Archivo Digital UPM
This is an institutional repository providing access to the research output of the institution. Primarily contains thesis.
Materia = Energías Renovables
Mostrando recursos 1 - 20 de 392
Assessing the solar irradiation potential for solar photovoltaic applications in buildings at low latitudes ¿ Making the case for Brazil - Vega Sanchez, Sergio; Cronemberger Ribeiro Silva, Joara
In Brazil, a low-latitude country characterized by its high availability and uniformity of solar radiation, the use of PV solar energy integrated in buildings is still incipient. However, at the moment there are several initiatives which give some hints that lead to think that there will be a change shortly. In countries where this technology is already a daily reality, such as Germany, Japan or Spain, the recommendations and basic criteria to avoid losses due to orientation and tilt are widespread. Extrapolating those measures used in high latitudes to all regions, without a previous deeper analysis, is standard practice. They...
Effect of soiling in CPV systems - Vivar García, Marta; Herrero Martin, Rebeca; Anton Hernandez, Ignacio; Martinez Moreno, Francisco; Moreton Villagra, Rodrigo; Sala Pano, Gabriel; Blakers, Andrew W.; Smeltink, John
The effect of soiling in flat PV modules has been already studied, causing a reduction of the electrical output of 4% on average. For CPV's, as far as soiling produces light scattering at the optical collector surface, the scattered rays should be definitively lost because they cannot be focused onto the receivers again. While the theoretical study becomes difficult because soiling is variable at different sites, it becomes easier to begin the monitoring of the real field performance of concentrators and then raise the following question: how much does the soiling affect to PV concentrators in comparison with flat panels??...
Parque eólico off-shore en Guardamar del Segura (Alicante) - Orozco Rendueles, Leticia
El presente proyecto se redacta con el objetivo de estudiar las posibles alternativas de construcción de un parque eólico offshore frente a las costas del término municipal de
Guardamar del Segura, en la provincia de Alicante, y concluir, después de una valoración detallada y desde el punto de vista de distintos criterios, con la solución óptima. En él se realiza además una descripción de las obras e instalaciones necesarias para llevar a cabo la construcción del parque eólico offshore de Guardamar del Segura. Tienen un carácter de estudio previo y comparativo de alternativas; pues en él se evaluarán las distintas soluciones...
Dry cooling with night cool storage to enhance solar power plants performance in extreme conditions areas - Muñoz Antón, Javier; Martínez-Val Peñalosa, Jose Maria; Abbas Camara, Rubén; Abánades Velasco, Alberto
Solar thermal power plants are usually installed in locations with high yearly average solar radiation, often deserts. In such conditions, cooling water required for thermodynamic cycles is rarely available. Moreover, when solar radiation is high, ambient temperature is very high as well; this leads to excessive condensation temperature, especially when air-condensers are used, and decreases the plant efficiency. However, temperature variation in deserts is often very high, which drives to relatively low temperatures during the night. This fact can be exploited with the use of a closed cooling system, so that the coolant (water) is chilled during the night and...
Steady-state thermal analysis of an innovative receiver for linear Fresnel reflectors - Abbas Camara, Rubén; Muñoz Antón, Javier; Martínez-Val Peñalosa, Jose Maria
The study of the performance of an innovative receiver for linear Fresnel reflectors is carried out in this paper, and the results are analyzed with a physics perspective of the process. The receiver consists of a bundle of tubes parallel to the mirror arrays, resulting on a smaller cross section for the same receiver width as the number of tubes increases, due to the diminution of their diameter. This implies higher heat carrier fluid speeds, and thus, a more effective heat transfer process, although it conveys higher pumping power as well. Mass flow is optimized for different tubes diameters, different...
Testing a GIS-based methodology for optimal location of Pumped Storage power plants in Norway - Cortines García, Catalina
Europe needs to restructure its energy system. The aim to decrease the reliance on fossil fuels to a higher dependence on renewable energy has now been imposed by The European Commission. In order to achieve this goal there is a great interest in Norway to become "The Green Battery of Europe". In the pursuit of this goal a GIS-tool was created to investigate the pump storage potential in Norway. The tool searches for possible connections between existing reservoirs and dams with the criteria selected by the user.
The aim of this thesis was to test the tool and see if the...
Potential of the renewable energy development in Jammu and Kashmir, India - Nisar, Arsalan; Rodríguez Monroy, Carlos
The future economic growth for India is likely to result in rapid and accelerated surge in energy demand, with expected shortages in terms of supply. Many of its current policies and strategies are aimed at the improvement and possible maximization of energy production from the renewable sector. It is also clear that while energy conservation and energy efficiency can make an important contribution, renewable energies will be essential to the solution and are likely to play an increasingly important role for providing enhanced energy access, reducing consumption of fossil fuels, and helping India pursue its low-carbon progressive pathway. However, most...
Biomasa en Chile - Nilsson Cifuentes, Gabriel; Rodríguez Monroy, Carlos
El artículo presenta el desarrollo de la biomasa en Chile, dentro del complejo marco energético existente en el
país, el cual, aún no logra potenciar e incentivar el desarrollo de energías renovables y depende fuertemente de los combustibles fósiles, acrecentando el riesgo latente de sufrir una crisis energética, en el mediano plazo, producto
de la paulatina incorporación de nuevas centrales generadoras de energías, que satisfagan la creciente demanda
energética pronosticada. Este artículo aporta antecedentes a la situación energética existente en Chile, junto con
un análisis al mercado eléctrico y a las normativas de éste, enfocadas a las energías renovables no convencionales
(ERNC), para finalizar con...
Concentrating solar power technologies. The DESERTEC megaproject - Muñoz Antón, Javier; Rodríguez Monroy, Carlos; Abánades Velasco, Alberto
The European strategies on energy have been searching for years to reduce the dependency of Europe from fossil fuels. Underlying this effort, there exist geopolitical, economic, environmental reasons and the reality that oil reservoirs will dry out some day. Renewable energies have become a milestone of this strategy because their huge potential has emerged after years of uncertainty. One of the better developed renewable sources, which is nearer to commercial maturity is solar-thermal energy. In this paper, the current state of this technology will be described as well as the developments that may be expected in the short and mid...
Economic analysis of the renewable energy policies in the European Union - Rodríguez Rosado, Roberto; Rodríguez Monroy, Carlos; Pelaez Garcia, Miguel Angel
The European energy sector is undergoing a major transformation and is facing a series of difficult challenges. These include a high and increasing dependence on external energy resources; dramatically reduce the need for the emissions of greenhouse gases to meet environmental objectives and the difficulties related to the promotion of energy market effectively integrated and competitive. Some of the policies associated with the various objectives are sometimes in conflict with each other, while in other cases are mutually reinforcing.The aim of this paper is to do a scienti?c analysis of the developments so far and the expectations for the coming...
La producción de energías renovables en el ámbito de los puertos españoles - Almazan Garate, Jose Luis; Ibáñez Astaburuaga, Alejandro; Palomino Monzón, M. Carmen
Los puertos en general, como eslabones de la cadena del transporte, son importantes plataformas logísticas donde se dan, y cada vez se darán más en el futuro, consumos
El ámbito portuario reúne características especialmente favorables para la instalación de generadores de energías renovables, probablemente en exceso a los consumos de las
propias instalaciones portuarias y de los procesos de transformación.
El nuevo concepto de puerto verde, los arcos marítimos azules, los cambios de combustible en los propulsores de los buques y la paralización en muelles de los motores auxiliares generadores, abren un nuevo panorama energético en el sistema portuario, y de necesidades...
Circuito de disparo de lámparas flash para la iluminación de sistemas fotovoltaicos - Villamarín Sánchez, Víctor
La medición y testeo de células fotovoltaicas en el laboratorio o en la industria exige reproducir unas condiciones de iluminación semejantes a las reales. Por eso se utilizan sistemas de iluminación basados en lámparas flash de Xenon que reproducen las condiciones reales en cuanto a nivel de irradiancia y espectro de la luz incidente. El objetivo de este proyecto es realizar los circuitos electrónicos necesarios para el disparo de dichas lámparas. El circuito de alimentación y disparo de una lámpara flash consta de una fuente de alimentación variable, un circuito de disparo para la ionización del gas Xenon y la...
Selective ablation with UV lasers of a-Si:H thin film solar cells in direct scribing configuration - Lauzurica Santiago, Sara; García-Ballesteros Ramírez, Juan José; Colina Brito, Mónica; Sanchez Aniorte, Maria Isabel; Molpeceres Alvarez, Carlos Luis
Monolithical series connection of silicon thin-film solar cells modules performed by laser scribing plays a very important role in the entire production of these devices. In the current laser process interconnection the two last steps are developed for a configuration of modules where the glass is essential as transparent substrate. In addition, the change of wavelength in the employed laser sources is sometimes enforced due to the nature of the different materials of the multilayer structure which make up the device. The aim of this work is to characterize the laser patterning involved in the monolithic interconnection process in a...
A review of the potential of renewable energy sources for the State of Jammu and Kashmir (India) - Nisar, Arsalan; Rodríguez Monroy, Carlos
The future economic development trajectory for India is likely to result in rapid and accelerated growth in energy demand, with expected shortages. Many of its current policies and strategies are aimed at the improvement and possible maximization of energy production from the renewable sector. It is also clear that while energy-conservation and energy-efficiency can make an important contribution in the national energy strategy, renewable energies will be essential to the solution and are likely to play an increasingly important role for the growth of grid power, providing energy access, reducing consumption of fossil fuels, and helping India pursue its low...
Banco de ensayos para el control de calidad de paneles solares fotovoltaicos - Domingo Escudero, Andrés
El objetivo principal del presente Proyecto Fin de Carrera es el de dotar a la Escuela Universitaria de Ingenieros Técnicos de Telecomunicación – Universidad Politécnica de
Madrid (EUITT-UPM) de un banco de medida donde poder caracterizar los módulos fotovoltaicos en condiciones reales de operación. Es necesario comprobar el funcionamiento de los módulos para asegurarse de que está acorde a lo indicado en las especificaciones anunciadas por los fabricantes.
A lo largo del texto daremos una introducción al concepto de energía solar fotovoltaica y una descripción de los sistemas tanto aislados como los conectados a la red eléctrica de distribución. Hablaremos sobre el...
The new challenges of end-of-life tyres management systems: a Spanish case study - Uruburu Colsa, Angel; Ponce Cueto, Eva Maria; Cobo Benita, José Ramón; Ordieres Mere, Joaquin Bienvenido
Directive 2008/98/EC released by the European Union represents a significant step forward in all relevant aspects of waste management. Under the already established, extended produced responsibility (EPR) principle, new policies have been enunciated to continuously achieve better overall environmental performance of key products throughout their life phases. This paper discusses how the directive is being articulated in Spain by the main integrated management system (IMS) for end-of-life (EOL) tyres since its creation in 2006. Focusing on the IMS technological, economic and legal aspects, the study provides a global perspective and evaluation of how the IMS is facing the current issues...
Downscaling of global solar irradiation in R - Antoñanzas Torres, Fernando; Martínez de Pisón, F. Javier; Antoñanzas, Javier; Perpiñán Lamigueiro, Oscar
A methodology for downscaling solar irradiation from satellite-derived databases is described using R software. Different packages such as raster, parallel, solaR, gstat, sp and rasterVis are considered in this study for improving solar resource estimation in areas with complex topography, in which downscaling is a very useful tool for reducing inherent deviations in satellite-derived irradiation databases, which lack of high global spatial resolution. A topographical analysis of horizon blocking and sky-view is developed with a digital elevation model to determine what fraction of hourly solar irradiation reaches the Earth's surface. Eventually, kriging with external drift is applied for a better...
Comparative assessment of global irradiation from a satellite estimate model (CM SAF) and on-ground measurements (SIAR): a Spanish case study - Antoñanzas Torres, Fernando; Cañizares Jover, Federico; Perpiñán Lamigueiro, Oscar
An analysis and comparison of daily and yearly solar irradiation from the satellite CM SAF
database and a set of 301 stations from the Spanish SIAR network is performed using data of
2010 and 2011. This analysis is completed with the comparison of the estimations of effective
irradiation incident on three different tilted planes (fixed, two axis tracking, north-south hori-
zontal axis) using irradiation from these two data sources. Finally, a new map of yearly values
of irradiation both on the horizontal plane and on inclined planes is produced mixing both
sources with geostatistical techniques (kriging with external drift, KED)
The Mean Absolute Difference (MAD) between CM...
Use of alternative fuels obtained from renowable sources in Brayton cycles - Escudero Olano, Marcos; Jiménez Alvaro, Ángel; López Paniagua, Ignacio; Rodriguez Martin, Javier
Analysis and simulation of the behaviour of gas turbines for power generation using different nonconventional fuels obtained from different renewable sources are presented. Three biomass-tobiofuel processes are considered: anaerobic digestion of biomass (biogas), biomass gasification (synthesis gas) and alcoholic fermentation of biomass and dehydration (bioethanol), each of them with two different biomass substrates (energy crops and municipal solid waste) as input. The gas turbine behaviour in a Brayton cycle is simulated both in an isolated operation and in combined cycle. The differences in gas turbine performance when fired with the considered biofuels compared to natural gas are studied from different...