Recursos de colección

The KnowledgeBank at OSU (75.279 recursos)

Knowledge Bank contains collections of presentations, publications and reports related to Ohio State University.

Volume 3 (2008)

Mostrando recursos 1 - 20 de 34

  1. Announcements

    Calls for Papers and Conferences

  2. Editor's note

    Thompson, Bill
    overview of issue

  3. Review of Aniruddh D. Patel, Music, Language and the Brain

    Aniruddh D. Patel, Music, Language and the Brain. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2008. ISBN 978-0-19-512375-3 (hardcover) 520 pages $62.95

  4. Commentary on "Comparison of Word Intelligibility in Spoken and Sung Phrases" by Lauren Collister and David Huron

    We note that the intelligibility of vowels is reduced at high pitches, and propose that decreased decoding of vowels may partially account for the reported findings. Analysis of performance as a function of pitch is recommended. We surmise that reverberation associated with the large microphone distance might have generated reverberation that interfered disproportionately with identification of consonants in sung stimuli, which usually have greater sound intensity than spoken stimuli. Finally, we note the potential relevance of vibrato for speech intelligibility.

  5. Review of "Perception and production of linguistic and musical rhythm by Korean and English middle school students" by Lydia N. Slobodian

    Interest in possible cultural influences on basic rhythm perception and production has been growing, and the paper by Slobodian (2008) fits squarely in this trend, studying rhythm perception and production in a large number English and Korean native speakers. The findings were interpreted in terms of cross-cultural similarity, suggesting that preferences, e.g. for binary meter, are broadly shared across cultures. As is commonly encountered in cross-cultural research, however, there were several difficulties in offering a clear interpretation of the results, such as the large extent of Western music enculturation of the Korean participants. This commentary will review Slobodian’s findings, offering...

  6. Commentary on "Effects of Early Musical Experience on Auditory Sequence Memory" by Adam Tierney, Tonya Bergeson-Dana, and David Pisoni

    Tierney, Bergeson-Dana, and Pisoni (2008) conclude that their results “provide additional converging evidence that early musical experience and activity-dependent learning may selectively affect verbal rehearsal processes and the allocation of attention in sequence memory tasks”. Closer inspection of their methods and results, the methods and results of previous studies that reported similar findings and the literature as a whole makes it clear that these conclusions are unfounded.

  7. Perception and production of linguistic and musical rhythm by Korean and English middle school students

    I examine rhythmic tendencies of Korean and Western middle school students in linguistic and abstract musical contexts using a series of speaking and clapping experiments. Results indicate a preference in both groups for beat subdivisions in small integer ratios and simple binary metric interpretations. These preferences are consistently more exaggerated in native English speaking students than in Korean students. Tempo was a significant factor in all tasks.

  8. Effects of Early Musical Experience on Auditory Sequence Memory

    The present study investigated a possible link between musical training and immediate memory span by testing experienced musicians and three groups of musically inexperienced subjects (gymnasts, Psychology 101 students, and video game players) on sequence memory and word familiarity tasks. By including skilled gymnasts who began studying their craft by age six, video game players, and Psychology 101 students as comparison groups, we attempted to control for some of the ways skilled musicians may differ from participants drawn from the general population in terms of gross motor skills and intensive experience in a highly skilled domain from an early age....

  9. Announcements

    notices, calls for papers and conference announcements

  10. Review of Fourth Meeting of Neurosciences and Music, Montreal, 2008

    review of Fourth Meeting of Neurosciences and Music, Montreal, 2008

  11. Review of "Practicing Perfection: Memory and Piano Performance"

    review of Roger Chaffin, Gabriela Imreh & Mary Crawford, Practicing Perfection: Memory and Piano Performance. New York: Laurence Erlbaum Associates, 2002. ISBN 0-80-582610-6 (hardcover) $180.00.

  12. The internal validity of web-based studies

    Honing and Ladinig (2008) make the assertion that while the internal validity of web-based studies may be reduced, this is offset by an increase in external validity possible when experimenters can sample a wider range of participants and experimental settings. In this paper, the issue of internal validity is more closely examined, and it is agued that there is no necessary reason why internal validity of a web-based study should be worse than that of a lab-based one. Errors of measurement or inconsistencies of manipulation will typically balance across conditions of the experiment, and thus need not necessarily threaten the...

  13. Commentary on "Comparative Analysis of Music Recordings from Western and Non-Western traditions by Automatic Tonal Feature Extraction" by Emilia Gómez, and Perfecto Herrera

    Lartillot, Oliver; Toiviainen, Petri; Eerola, Tuomas
    The article by Gómez and Herrera presents an original methodology, audaciously situated on a challenging junction between computer science, cognitive science and ethnomusicology. We hope expert ethnomusicologists will understand the experimental aspect of such a cross-disciplinary undertaking, and will pardon the potential imperfection in this computational attempt toward cross-cultural understanding. Despite the few shortcomings discussed in this commentary, we think the general methodology described in this paper is of high interest.

  14. Comparative Analysis of Music Recordings from Western and Non-Western traditions by Automatic Tonal Feature Extraction

    The automatic analysis of large musical corpora by means of computational models overcomes some limitations of manual analysis, and the unavailability of scores for most existing music makes necessary to work with audio recordings. Until now, research on this area has focused on music from the Western tradition. Nevertheless, we might ask if the available methods are suitable when analyzing music from other cultures. We present an empirical approach to the comparative analysis of audio recordings, focusing on tonal features and data mining techniques. Tonal features are related to the pitch class distribution, pitch range and employed scale, gamut and...

  15. Commentary on "The Happy Xylophone: Acoustics Affordances Restrict An Emotional Palate" by Michael Schutz, David Huron, Kristopher Keeton, & Greg Loewer

    In this commentary, I raise several issues of method and presentation and suggest a number of follow-up experiments associated with some of these issues. Broad suggestions are also made (or rather preached): the need to deal empirically with musical emotions subtler than the oft-investigated basic emotions, and the role that interactions between musical variables may play in shaping subtle musical expression, as exemplified by some well-known xylophone soli from the orchestral repertory.

  16. The Happy Xylophone: Acoustics Affordances Restrict An Emotional Palate

    In many ways, the structure of music resembles that of language, including the acoustic cues used to communicate emotion. In speech, sadness is imparted through a combination of low fundamental frequency, dark timbre, and a slow rate of articulation. As the acoustic properties of the xylophone are not conducive to mimicking these cues, it seems to follow that composers would avoid attempts to write “sad” music for it. We investigated this idea by comparing the repertoire of the xylophone with that of the marimba – a similar instrument whose acoustic structure permits a greater variety of timbres, pitch heights, and...

  17. Comparison of Word Intelligibility in Spoken and Sung Phrases

    Twenty listeners were exposed to spoken and sung passages in English produced by three trained vocalists. Passages included representative words extracted from a large database of vocal lyrics, including both popular and classical repertoires. Target words were set within spoken or sung carrier phrases. Sung carrier phrases were selected from classical vocal melodies. Roughly a quarter of all words sung by an unaccompanied soloist were misheard. Sung passages showed a seven-fold decrease in intelligibility compared with their spoken counterparts. The perceptual mistakes occurring with vowels replicate previous studies showing the centralization of vowels. Significant confusions are also evident for consonants,...

  18. Seeing Music? What musicians need to know about vision

    Music is inherently an auditory art form, rooted in sound, and generally analyzed in terms of its acoustic properties. However, as the process of hearing is affected by seeing, visual information does in fact play an important role in the musical experience. Vision influences many aspects of music – from evaluations of performance quality and audience interest to the perception of loudness, timbre, and note duration. Moreover, it can be used to achieve musical goals that are in fact acoustically impossible. As such, understanding the benefits of embracing (and the costs of ignoring) vision’s role is essential for all musicians....

  19. Editor's note

  20. Announcements

    Thompson, William Forde
    Calls for Papers Conferences

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