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PubMed Central (PMC3 - NLM DTD) (3.007.629 recursos)

Archive of life sciences journal literature at the U.S. National Institutes of Health (NIH), developed and managed by NIH's National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) in the National Library of Medicine (NLM).

PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases

Mostrando recursos 1 - 20 de 1.333

  1. Self-Care for Management of Secondary Lymphedema: A Systematic Review

    Douglass, Janet; Graves, Patricia; Gordon, Susan
    Secondary lymphedema is a major cause of disability worldwide. The most common causes are treatment for cancer or infection with lymphatic filariasis. In both cases, the lymphatic system is damaged and unable to perform its normal function of removing extracellular fluid and wastes. Protein rich fluid accumulates in the affected area, and if left untreated may progress to ‘elephantiasis’, which is characterised by a grossly enlarged limb and thickening of the skin. Lymphedema is incurable, requires lifelong care, and psychosocial support, but early intervention and good self-management practices can halt progression, preserve quality of life and maintain the ability to...

  2. First International Workshop on Zika Virus Held by Oswaldo Cruz Foundation FIOCRUZ in Northeast Brazil March 2016 – A Meeting Report

    Franca, Rafael F. O.; Neves, Maria Helena L.; Ayres, Constancia F. Junqueira; Melo-Neto, Osvaldo P.; Filho, Sinval P. Brandão

  3. Triggering Receptor Expressed on Myeloid Cells (TREM)-2 Impairs Host Defense in Experimental Melioidosis

    Weehuizen, Tassili A. F.; Hommes, Tijmen J.; Lankelma, Jacqueline M.; de Jong, Hanna K.; Roelofs, Joris. J.T.H.; de Vos, Alex F.; Colonna, Marco; van der Poll, Tom; Wiersinga, W. Joost
    Triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells (TREM)-1 and -2 are receptors on immune cells that act as mediators of the innate immune response. It is thought that TREM-1 amplifies the immune response, while TREM-2 acts as a negative regulator. Previously, we found that TREM-1 is upregulated in melioidosis patients. In contrast, nothing is known on TREM-2 expression and its role in melioidosis. In this study we examined the expression and functional role of both TREM-1 and -2 in a murine melioidosis model. We found that TREM-1 and-2 expression was upregulated during melioidosis. Using our experimental melioidosis model, we observed that...

  4. Correction: A Historical Overview of the Classification, Evolution, and Dispersion of Leishmania Parasites and Sandflies

  5. Spatial Distribution of Mycobacterium ulcerans in Buruli Ulcer Lesions: Implications for Laboratory Diagnosis

    Ruf, Marie-Thérèse; Bolz, Miriam; Vogel, Moritz; Bayi, Pierre F.; Bratschi, Martin W.; Sopho, Ghislain Emmanuel; Yeboah-Manu, Dorothy; Um Boock, Alphonse; Junghanss, Thomas; Pluschke, Gerd
    Currently, four laboratory methods are available to diagnose Buruli ulcer, a neglected tropical skin disease caused by Mycobacterium ulcerans affecting mainly children in remote rural areas of West Africa. Only one of the four methods, direct microscopic examination of wound exudate for acid fast bacilli, is suitable as point-of-care test. The others, histopathology, culture and IS2404 quantitative PCR, require sophisticated laboratory infrastructure. However, in comparison to the current gold standard, IS2404 quantitative PCR, microscopic smear examination has limited sensitivity. Our results on the distribution of M. ulcerans in Buruli ulcer lesions emphasize that the sensitivity of Buruli ulcer laboratory diagnosis...

  6. We Remember… Elders’ Memories and Perceptions of Sleeping Sickness Control Interventions in West Nile, Uganda

    Kovacic, Vanja; Tirados, Inaki; Esterhuizen, Johan; Mangwiro, Clement T. N.; Lehane, Michael J.; Torr, Stephen J.; Smith, Helen
    The traditional role of African elders and their connection with the community make them important stakeholders in community-based disease control programmes. We explored elders’ memories related to interventions against sleeping sickness to assess whether or not past interventions created any trauma which might hamper future control operations. Using a qualitative research framework, we conducted and analysed twenty-four in-depth interviews with Lugbara elders from north-western Uganda. Participants were selected from the villages inside and outside known historical sleeping sickness foci. Elders’ memories ranged from examinations of lymph nodes conducted in colonial times to more recent active screening and treatment campaigns. Some...

  7. Intracellular Spread of Rabies Virus Is Reduced in the Paralytic Form of Canine Rabies Compared to the Furious Form

    Shuangshoti, Shanop; Thorner, Paul Scott; Teerapakpinyo, Chinachote; Thepa, Nisachol; Phukpattaranont, Pornchai; Intarut, Nirun; Lumlertdacha, Boonlert; Tepsumethanon, Veera; Hemachudha, Thiravat
    Studies of the furious and paralytic forms of canine rabies at the early stage of disease have shown a more rapid viral colonization of the cerebral hemispheres in the furious form, as measured by viral antigen within neuronal cell bodies and viral RNA levels. Measurement of cellular processes separate from neuronal cell body provides a visual record of the spread of rabies virus which occurs across synapses. In this study, the amount of rabies viral antigen within cell processes was quantitatively assessed by image analysis in a cohort of naturally rabies infected non-vaccinated dogs (5 furious and 5 paralytic) that...

  8. Trypanosoma cruzi: Time for International Recognition as a Foodborne Parasite

    Robertson, Lucy J.; Devleesschauwer, Brecht; Alarcón de Noya, Belkisyolé; Noya González, Oscar; Torgerson, Paul R.

  9. Control of Urban Zika Vectors: Should We Return to the Successful PAHO/WHO Strategy?

    Reiter, Paul

  10. Increased Epithelial Expression of CTGF and S100A7 with Elevated Subepithelial Expression of IL-1β in Trachomatous Trichiasis

    Derrick, Tamsyn; Luthert, Philip J.; Jama, Hodan; Hu, Victor H.; Massae, Patrick; Essex, David; Holland, Martin J.; Burton, Matthew J.
    Progressive scarring of the conjunctiva in individuals with trachoma causes the eyelids to contract, drawing the eyelashes inwards (trichiasis) so that they scratch the cornea, causing pain and eventually blindness. Disease is initiated in childhood by repeated conjunctival infection with Chlamydia trachomatis (Ct), however, infection is not commonly found in adults, yet chronic inflammation and fibrosis progress throughout the lives of many individuals. A better understanding of the mechanisms driving inflammation and fibrosis are required in order to develop treatments to halt disease progression. The tissue expression and localization of a number of pro-inflammatory cytokines, growth and matrix factors were...

  11. Worldwide Phylogenetic Distributions and Population Dynamics of the Genus Histoplasma

    Teixeira, Marcus de M.; Patané, José S. L.; Taylor, Maria L.; Gómez, Beatriz L.; Theodoro, Raquel C.; de Hoog, Sybren; Engelthaler, David M.; Zancopé-Oliveira, Rosely M.; Felipe, Maria S. S.; Barker, Bridget M.
    Histoplasmosis is a potentially severe fungal disease of mammals caused by Histoplasma capsulatum. The highest incidence of the disease is reported on the American continent, and approximately 30% of HIV and histoplasmosis co-infections are fatal. Previous studies have suggested at least 7 phylogenetic species within H. capsulatum, however by increasing taxon sampling and using different phylogenetic and population genetic methods, we detect at least 5 additional phylogenetic species within Latin America (LAm A1, LAm A2, LAm B1, LAm B2, RJ and BAC-1). These phylogenetic species are nested in the former LAm A clade. We found evidence that bats may be...

  12. Antigenic Relationships among Human Pathogenic Orientia tsutsugamushi Isolates from Thailand

    James, Sarah L.; Blacksell, Stuart D.; Nawtaisong, Pruksa; Tanganuchitcharnchai, Ampai; Smith, Derek J.; Day, Nicholas P. J.; Paris, Daniel H.
    Scrub Typhus is a common and potentially severe febrile illness in certain tropical regions in Asia. This infection is treatable with specific antibiotics if diagnosed correctly, but there is no effective vaccine available at present. The bacterium causing this disease is called Orientia tsutsugamushi; it is transmitted by small mites and it has variable surface proteins, which make diagnosis and vaccine development difficult. In this study, we tested how well the antibodies in the blood of patients with scrub typhus recognise different strains of bacteria, and used these results to create a map of the relationships between the bacteria and...

  13. Clinical and Parasitological Features of Patients with American Cutaneous Leishmaniasis that Did Not Respond to Treatment with Meglumine Antimoniate

    Perez-Franco, Jairo E.; Cruz-Barrera, Mónica L.; Robayo, Marta L.; Lopez, Myriam C.; Daza, Carlos D.; Bedoya, Angela; Mariño, Maria L.; Saavedra, Carlos H.; Echeverry, Maria C.
    Cutaneous leishmaniasis is tropical and subtropical worldwide vector-borne disease produced by protozoan parasites from the genus Leishmania that include over 20 species and produce an estimated 0.7 million to 1.3 million new cases annually. The disease features are dependent on the patient immunological stage, the parasite biology and to some extent are determined by the geographic regions in which it occurs. New World cutaneous infections known as American Cutaneous Leishmaniasis (ACL) are associated with metastatic sequelae and treatment failure. In the present study we found that in patients with ACL infected in the Colombian Amazon and Orinoco regions and not...

  14. Correction: Spread of the Invasive Mosquitoes Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus in the Black Sea Region Increases Risk of Chikungunya, Dengue, and Zika Outbreaks in Europe

    Akiner, Muhammet M.; Demirci, Berna; Babuadze, Giorgi; Robert, Vincent; Schaffner, Francis

  15. Correction: Vestibular Evoked Myogenic Potential (VEMP) Triggered by Galvanic Vestibular Stimulation (GVS): A Promising Tool to Assess Spinal Cord Function in Schistosomal Myeloradiculopathy

    Caporali, Júlia Fonseca de Morais; Gonçalves, Denise Utsch; Labanca, Ludimila; de Oliveira, Leonardo Dornas; Trindade, Guilherme Vaz de Melo; Pereira, Thiago de Almeida; Cunha, Pedro Henrique Diniz; Mourão, Marina Santos Falci; Lambertucci, José Roberto

  16. Molecular Epidemiology and Antibiotic Susceptibility of Vibrio cholerae Associated with a Large Cholera Outbreak in Ghana in 2014

    Eibach, Daniel; Herrera-León, Silvia; Gil, Horacio; Hogan, Benedikt; Ehlkes, Lutz; Adjabeng, Michael; Kreuels, Benno; Nagel, Michael; Opare, David; Fobil, Julius N; May, Jürgen
    The bacterium Vibrio cholerae is mainly transmitted faecal-orally via human-to-human contact or via environmental water sources in which V. cholerae is able to persist. West Africa, including Ghana, is regularly affected by Cholera epidemics, in particular during rainy seasons. In 2014, Ghana experienced an exceptionally large outbreak with over 20,000 cases, which raised questions about newly emerging V. cholerae strains in this region. In this study, we described the duration, the geographical spread and demographics of the outbreak using data from the National Ghanaian Surveillance system. Further, we characterized outbreak isolates from the outbreak years 2011, 2012 and 2014 by...

  17. Projected Impact of Dengue Vaccination in Yucatán, Mexico

    Hladish, Thomas J.; Pearson, Carl A. B.; Chao, Dennis L.; Rojas, Diana Patricia; Recchia, Gabriel L.; Gómez-Dantés, Héctor; Halloran, M. Elizabeth; Pulliam, Juliet R. C.; Longini, Ira M.
    Dengue vaccines will soon provide a new tool for reducing dengue disease, but the effectiveness of widespread vaccination campaigns has not yet been determined. We developed an agent-based dengue model representing movement of and transmission dynamics among people and mosquitoes in Yucatán, Mexico, and simulated various vaccine scenarios to evaluate effectiveness under those conditions. This model includes detailed spatial representation of the Yucatán population, including the location and movement of 1.8 million people between 375,000 households and 100,000 workplaces and schools. Where possible, we designed the model to use data sources with international coverage, to simplify re-parameterization for other regions....

  18. Old World Cutaneous Leishmaniasis and Refugee Crises in the Middle East and North Africa

    Du, Rebecca; Hotez, Peter J.; Al-Salem, Waleed S.; Acosta-Serrano, Alvaro

  19. Zika in the United States of America and a Fateful 1969 Decision

    Hotez, Peter J.
    The United States Gulf Coast’s current risk to Zika transmitted by Aedes aegypti mosquitoes can be traced back to some important federal health policy decisions made during the 1960s.

  20. Quantifying the Epidemiological Impact of Vector Control on Dengue

    Reiner, Robert C.; Achee, Nicole; Barrera, Roberto; Burkot, Thomas R.; Chadee, Dave D.; Devine, Gregor J.; Endy, Timothy; Gubler, Duane; Hombach, Joachim; Kleinschmidt, Immo; Lenhart, Audrey; Lindsay, Steven W.; Longini, Ira; Mondy, Mathias; Morrison, Amy C.; Perkins, T. Alex; Vazquez-Prokopec, Gonzalo; Reiter, Paul; Ritchie, Scott A.; Smith, David L.; Strickman, Daniel; Scott, Thomas W.

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