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Archivo Digital UPM (50,467 recursos)
This is an institutional repository providing access to the research output of the institution. Primarily contains thesis.

Materia = Energías Renovables

Mostrando recursos 1 - 20 de 444

1. Electrificación rural fotovoltaica "Solar Home Systems". Fiabilidad y costes de mantenimiento - Narvarte Fernández, Luis; Carrasco Moreno, Luis Miguel
La electrificación rural fotovoltaica ha experimentado últimamente un salto de escala tanto en la dimensión de sus programas como en sus sistemas de gestión. Garantizar la calidad técnica ya no se reduce solamente a la fase de dise~o e instalación, sino también a la de operación y mantenimiento. El estudio del Instituto de Energfa Solar de la Universidad Politécnica de Madrid trata de caracterizar la fase de ope ración del programa de electrificación rural fotovoltaico de Marruecos sobre el cual se ha llevado a cabo un exhaustivo estudio de fiabilidad de los distintos componentes que integran los denominados Solar Heme...

2. Operational costs of A 13,000 solar home systems rural electrification programme - Carrasco Moreno, Luis Miguel; Narvarte Fernandez, Luis; Lorenzo Pigueiras, Eduardo
This paper presents an assessment and evaluation of the costs of operation and maintenance (O&M) in a real PV rural electrification (PVRE) programme, with the aim of characterizing its costs structure. Based on the extracted data of the 5-years operational costs of a private operator, the programme has been analyzed to take out the most relevant costs involved in the O&M phase as well as the comparative appraisal between the 3 main activities: installation, O&M and management. Through this study we try to answer to the new challenge of decentralized rural electrification based on larger programmes (with tens of thousands...

3. New method for analytical photovoltaic parameter extraction - Cubas Cano, Javier; Pindado Carrion, Santiago; Farrahi, Assal
Correct modeling of the equivalent circuits regarding solar cell and panels is today an essential tool for power optimization. However, the parameter extraction of those circuits is still a quite difficult task that normally requires both experimental data and calculation procedures, generally not available to the normal user. This paper presents a new analytical method that easily calculates the equivalent circuit parameters from the data that manufacturers usually provide. The analytical approximation is based on a new methodology, since methods developed until now to obtain the aforementioned equivalent circuit parameters from manufacturer's data have always been numerical or heuristic. Results...

4. Wind tunnel analysis on the influence of cantilever parapets on the wind loads on curved roofs - Pindado Carrion, Santiago; Meseguer Ruiz, José; Franchini, Sebastián
Different methods to reduce the high suction caused by conical vortices have been reported in the literature: vertical parapets, either solids or porous, placed at the roof edges being the most analysed configuration. Another method for alleviating the high suction peaks due to conical vortices is to round the roof edges. Very recently, the use of some non-standard parapet configurations, like cantilever parapets, has been suggested. In this paper, its efficiency to reduce suction loads on curved roofs is experimentally checked by testing the pressure distribution on the curved roof of a low-rise building model in a wind tunnel. Very...

5. On the simulation of the UPMSAT-2 microsatellite power - Manuel Navío, Carlos de; Cubas Cano, Javier; Pindado Carrion, Santiago
Simulation of satellite subsystems behaviour is extramely important in the design at early stages. The subsystems are normally simulated in the both ways : isolated and as part of more complex simulation that takes into account imputs from other subsystems (concurrent design). In the present work, a simple concurrent simulation of the power subsystem of a microsatellite, UPMSat-2, is described. The aim of the work is to obtain the performance profile of the system (battery charging level, power consumption by the payloads, power supply from solar panels....). Different situations such as battery critical low or high level, effects of high current charging...

6. New method for analytical photovoltaic parameters identification: meeting manufacturer’s datasheet for different ambient conditions - Cubas Cano, Javier; Pindado Carrion, Santiago; Manuel Navío, Carlos de
At present, photovoltaic energy is one of the most important renewable energy sources. The demand for solar panels has been continuously growing, both in the industrial electric sector and in the private sector. In both cases the analysis of the solar panel efficiency is extremely important in order to maximize the energy production. In order to have a more efficient photovoltaic system, the most accurate understanding of this system is required. However, in most of the cases the only information available in this matter is reduced, the experimental testing of the photovoltaic device being out of consideration, normally for budget...

7. The cup anemometer, a fundamental meteorological instrument for the wind energy industry - Pindado Carrion, Santiago; Cubas Cano, Javier; Sorribes-Palmer, Félix
The cup anemometer has been used widely by the wind energy industry since its early beginning, covering two fundamental aspects: wind mill performance control and wind energy production forecast. Furthermore, despite modern technological advances such as LIDAR and SODAR, the cup anemometer remains clearly the most used instrument by the wind energy industry. Together with the major advantages of this instrument (precision, robustness), some issues must be taken into account by scientists and researchers when using it. Overspeeding, interaction with stream wakes due to allocation on masts and wind- mills, loss of performance due to wear and tear, change of performance due...

8. Explicit expressions for solar panel equivalent circuit parameters based on analytical formulation and the Lambert W - Function - Cubas Cano, Javier; Pindado Carrion, Santiago; Manuel Navío, Carlos de
Due to the high dependence of photovoltaic energy efficiency on environmental conditions (temperature, irradiation...), it is quite important to perform some analysis focusing on the characteristics of photovoltaic devices in order to optimize energy production, even for small-scale users. The use of equivalent circuits is the preferred option to analyze solar cells/panels performance. However, the aforementioned small-scale users rarely have the equipment or expertise to perform large testing/calculation campaigns, the only information available for them being the manufacturer datasheet. The solution to this problem is the development of new and simple methods to define equivalent circuits able to reproduce the...

9. Desarrollo de una metodología para la integración anual de centrales híbridas termosolares fósiles bajo condiciones variables de demanda eléctrica - García Martínez, Juan Carlos
Estudio de la generación de energía eléctrica y el consumo de combustible anual de una central híbrida termosolar-fósil. Dada una central de ciclo combinado, se estudiarán sus posibilidades de hibridación con un tipo de campo solar. El estudio contemplará cuatro tipos de datos: el recurso solar de la región, la curva de demanda eléctrica de la central, la topología de la planta híbrida (dependiendo de la opción de hibridación que se considere) y las condiciones de operación.

10. On the analytical approach for modeling photovoltaic systems behavior - Cubas Cano, Javier; Pindado Carrion, Santiago; Victoria Pérez, Marta
The 1-diode/2-resistors electric circuit equivalent to a photovoltaic system is analyzed. The equations at particular points of the I–V curve are studied considering the maximum number of terms. The maximum power point as a boundary condition is given special attention. A new analytical method is developed based on a reduced amount of information, consisting in the normal manufacturer data. Results indicate that this new method is faster than numerical methods and has similar (or better) accuracy than other existing methods, numerical or analytical.

11. Some developments on cup anemometer aerodynamics - Pindado Carrion, Santiago; Cubas Cano, Javier
In the present study the geometry of cups is experimentally studied through anemometer performance. This performance is analyzed in two different ways. On the one hand the anemometer transfer function between cases is compared. On the other hand the stationary rotation speed is decomposed into constant and harmonic terms, the comparison being established between the last ones. Results indicate that some cup shapes can improve the uniformity of anemometer rotation, this fact being important to reduce degradation due to ageing.

12. Fourier analysis of the aerodynamic behavior of cup anemometers - Pindado Carrion, Santiago; Pérez Sarasola, Imanol; Aguado Roca, Maite
The calibration results (the transfer function) of an anemometer equipped with several cup rotors were analyzed and correlated with the aerodynamic forces measured on the isolated cups in a wind tunnel. The correlation was based on a Fourier analysis of the normal-to-the-cup aerodynamic force. Three different cup shapes were studied: typical conical cups, elliptical cups and porous cups (conical-truncated shape). Results indicated a good correlation between the anemometer factor, K, and the ratio between the first two coefficients in the Fourier series decomposition of the normal-to-the-cup aerodynamic force

13. Extracting energy from Vortex-Induced Vibrations: A parametric study - Barrero-Gil, Antonio; Pindado Carrion, Santiago; Avila Sanchez, Sergio
Here, Vortex-Induced Vibrations (VIVs) of a circular cylinder are analyzed as a potential source for energy harvesting. To this end, VIV is described by a one-degree-of-freedom model where fluid forces are introduced from experimental data from forced vibration tests. The influence of some influencing parameters, like the mass ratio m∗ or the mechanical damping ζ in the energy conversion factor is investigated. The analysis reveals that: (i) the maximum efficiency ηM is principally influenced by the mass-damping parameter m∗ζ and there is an optimum value of m∗ζ where ηM presents a maximum; (ii) the range of reduced velocities with significant...

14. Analysis of calibration results from cup and propeller anemometers. Influence on wind turbine Annual Energy Production (AEP) calculations - Pindado Carrion, Santiago; Vega, Enrique; Martínez, Alejandro; Meseguer, Encarnación; Franchini, Sebastián; Pérez Sarasola, Imanol
The calibration coefficients of several models of cup and propeller anemometers were analysed. The analysis was based on a series of laboratory calibrations between January 2003 and August 2007. Mean and standard deviation values of calibration coefficients from the anemometers studied were included. Two calibration procedures were used and compared. In the first, recommended by the Measuring network of Wind Energy Institutes (MEASNET), 13 measurement points were taken over a wind speed range of 4 to 16  m  s−1. In the second procedure, 9 measurement points were taken over a wider speed range of 4 to 23  m  s−1. Results indicated no significant differences...

15. Estudio técnico-económico del criterio distancia foco emisor y estructura almacén de CO2. Aplicación a un caso de estudio en la Cuenca del Duero. - Hernández Díaz, Álvaro
El presente proyecto tiene como objeto la evaluación del parámetro distancia entre focos de emisión de CO2 y estructuras geológicas apropiadas para su almacenamiento, según los datos publicados por el Registro Estatal de Emisiones y Fuentes Contaminantes (PRTR España) y por el proyecto ALGECO2. El parámetro distancia analizado es referido a proyectos de Captura, Transporte y Almacenamiento de CO2 (proyectos CAC) a gran escala. Para ello se ha realizado un estudio en la zona de la Cuenca del Duero aplicando criterios de selección tanto técnicos como socio-económicos, según las recomendaciones de organizaciones como la Agencia Internacional de la Energía o el...

16. Automatic detection of PV systems failures from monitoring validated on 10,000 BIPV systems in Europe - Leloux, Jonathan; Desportes, A.; Collares-Pereira, Manuel; García, M.; Tyutyuyndzhiev, Nikolay; Wilkin, Benjamin
The installers and owners show a growing interest in the follow-up of the performance of their photovoltaic (PV) systems. The owners are requesting reliable sources of information to ensure that their system is functioning properly, and the installers are actively looking for efficient ways of providing them the most useful possible information from the data available. Policy makers are becoming increasingly interested in the knowledge of the real performance of PV systems and the most frequent sources of problems that they suffer to be able to target the identified challenges properly. The scientific and industrial PV community is also requiring...

17. Aerodynamic Analysis of Cup Anemometers Performance: The Stationary Harmonic Response - Pindado Carrion, Santiago; Cubas Cano, Javier; Sanz Andres, Angel Pedro
The effect of cup anemometer shape parameters, such as the cups’ shape, their size, and their center rotation radius, was experimentally analyzed.This analysis was based on both the calibration constants of the transfer function and the most important harmonic termof the rotor’smovement,which due to the cup anemometer design is the third one.This harmonic analysis represents a new approach to study cup anemometer performances. The results clearly showed a good correlation between the average rotational speed of the anemometer’s rotor and the mentioned third harmonic term of its movement.

18. Análisis de la demanda energética y proyecto de climatización de una instalación geotérmica en una vivienda unifamiliar. - Heredia González, Ángel
En el presente proyecto se estudiará el análisis de la demanda energética de una vivienda unifamiliar y se realizará el proyecto de climatización de dicha vivienda mediante el empleo de energía geotérmica. Para ello, se calculará el conjunto de cargas térmicas de la vivienda y sus correspondientes potencias y energías tanto de calefacción como de refrigeración, para una vez calculadas poder dimensionar y seleccionar los distintos componentes de la instalación. Así mismo, para el dimensionamiento de la instalación, se realizarán los correspondientes cálculos de pérdidas de cargas que permitirán seleccionar las tuberías y bombas de circulación más adecuadas. Finalmente se evaluará...

19. Mathematical Analysis of the Effect of Rotor Geometry on Cup Anemometer Response - Sanz Andres, Angel Pedro; Pindado Carrion, Santiago; Sorribes Palmer, Felix
The calibration coefficients of two commercial anemometers equipped with different rotors were studied. The rotor cups had the same conical shape, while the size and distance to the rotation axis varied.The analysis was based on the 2-cup positions analytical model, derived using perturbation methods to include second-order effects such as pressure distribution along the rotating cups and friction.Thecomparison with the experimental data indicates a nonuniformdistribution of aerodynamic forces on the rotating cups, with higher forces closer to the rotating axis. The 2-cup analytical model is proven to be accurate enough to study the effect of complex forces on cup anemometer...

20. Explicit Expressions for Solar Panel Equivalent Circuit Parameters Based on Analytical Formulation and the Lambert W-Function - Cubas Cano, Javier; Pindado Carrion, Santiago; Manuel Navío, Carlos de
Due to the high dependence of photovoltaic energy efficiency on environmental conditions (temperature, irradiation...), it is quite important to perform some analysis focusing on the characteristics of photovoltaic devices in order to optimize energy production, even for small-scale users. The use of equivalent circuits is the preferred option to analyze solar cells/panels performance. However, the aforementioned small-scale users rarely have the equipment or expertise to perform large testing/calculation campaigns, the only information available for them being the manufacturer datasheet. The solution to this problem is the development of new and simple methods to define equivalent circuits able to reproduce the...

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