Recursos de colección

Archivo Digital UPM (115.752 recursos)

This is an institutional repository providing access to the research output of the institution. Primarily contains thesis.

Materia = Medio Ambiente

Mostrando recursos 1 - 20 de 27

  1. Emission inventories and modeling activities for the development of air quality plans in Madrid (Spain)

    Borge García, Rafael; Lumbreras Martin, Julio; Pérez Rodríguez, Javier; Paz Martín, David de la; Vedrenne Gutierrez, Michel; Rodríguez Hurtado, María Encarnación
    1. Introduction 2. Air Quality Modeling system 3. Emission Inventories 4. Applications and Results 5. Conclusions

  2. Simplifying data acquisition in plant canopies- Measurements of leaf angles with a cell phone

    Dorado Martin, Gabriel Antonio; Escribano Rocafort, Adrián; Ventre Lespiaucq, Agustina; Granado Yela, Carlos; López Pintor, Antonio; Delgado, Juan; Muñoz, Vicente; Balaguer, Luis
    1. Canopies are complex multilayered structures comprising individual plant crowns exposing a multifaceted surface area to sunlight. Foliage arrangement and properties are the main mediators of canopy functions. The leaves act as light traps whose exposure to sunlight varies with time of the day, date and latitude in a trade-off between photosynthetic light harvesting and excessive or photoinhibitory light avoidance. To date, ecological research based upon leaf sampling has been limited by the available echnology, with which data acquisition becomes labour intensive and time-consuming, given the verwhelming number of leaves involved. 2. In the present study, our goal involved developing...

  3. Emission inventories and modeling requirements for the development of air quality plans. Application to Madrid (Spain)

    Borge García, Rafael; Lumbreras Martin, Julio; Pérez Rodríguez, Javier; Paz Martín, David de la; Vedrenne, Michel; Andrés Almeida, Juan Manuel de; Rodríguez Hurtado, María Encarnación
    Modeling is an essential tool for the development of atmospheric emission abatement measures and air quality plans. Most often these plans are related to urban environments with high emission density and population exposure. However, air quality modeling in urban areas is a rather challenging task. As environmental standards become more stringent (e.g. European Directive 2008/50/EC), more reliable and sophisticated modeling tools are needed to simulate measures and plans that may effectively tackle air quality exceedances, common in large urban areas across Europe, particularly for NO2. This also implies that emission inventories must satisfy a number of conditions such as consistency...

  4. Behaviour of some primary catalysts in air-steam gasification of sewage sludge

    Andrés Almeida, Juan Manuel de; Narros Sierra, Adolfo; Rodríguez Hurtado, María Encarnación

  5. Sewage sludge gasification. Dolomite performance under different operating conditions

    Andrés Almeida, Juan Manuel de; Roche, Elena; Narros Sierra, Adolfo; Rodríguez Hurtado, María Encarnación
    Gasification is a technology that can replace traditional management alternatives used up to date to deal with this waste (landfilling, composting and incineration) and which fulfils the social, environmental and legislative requirements. The main products of sewage sludge gasification are permanent gases (useful to generate energy or to be used as raw material in chemical synthesis processes), liquids (tars) and char. One of the main problems to be solved in gasification is tar production. Tars are organic impurities which can condense at relatively high temperatures making impossible to use the produced gases for most applications. This work deals with the...

  6. Energía renovable a partir de los lodos de depuradoras urbanas

    Roche, Elena; Andrés Almeida, Juan Manuel de; Narros Sierra, Adolfo; Rodríguez Hurtado, María Encarnación
    El lodo de depuradora es el residuo líquido o semilíquido procedente de las Estaciones Depuradoras de Aguas Residuales (EDARs) del que puede obtenerse una energía renovable empleando la tecnología de la gasificación. Esta tecnología consiste en la oxidación parcial del sustrato carbonoso del lodo a altas temperaturas bajo condiciones subestequiométricas de aire, oxígeno u otros agentes gasificantes. Los productos obtenidos mediante gasificación son: un gas de síntesis (SYNGAS, con composición variable de H2, CO) un residuo carbonizado (char) y una fracción líquida de compuestos orgánicos de distinto peso molecular denominados alquitranes. El gas de síntesis tiene aplicaciones como son la...

  7. Ampliación de las posibilidades de uso de los indicadores de Responsabilidad Social Corporativa

    Luna González, Juan Pedro; Rodríguez Hurtado, María Encarnación
    La percepción sobre la responsabilidad de una empresa hacia su entorno ha ido variando a lo largo del tiempo, pasando de un concepto neoclásico, netamente mercantilista, hasta llegar a la actual concepción, que viene reflejándose en la llamada Responsabilidad Social Empresarial (RSE), donde los intereses económicos se combinan con otros aspectos de índole medioambiental y/o socio-económicos, como parte de la contribución empresarial al desarrollo sostenible. Actualmente, distintas organizaciones internacionales de reconocido prestigio (GRI, OCDE, UE, etc.) proporcionan a las empresas instrumentos que les permitan evaluar y mostrar su grado de compromiso con el desarrollo sostenible.Para salvar la complejidad que puede...

  8. Atmospheric modelling of tritium forms transport: review of capabilities and R&D needs for the assessment of fusion facilities environmental impact

    Castro, Paloma; Velarde Mayol, Marta; Ardao, Jose; Perlado Martín, José Manuel; Sedano, Luis
    One of the key scrutiny issues of new coming energy era would be the environmental impact of fusion facilities managing one kg of tritium. The potential change of committed dose regulatory limits together with the implementation of nuclear design principles (As Low as Reasonably achievable - ALARA -, Defense in Depth -D-i-D-) for fusion facilities could strongly impact on the cost of deployment of coming fusion technology. Accurate modeling of environmental tritium transport forms (HT, HTO) for the assessment of fusion facility dosimetric impact in Accidental case appears as of major interest. This paper considers different short-term releases of tritium...

  9. Comparasion of road traffic emission models in Madrid (Spain)

    Borge García, Rafael; Miguel, Isabel de; Paz Martín, David de la; Lumbreras Martin, Julio; Pérez Rodríguez, Javier; Rodríguez Hurtado, María Encarnación
    Many cities in Europe have difficulties to meet the air quality standards set by the European legislation, most particularly the annual mean Limit Value for NO2. Road transport is often the main source of air pollution in urban areas and therefore, there is an increasing need to estimate current and future traffic emissions as accurately as possible. As a consequence, a number of specific emission models and emission factors databases have been developed recently. They present important methodological differences and may result in largely diverging emission figures and thus may lead to alternative policy recommendations. This study compares two approaches...

  10. Implementation of a module for risk of ozone impacts assessment to vegetation in the integrated assessment modelling system for the Iberian peninsula. Evaluation for wheat and holm oak

    Andrés Almeida, Juan Manuel de; Borge García, Rafael; Paz Martín, David de la; Lumbreras Martin, Julio; Rodríguez Hurtado, María Encarnación
    A module to estimate risks of ozone damage to vegetation has been implemented in the Integrated Assessment Modelling system for the Iberian Peninsula. It was applied to compute three different indexes for wheat and Holm oak; daylight AOT40 (cumulative ozone concentration over 40 ppb), cumulative ozone exposure index according to the Directive 2008/50/EC (AOT40-D) and PODY (Phytotoxic Ozone Dose over a given threshold of Y nmol m−2 s−1). The use of these indexes led to remarkable differences in spatial patterns of relative ozone risks on vegetation. Ozone critical levels were exceeded in most of the modelling domain and soil moisture...

  11. Tritium clouds environmental impact in air into the Western Mediterranean Basin evaluation

    Castro, Paloma; Velarde Mayol, Marta; Ardao, Jose; Perlado Martín, José Manuel; Sedano, L.
    The paper considers short-term releases of tritium (mainly but not only tritium hydride (HT)) to the atmosphere from a potential ITER-like fusion reactor located in the Mediterranean Basin and explores if the short range legal exposure limits are exceeded (both locally and downwind). For this, a coupled Lagrangian ECMWF/FLEXPART model has been used to follow real time releases of tritium. This tool was analyzed for nominal tritium operational conditions under selected incidental conditions to determine resultant local and Western Mediterranean effects, together with hourly observations of wind, to provide a short-range approximation of tritium cloud behavior. Since our results cannot...

  12. Saneamiento Rural en Sepahua, Ucayali (Selva Sur de Perú). Proyecto de 104 Núcleos Húmedos de Higiene en cuatro Barrios Ribereños de Villa Sepahua

    Muñoz Bartolomé, Gonzalo
    El presente Trabajo Fin de Master (TFM) está inserto dentro del Programa Sepahua-Agua que Energía Sin Fronteras (ESF) desarrolla a petición de la Municipalidad peruana de Sepahua, Ucayali. El TFM es el proyecto de instalación domiciliaria y saneamiento de la primera fase de dicho programa. El Programa Sepahua-Agua surge por la preocupación de los habitantes rurales y de la municipalidad de Sepahua por la calidad del agua que tienen, tanto por el acceso al agua potable como del tratamiento de sus residuos, y que es la causante de los problemas de desnutrición infantil que la población está padeciendo. Ante la falta...

  13. Modelling Saharan dust transport into the Mediterranean basin with CMAQ

    Vedrenne, Michel; Borge García, Rafael; Lumbreras Martin, Julio; Andrés Almeida, Juan Manuel de; Rodríguez Hurtado, María Encarnación; Paz Martín, David de la; Pérez Rodríguez, Javier; Karanasiou, Angeliki; Moreno, Teresa; Boldo, E.; Linares, C.
    The need for a better quantification of the influence of Saharan dust transport processes on the air quality modelling in the Mediterranean basin led to the formulation of a dust emission module (DEM) integrated into the Air Quality Risk Assessment System for the Iberian Peninsula (SERCA). This paper is focused on the formulation of DEM based on the GOCART aerosol model, along with its integration and execution into the air quality model. It also addresses the testing of the module and its evaluation by contrasting results against satellite products such as MODIS and CALIPSO and ground-level observations of aerosol optical...

  14. Comparison and Assessment of Two Emission inventories for the Madrid Region

    Vedrenne, Michel; Borge García, Rafael; Paz Martín, David de la; Lumbreras Martin, Julio; Rodríguez Hurtado, María Encarnación
    Emission inventories are databases that aim to describe the polluting activities that occur across a certain geographic domain. According to the spatial scale, the availability of information will vary as well as the applied assumptions, which will strongly influence its quality, accuracy and representativeness. This study compared and contrasted two emission inventories describing the Greater Madrid Region (GMR) under an air quality simulation approach. The chosen inventories were the National Emissions Inventory (NEI) and the Regional Emissions Inventory of the Greater Madrid Region (REI). Both of them were used to feed air quality simulations with the CMAQ modelling system, and...

  15. Estudio de las emisiones de CO2 en una instalación de turbina de gas con diferentes combustibles

    Nieto Carlier, Rafael; López Paniagua, Ignacio; Jiménez Alvaro, Ángel; Rodríguez Martín, Javier; González Fernández, M. Celina
    El uso de las turbinas de gas en ciclo combinado es una de las alternativas más aceptadas en los últimos tiempos. Existen muchas razones por las que se está investigando sobre la posibilidad de usar otro tipo de combustibles como alternativa al característico, gas natural (metano). Entre otras, se pueden citar: la evolución del precio y la disponibilidad en una zona de algún tipo de gas de síntesis [17] así como estrategias medioambientales y de emisiones [10], [18], [20]. En la bibliografía se encuentran estudios, en los que de forma rigurosa se establece la relación entre la eficiencia de una...

  16. Métodos para la estimación de la temperatura estática de la formación en yacimientos de petróleo y geotérmicos

    Rodríguez Martín, Javier; López Paniagua, Ignacio; Jiménez Alvaro, Ángel; Nieto Carlier, Rafael; González Fernández, M. Celina
    Las empresas explotadoras de yacimientos de petróleo y geotérmicos diseñan y construyen sus instalaciones optimizándolas según dos características especialmente representativas: su temperatura y su presión. Por ello, tener información precisa sobre ambos aspectos lo antes posible puede permitir ahorros importantes en las inversiones en infraestructuras y también acortar los plazos de comienzo de explotación; ambos, aspectos esenciales en la rentabilidad del yacimiento. La temperatura estática de una formación es la temperatura existente antes del inicio de las tareas de perforación del yacimiento. Las operaciones de perforación tienen como objetivo perforar, evaluar y terminar un pozo para que produzca de una...

  17. Sostenibilidad energética a largo plazo. El papel de la fusión nuclear

    Jiménez Varas, Gonzalo; Perlado Martín, José Manuel
    En este artículo se realiza una disertación sobre la sostenibilidad energética y la contribución de las diferentes energías a ella, analizando con especial énfasis el papel que desempeña la fusión nuclear en el desarrollo sostenible

  18. Impacts on Emissions and Air Quality of alternative fuel mixes in Spain

    Lumbreras Martin, Julio; Rodríguez Hurtado, María Encarnación; Pérez Rodríguez, Javier; Borge García, Rafael
    Presentación de los principales resultados del análisis en emisiones y calidad del aire de distintas matrices energéticas en España

  19. Study of Boundary Conditions influence on CMAQ simulations over the Iberian Peninsula

    Lopez Cadierno, Javier; Borge García, Rafael; Lumbreras Martin, Julio; Rodríguez Hurtado, María Encarnación; Narros Sierra, Adolfo
    Air pollution continues to be a major concern in many regions of the world, including Europe, and effective abatement measures are required to meet air quality standards in future years. The Integrated Air Quality Modelling System for the Iberian Peninsula (SIMCA) is a project that it is being implemented in Spain to support the design and evaluation of air quality strategies and abatement plans. The system relies on the WRF+SMOKE+CMAQ models. An important step in the development and implementation of SIMCA consists of understanding the uncertainties involved in modelling process. In this paper, a sensitivity analysis of the CMAQ model...

  20. Environmental impact assessment of tritium release over the Western

    Castro, Paloma; Velarde Mayol, Marta; Ardao, Jose; Perlado Martín, José Manuel; Sedano, Luis
    The environmental impact of systems managing large (kg) tritium amount represents a public scrutiny issue for the next coming fusion facilities as DEMO. Furthermore, potentially new dose limits imposed by international regulations (ICRP) shall impact next coming devices designs and the overall costs of fusion technology deployment. Refined environmental tritium dose impact assessment schemes are then overwhelming. Detailed assessments can be procured from the knowledge of the real boundary conditions of the primary tritium discharge phase into atmosphere and into soils. Lagrangian dispersion models using real-time meteorological and topographic data provide strong refinement. Advance simulation tools are being developed in...

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