chansatiporn, Natkamol; Thipayamongkolgul, Mathuros; Kalanarooj, Siripen; Endy, Timothy; Rothman, Alan L.; Srikiatkhachorn, Anon; Green, Sharone; Mammen, Mammen P.; Cummings, Derek A.; Salje, Henrik
Transmission of dengue virus has long been studied in Kamphaeng Phet, Northern Thailand, but how cases are related in time and space is still unclear, as is the role of human movement in generating these patterns. Because of these knowledge gaps, public health officials cannot make educated decisions on how to target vector control interventions and mechanisms of virus dispersal are not known. We mapped the homes of dengue cases admitted to the main hospital in the province capital from 1994–2008 and quantified the spatial correlation between them. We found an almost three times greater chance that cases from the...

2. Co-infection of Long-Term Carriers of Plasmodium falciparum with Schistosoma haematobium Enhances Protection from Febrile Malaria: A Prospective Cohort Study in Mali - Doumbo, Safiatou; Tran, Tuan M.; Sangala, Jules; Li, Shanping; Doumtabe, Didier; Kone, Younoussou; Traoré, Abdrahamane; Bathily, Aboudramane; Sogoba, Nafomon; Coulibaly, Michel E.; Huang, Chiung-Yu; Ongoiba, Aissata; Kayentao, Kassoum; Diallo, Mouctar; Dramane, Zongo; Nutman, Thomas B.; Crompton, Peter D.; Doumbo, Ogobara; Traore, Boubacar
The parasitic diseases malaria and schistosomiasis are tremendous public health burdens, each affecting over 200 million people worldwide with substantial geographic overlap in sub-Saharan Africa. Understanding how schistosomiasis influences the human immune response to Plasmodium, the agent of malaria, can be important for developing effective malaria vaccines. Past studies have tried to determine if infection with Schistosoma haematobium, which causes urinary schistosomiasis, affects the number of febrile attacks from malaria caused by Plasmodium falciparum in communities where the diseases overlap, but the findings have been inconsistent. Here, we examined 616 healthy people from a village in Mali for symptomless infections...

3. Direct Comparison of the Efficacy and Safety of Oral Treatments with Oleylphosphocholine (OlPC) and Miltefosine in a Mouse Model of L. major Cutaneous Leishmaniasis - Fortin, Anny; Caridha, Diana P.; Leed, Susan; Ngundam, Franklyn; Sena, Jenell; Bosschaerts, Tom; Parriott, Sandi; Hickman, Mark R.; Hudson, Thomas H.; Grogl, Max
Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is a vector-borne parasitic disease transmitted to humans by sandflies and characterized by local ulcerative skin lesions. The disease is linked to poverty in the Middle-East, North and East Africa, South-Central Asia and South America, with 0.7 to 1.2 million new annual cases estimated. In most endemic regions CL treatment relies on injections with pentavalent antimonials, old generation drugs with considerable side effects and long treatment regimens. CL is therefore a highly undertreated disease in need of easy-to-administer, orally bioavailable and well-tolerated agents with broad clinical activity. To date, the only oral drug with acceptable efficacy against...

4. Does Mass Azithromycin Distribution Impact Child Growth and Nutrition in Niger? A Cluster-Randomized Trial - Amza, Abdou; Yu, Sun N.; Kadri, Boubacar; Nassirou, Baido; Stoller, Nicole E.; Zhou, Zhaoxia; West, Sheila K.; Bailey, Robin L.; Gaynor, Bruce D.; Keenan, Jeremy D.; Porco, Travis C.; Lietman, Thomas M.
Recent studies suggest that antibiotic use could have an effect on growth in humans. Azithromycin is an antibiotic used for trachoma control, and hence, may have an unintended benefit of improving child growth. Niger is a trachoma-endemic country where mass antibiotic distributions for trachoma take place and where malnutrition is widespread among children. In addition, azithromycin may have an effect on common childhood diseases associated with malnutrition, such as diarrhea, pneumonia, and malaria. In a community-randomized trachoma trial in Matameye, Niger, we assessed child growth by measuring height, weight, and mid-upper arm circumference of pre-school children who have received 3...

5. Stability of the wMel Wolbachia Infection following Invasion into Aedes aegypti Populations - Hoffmann, Ary A.; Iturbe-Ormaetxe, Inaki; Callahan, Ashley G.; Phillips, Ben L.; Billington, Katrina; Axford, Jason K.; Montgomery, Brian; Turley, Andrew P.; O'Neill, Scott L.
The wMel infection of Drosophila melanogaster was successfully transferred into Aedes aegypti mosquitoes where it has the potential to suppress dengue and other arboviruses. The infection was subsequently spread into two natural populations at Yorkeys Knob and Gordonvale near Cairns, Queensland in 2011. Here we report on the stability of the infection following introduction and we characterize factors influencing the ongoing dynamics of the infection in these two populations. While the Wolbachia infection always remained high and near fixation in both locations, there was a persistent low frequency of uninfected mosquitoes. These uninfected mosquitoes showed weak spatial structure at both...

6. Ring-Screening to Control Endemic Transmission of Taenia solium - O'Neal, Seth E.; Moyano, Luz M.; Ayvar, Viterbo; Rodriguez, Silvia; Gavidia, Cesar; Wilkins, Patricia P.; Gilman, Robert H.; Garcia, Hector H.; Gonzalez, Armando E.;
Taenia solium is a zoonotic parasite which infects humans and pigs resulting in the cysticercosis/taeniasis duo of neglected tropical diseases. It is commonly known as the pork tapeworm. Infection of the human brain with this parasite causes up to a third of epilepsy in Latin America, Asia and Africa. Infection of pigs is a food-safety issue, as consumption of contaminated pork results in intestinal tapeworm infection in humans who may then transmit the parasite to others. Pig infection also results in economic harm to small landowners who cannot sell the contaminated pork. Despite increasing worldwide attention to these diseases, sustainable...

7. Hunting, Swimming, and Worshiping: Human Cultural Practices Illuminate the Blood Meal Sources of Cave Dwelling Chagas Vectors (Triatoma dimidiata) in Guatemala and Belize - Stevens, Lori; Monroy, M. Carlota; Rodas, Antonieta Guadalupe; Dorn, Patricia L.
Caves have enduring appeal to humans, and their lure in Central America includes tourism, religious ceremonies and shelter. The major Chagas disease vector in this region, Triatoma dimidiata, inhabits caves throughout its range. We challenge the assumption that cave-dwelling vectors are not important for human transmission by determining blood meal sources of vectors collected in caves from three locations that differ in the activities of humans at the caves, and link the results to cultural practices that differ among locations. Seventy percent of cave-collected vectors were positive for human DNA, and fed on 10 additional vertebrates with relationships to humans...

8. Host Determinants of Reinfection with Schistosomes in Humans: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis - Mbanefo, Evaristus Chibunna; Huy, Nguyen Tien; Wadagni, Anita Akpeedje; Eneanya, Christine Ifeoma; Nwaorgu, Obioma; Hirayama, Kenji
One of the major challenges of schistosomiasis control is that disease prevalence reverts to baseline levels after mass drug administration due to high rate of reinfection. Host factors play a major role in determining resistance or susceptibility to reinfection with schistosomiasis and other diseases. We systematically searched and analyzed studies that identified potential host determinants of reinfection with schistosomes. Among demographic variables, age but not gender was strongly associated with reinfection with schistosomes. Pretreatment infection intensity was also identified as a major determinant of reinfection. Positive association with IgG4 levels and negative association with IgE levels reconfirmed the notion that...

9. Impact of a Community-Based Lymphedema Management Program on Episodes of Adenolymphangitis (ADLA) and Lymphedema Progression - Odisha State, India - Mues, Katherine E.; Deming, Michael; Kleinbaum, David G.; Budge, Philip J.; Klein, Mitch; Leon, Juan S.; Prakash, Aishya; Rout, Jonathan; Fox, LeAnne M.
Lymphatic filariasis (LF) is characterized by clinical manifestations of limb swelling, lymphedema, and elephantiasis. LF is the world's second-leading cause of disability, with up to 15 million people with limb lymphedema or elephantiasis. The Global Programme to Eliminate LF aims to eliminate the disease through two pillars: (1) interruption of transmission and (2) treatment of clinical disease among those already affected. The Church's Auxiliary for Social Action (CASA), an Indian NGO, began a lymphedema management program in Khurda District, Odisha State, India in 2007. We evaluated the impact of the program on two clinical LF outcomes: acute episodes of adenolymphangitis...

10. Differential Spatial Repositioning of Activated Genes in Biomphalaria glabrata Snails Infected with Schistosoma mansoni - Arican-Goktas, Halime D.; Ittiprasert, Wannaporn; Bridger, Joanna M.; Knight, Matty
Schistosomiasis is an infectious disease infecting mammals as the definitive host and fresh water snails as the intermediate host. Understanding the molecular and biochemical relationship between the causative schistosome parasite and its hosts will be key to understanding and ultimately treating and/or eradicating the disease. There is increasing evidence that pathogens that have co-evolved with their hosts can manipulate their hosts' behaviour at various levels to augment an infection. Bacteria, for example, can induce beneficial chromatin remodelling of the host genome. We have previously shown in vitro that Biomphalaria glabrata embryonic cells co-cultured with schistosome miracidia display genes changing their...

11. Predicting the Mosquito Species and Vertebrate Species Involved in the Theoretical Transmission of Rift Valley Fever Virus in the United States - Golnar, Andrew J.; Turell, Michael J.; LaBeaud, A. Desiree; Kading, Rebekah C.; Hamer, Gabriel L.
Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) is a mosquito-borne virus in the family Bunyaviridiae that has spread throughout continental Africa to Madagascar and the Arabian Peninsula. The establishment of RVFV in North America would have serious consequences for human and animal health in addition to a significant economic impact on the livestock industry. Published and unpublished data on RVFV vector competence, vertebrate host competence, and mosquito feeding patterns from the United States were combined to quantitatively implicate mosquito vectors and vertebrate hosts that may be important to RVFV transmission in the United States. A viremia-vector competence relationship based on published mosquito...

12. Sensitivity and Specificity of Multiple Kato-Katz Thick Smears and a Circulating Cathodic Antigen Test for Schistosoma mansoni Diagnosis Pre- and Post-repeated-Praziquantel Treatment - Lamberton, Poppy H. L.; Kabatereine, Narcis B.; Oguttu, David W.; Fenwick, Alan; Webster, Joanne P.
Schistosomiasis is a parasitic disease infecting over 200 million people. It remains a major public health concern despite treatment of over 120 million people in sub-Saharan Africa alone. Accurate diagnostic methods are essential for monitoring drug efficacy and long-term control program success. The World Health Organization recommends two Kato-Katz thick smears (Kato-Katzs) from a single stool for Schistosoma mansoni diagnosis to map prevalence and areas for control interventions. Although highly specific, Kato-Katzs are thought to be insensitive at low egg counts. The recently refined urine point-of-care circulating cathodic antigen test (POC-CCA) has been proposed as a diagnostic alternative for mapping...

13. A Model for a Chikungunya Outbreak in a Rural Cambodian Setting: Implications for Disease Control in Uninfected Areas - Robinson, Marguerite; Conan, Anne; Duong, Veasna; Ly, Sowath; Ngan, Chantha; Buchy, Philippe; Tarantola, Arnaud; Rodó, Xavier
Following almost 30 years of relative silence, chikungunya fever reemerged in Kenya in 2004. It subsequently spread to the islands of the Indian Ocean, reaching Southeast Asia in 2006. The virus was first detected in Cambodia in 2011 and a large outbreak occurred in the village of Trapeang Roka Kampong Speu Province in March 2012, in which 44% of the villagers had a recent infection biologically confirmed. The epidemic curve was constructed from the number of biologically-confirmed CHIKV cases per day determined from the date of fever onset, which was self-reported during a data collection campaign conducted in the village...

14. Visceral Leishmaniasis Relapse in HIV Patients—A Role for Myeloid-Derived Suppressor Cells? - Van den Bergh, Rafael; Van Ginderachter, Jo A.; Schouppe, Elio; Desimmie, Belete A.; Hailu, Asrat; De Baetselier, Patrick; van Griensven, Johan

15. Serological Diagnosis of Paracoccidioidomycosis: High Rate of Inter-laboratorial Variability among Medical Mycology Reference Centers - Vidal, Monica Scarpelli Martinelli; Del Negro, Gilda Maria Barbaro; Vicentini, Adriana Pardini; Svidzinski, Teresinha Inez Estivalet; Mendes-Giannini, Maria Jose; Almeida, Ana Marisa Fusco; Martinez, Roberto; de Camargo, Zoilo Pires; Taborda, Carlos Pelleschi; Benard, Gil
Paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM) is a neglected systemic fungal infection prevalent mostly in South America. Serological tests have long been established as rapid, simple and inexpensive tools for the diagnosis and follow-up of PCM. However, different protocols and reagents are used. We compared here the performance of six Brazilian reference centers for serological diagnosis of PCM. Each center provided 30 sera of PCM patients, with positive high, intermediate and low titers, which were defined as the “reference” titers. Each center then applied its serological routine test to the 150 sera from the other five centers blindly as regards to the “reference” titers....

16. IL-10 and NOS2 Modulate Antigen-Specific Reactivity and Nerve Infiltration by T Cells in Experimental Leprosy - Hagge, Deanna A.; Scollard, David M.; Ray, Nashone A.; Marks, Vilma T.; Deming, Angelina T.; Spencer, John S.; Adams, Linda B.
Despite effective antimicrobial therapy, 30–50% of leprosy patients develop immunological complications called leprosy reactions before, during or even years after being cured. Leprosy reactions are a major risk for neuritis that leads to peripheral nerve damage, disfigurement and disability. Unfortunately, why and how leprosy reactions occur is not well understood. Based on the latest human genetic leprosy susceptibility research and mouse infection models, we generated a double knockout mouse strain (10NOS2−/−) which has deficiencies in two key immune factors, interleukin-10 (IL-10) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (NOS2). We investigated the dynamics of the immune response to Mycobacterium leprae infection and...

17. Evaluation of a Rapid Diagnostic Test for Yaws Infection in a Community Surveillance Setting - Marks, Michael; Goncalves, Adriana; Vahi, Ventis; Sokana, Oliver; Puiahi, Elliot; Zhang, Zaixing; Dalipanda, Tenneth; Bottomley, Christian; Mabey, David; Solomon, Anthony W.
Yaws is a non-venereal treponemal infection caused by Treponema pallidum ssp. pertenue. The WHO has launched a worldwide control programme, which aims to eradicate yaws by 2020. The development of a rapid diagnostic test (RDT) for serological diagnosis in the isolated communities affected by yaws is a key requirement for the successful implementation of the WHO strategy. We conducted a study to evaluate the utility of the DPP test in screening for yaws, utilizing samples collected as part of a community prevalence survey conducted in the Solomon Islands. 415 serum samples were tested using both traditional syphilis serology (TPPA and...

18. Innovative Approaches to Clinical Data Management in Resource Limited Settings Using Open-Source Technologies - Omollo, Raymond; Ochieng, Michael; Mutinda, Brian; Omollo, Truphosa; Owiti, Rhoda; Okeyo, Seth; Wasunna, Monique; Edwards, Tansy

19. A Systematic Approach to Capacity Strengthening of Laboratory Systems for Control of Neglected Tropical Diseases in Ghana, Kenya, Malawi and Sri Lanka - Njelesani, Janet; Dacombe, Russell; Palmer, Tanith; Smith, Helen; Koudou, Benjamin; Bockarie, Moses; Bates, Imelda
Capacity strengthening activities such as technical training for staff, student research project supervision, and equipment provision are being carried out in laboratories worldwide as part of the global effort to control neglected tropical diseases (NTDs). However, these activities often focus on developing the skill sets of an individual and are not being thoroughly monitored and assessed. To address these gaps we developed a set of monitoring and assessment tools that can be used to determine the capacities required and achieved by laboratory systems to support the control of NTDs. The tools simultaneously focus on individuals (e.g., technicians, students, researchers), organisations...

20. Relationships between IgE/IgG4 Epitopes, Structure and Function in Anisakis simplex Ani s 5, a Member of the SXP/RAL-2 Protein Family - García-Mayoral, María Flor; Treviño, Miguel Angel; Pérez-Piñar, Teresa; Caballero, María Luisa; Knaute, Tobias; Umpierrez, Ana; Bruix, Marta; Rodríguez-Pérez, Rosa
Knowledge of potential pathogens in seafood is of major significance for human health. The high rates of parasitation of fish all over the world make Anisakis a serious health hazard. In fact, Anisakiasis is a growing zoonotic disease in countries where consumption of raw/marinated fish is high. Moreover, Anisakiasis could be under diagnosed in countries where the consumption of these dishes is less common, since it could be easily misdiagnosed as appendicitis, gastric ulcer or other food allergies. Allergen structural studies are essential for the development of specific diagnostic tests and novel immunotherapy strategies. In the present study, we have...

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