Recursos de colección

Archivo Digital UPM (120.672 recursos)

This is an institutional repository providing access to the research output of the institution. Primarily contains thesis.

Materia = Física

Mostrando recursos 1 - 20 de 35

  1. Outline of Europe-Japan collaborative research on concentrator photovoltaics

    Luque López, Antonio; Yamaguchi, Masafumi
    The Europe-Japan Collaborative Research Project on Concentrator Photovoltaics (CPV) has been initiated under support by the EC (European Commission) and NEDO (New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization) since June 2011. This is project (NGCPV Project; a New Generation of Concentrator PhotoVoltaic cells, modules and systems) is aiming to accelerate the move to very high efficiency and lower cost CPV technologies and to enhance widespread deployment of CPV systems. 7 organizations such as UPM, FhG-ISE Imperial College, BSQ, CEA-INES, ENEA, and PSE in Europe and 9 organizations such as TTI, Univ. Tokyo, AIST, Sharp Co. Daido Steel Co., Kobe Univ.,...

  2. Plasma–wall interaction in laser inertial fusion reactors: novel proposals for radiation tests of first wall materials

    Alvarez Ruiz, Jesus; Rivera de Mena, Antonio; Mima, Kunioki; Garoz Gómez, David; Gonzalez Arrabal, Raquel; Gordillo Garcia, Nuria; Fuchs, J.; Tanaka, K.; Fernández, I.; Briones Fernández-Pola, Fernando; Perlado Martín, José Manuel
    Dry-wall laser inertial fusion (LIF) chambers will have to withstand strong bursts of fast charged particles which will deposit tens of kJ m−2 and implant more than 1018 particles m−2 in a few microseconds at a repetition rate of some Hz. Large chamber dimensions and resistant plasma-facing materials must be combined to guarantee the chamber performance as long as possible under the expected threats: heating, fatigue, cracking, formation of defects, retention of light species, swelling and erosion. Current and novel radiation resistant materials for the first wall need to be validated under realistic conditions. However, at present there is a...

  3. Análisis de la influencia de los diferentes parámetros de diseño en la aparición de fatiga superficial en contactos mecánicos

    Guerra Ochoa, Eduardo de la
    La fatiga superficial es uno de los principales problemas en las transmisiones mecánicas y es uno de los focos de atención de las investigaciones de los últimos anos en Tribología. La disminución de viscosidad de los lubricantes para la mejora de la eficiencia, el aumento de las potencias a transmitir, el aumento de la vida de los componentes o la mejora de su fiabilidad han supuesto que los fenómenos de fatiga superficial hayan cobrado especial relevancia, especialmente los fenómenos de pitting y micropitting en cajas multiplicadoras/reductoras de grandes potencias de aplicación, por ejemplo, en el sector eólico. Como todo fenómeno...

  4. Métodos para la estimación de la temperatura estática de la formación en yacimientos de petróleo y geotérmicos

    Rodríguez Martín, Javier; López Paniagua, Ignacio; Jiménez Alvaro, Ángel; Nieto Carlier, Rafael; González Fernández, M. Celina
    Las empresas explotadoras de yacimientos de petróleo y geotérmicos diseñan y construyen sus instalaciones optimizándolas según dos características especialmente representativas: su temperatura y su presión. Por ello, tener información precisa sobre ambos aspectos lo antes posible puede permitir ahorros importantes en las inversiones en infraestructuras y también acortar los plazos de comienzo de explotación; ambos, aspectos esenciales en la rentabilidad del yacimiento. La temperatura estática de una formación es la temperatura existente antes del inicio de las tareas de perforación del yacimiento. Las operaciones de perforación tienen como objetivo perforar, evaluar y terminar un pozo para que produzca de una...

  5. An Experimental and Numerical Study of Ballistic Impacts on a Turbine Casing Material at Varying Temperatures

    Erice Echávarri, Borja; Galvez Diaz-Rubio, Francisco; Cendón Franco, David Ángel; Sanchez Galvez, Vicente; Borvik, Tore
    An experimental and numerical study of ballistic impacts on steel plates at various temperatures (700ºC, 400ºC and room temperature) has been carried out. The motivation for this work is the blade‐off event that may occur inside a jet engine turbine. However, as a first attempt to understand this complex loading process, a somewhat simpler approach is carried out in the present work. The material used in this study is the FV535 martensitic stainless steel, which is one of the most commonly used materials for turbine casings. Based on material test data, a Modified Johnson‐Cook (MJC) model was calibrated for numerical...

  6. Silica final lenses under HiPER laser fusion reactor operation conditions

    Garoz Gómez, David; Rivera de Mena, Antonio; Juarez Mañas, Rafael; Alvarez Ruiz, Jesus; Gonzalez Arrabal, Raquel; Perlado Martín, José Manuel
    We have studied the thermo-mechanical response and atomistic degradation of final lenses in HiPER project. Final silica lenses are squares of 75 × 75 cm2 with a thickness of 5 cm. There are two scenarios where lenses are located at 8 m from the centre: •HiPER 4a, bunches of 100 shots (maximum 5 DT shots <48 MJ at ≈0.1 Hz). No blanket in chamber geometry. •HiPER 4b, continuous mode with shots ≈50 MJ at 10 Hz to generate 0.5 GW. Liquid metal blanket in chamber design.

  7. New simulations to qualify eutectic lithium-lead as breeder material

    Fraile García, Alberto; Cuesta Lopez, Santiago; Caro, Alfredo; Iglesias, R.; Perlado Martín, José Manuel
    Pb17Li is today a reference breeder material in diverse fusion R&D programs worldwide. One of the main issues is the problem of liquid metals breeder blanket behavior. The knowledge of eutectic properties like optimal composition, physical and thermodynamic behavior or diffusion coefficients of Tritium are extremely necessary for current designs. In particular, the knowledge of the function linking the tritium concentration dissolved in liquid materials with the tritium partial pressure at a liquid/gas interface in equilibrium, CT =f(PT ), is of basic importance because it directly impacts all functional properties of a blanket determining: tritium inventory, tritium permeation rate and...

  8. An overview on armor research for the laser fusion project HiPER

    Alvarez Ruiz, Jesus; Garoz Gómez, David; Rivera de Mena, Antonio; Hontoria, R.S.; Gordillo Garcia, Nuria; Gonzalez Arrabal, Raquel; Perlado Martín, José Manuel
    During the current preparatory phase of the European laser fusion project HiPER, an intensive effort has being placed to identify an armour material able to protect the internal walls of the chamber against the high thermal loads and high fluxes of x-rays and ions produced during the fusion explosions. This poster addresses the different threats and limitations of a poly-crystalline Tungsten armour. The analysis is carried out under the conditions of an experimental chamber hypothetically constructed to demonstrate laser fusion in a repetitive mode, subjected to a few thousand 48MJ shock ignition shots during its entire lifetime. If compared to...

  9. Diffusion Issues of Heat and Light Species in Laser Fusion Devices

    Garoz Gómez, David; Hontoria, R.S.; Alvarez Ruiz, Jesus; Rivera de Mena, Antonio; Gonzalez Arrabal, Raquel; Perlado Martín, José Manuel
    There are several heat and mass diffusion problems which affect to the IFC chamber design. New simulation models and experiments are needed to take into account the extreme conditions due to ignition pulses and neutron flux

  10. Assessment of the behaviour of hidrogen isotopes and helio in the W armor for inertial confinement

    Hontoria, R.S.; Alvarez Ruiz, Jesus; Garoz Gómez, David; Rivera de Mena, Antonio; Gonzalez Arrabal, Raquel; Perlado Martín, José Manuel
    After 10s the 90-99% of particles are released from the tungsten wall, mostly, towards the chamber. No element crosses the tungsten wall to the cooler. With 1x1022p/m2of He inside the W wall, He starts occasioning damages in the material. For case HiPER4a that is not a problem

  11. Interstitial defects stability in FeCr alloys vs Cr concentration

    Rio Redondo, Emma del; Caturla Terol, Maria Jose; Caro, Alfredo; Serrano, M.; Perlado Martín, José Manuel
    Finding adequate materials to withstand the demanding conditions in the future fusion and fission reactors is a real challenge in the development of these technologies. Structural materials need to sustain high irradiation doses and temperatures that will change the microstructure over time. A better understanding of the changes produced by the irradiation will allow for a better choice of materials, ensuring a safer and reliable future power plants. High-Cr ferritic/martensitic steels head the list of structural materials due to their high resistance to swelling and corrosion. However, it is well known that these alloys present a problem of embrittlement, which...

  12. Multi-scale study of hydrogen isotopes structural properties in solid phase in the context of inertial fusion target manufacturing

    Guerrero, Carlo; Cuesta Lopez, Santiago; Perlado Martín, José Manuel
    Designing the ignition and high-gain targets for inertial confinement fusion (ICF) requires a condensed uniform layer of the hydrogen fuel on the inner surface of a spherical polymer shell. The fuel layers have to be highly uniform in thickness and roughness.

  13. Relaxationsverluste bei Vorspanndrähten

    Suárez Guerra, Fernando; Elices Calafat, Manuel; Gálvez Ruíz, Jaime; Atienza Riera, José Miguel; Cendón Franco, David Ángel
    Spannbetonbauteile sind anfällig für Relaxationsverluste, deren Berücksichtigung für die Tragwerksplanung von signifikanter Bedeutung ist. Spanndrähte werden nach der Herstellung zur Vereinfachung von Lagerung und Transport auf Coils gewickelt. Eventuelle nachteilige Auswirkungen dieser Vorgehensweise auf das Relaxationsverhalten von Spannstahldrähten werden in der Regel vernachlässigt, obwohl Hersteller sowie Bauunternehmer durch Relaxationsversuche nach langen Lagerzeiten festgestellt haben, dass der Relaxationsverlust in einigen Fällen höher ausfiel als kurz nach der Herstellung. Daher wird der Einfluss des Aufwickelns auf den Relaxationsverlust durch eine experimentelle Untersuchung überprüft und durch die Anwendung eines einfachen Analysemodells bestätigt. Die Ergebnisse zeigen, dass einige Faktoren wie die Anfangsspannung, Langzeitlagerung oder...

  14. Formación y entrenamiento de ingenieros nucleares mediante el máster de Ciencia y Tecnología nuclear de la UPM

    Ahnert Iglesias, Carolina; Mínguez Torres, Emilio; Perlado Martín, José Manuel; Gallego Díaz, Eduardo F.; Velarde Mayol, Pedro; Cabellos de Francisco, Oscar Luis; García Herranz, Nuria; Cuervo Gómez, Diana; Jiménez Varas, Gonzalo
    El Departamento de Ingeniería Nuclear imparte los Programas oficiales de Máster y Doctorado en Ciencia y Tecnología Nuclear, que cuentan desde el año 2006 con la Mención de Calidad del Ministerio de Educación y desde este curso 2010-2011con la Mención a la Excelencia. El contenido del Máster abarca desde la tecnología nuclear de los reactores de fisión hasta el estudio de los combustibles y materiales para los futuros reactores de fusión tanto inercial como magnética.

  15. Materials Research for HiPER Laser Fusion Facilities: Chamber Wall, Structural Material and Final Optics

    Alvarez Ruiz, Jesus; Rivera de Mena, Antonio; Gonzalez Arrabal, Raquel; Garoz Gómez, David; Rio Redondo, Emma del; Perlado Martín, José Manuel
    The European HiPER project aims to demonstrate commercial viability of inertial fusion energy within the following two decades. This goal requires an extensive Research &Development program on materials for different applications (e.g., first wall, structural components and final optics). In this paper we will discuss our activities in the framework of HiPER to develop materials studies for the different areas of interest. The chamber first wall will have to withstand explosions of at least 100 MJ at a repetition rate of 5-10 Hz. If direct drive targets are used, a dry wall chamber operated in vacuum is preferable. In this...

  16. Influence of coiling in stress relaxation of prestressing steel wires

    Elices Calafat, Manuel; Suárez Guerra, Fernando; Gálvez Ruíz, Jaime; Cendón Franco, David Ángel; Atienza Riera, José Miguel
    The possible deleterious effects of coiling and long-time storage of coiled wires on the stress relaxation behaviour of prestressing steel wires has been checked by means of experimental work and a simple analytical model. The results show that if the requirements of Standards are fulfilled (minimum coiling diameters) these effects can be neglected. However, some other factors like previous residual stresses, long-time storage or storage at high temperatures, can trigger or emphasise this damage to the material. In the authors’ opinion it is recommendable to control the final curvature of the wires after uncoiling prior to prestressing, as required in...

  17. Synchrotron X-ray photoabsorption spectroscopy of plasmas

    Alvarez Ruiz, Jesus; Cotelo Ferreiro, Manuel; García de la Varga, Alberto; Dortan, F. de; Velarde Mayol, Pedro; Perlado Martín, José Manuel
    Theoretical X-ray opacities are used in numerous radiative transfer simulations of plasmas at different temperatures and densities, for example astrophysics, fusion, metrology and EUV and X-rays radiation sources. However, there are only a reduced number of laboratories working on the validation of those theoretical results empirically, in particular for high temperature plasmas (mayor que 1eV). One of those limitations comes from the use of broad band EUV- X ray sources to illuminate the plasma which, among other issues, present low reproducibility and repetition rate [1]. Synchrotron radiation facilities are a more appropriate radiation source in that sense, since they provide...

  18. Lifetime of silica final lenses subject to HiPER irradiation conditions

    Rivera de Mena, Antonio; Garoz Gómez, David; Juarez Mañas, Rafael; Alvarez Ruiz, Jesus; Gonzalez Arrabal, Raquel; Perlado Martín, José Manuel
    The goal of the European laser fusion project, is to build an engineering facility for repetitive laser operation (HiPER 4a) and later a fusion reactor (HiPER 4b). A key aspect for laser fusion energy is the final optics. At the moment, it is based on silica transmission lenses located 8 m away from the chamber center. Lens lifetime depends on the irradiation conditions. We have used a 48 MJ shock ignition target for calculations. We have studied the thermo-mechanical effects of ions and X-rays on the lenses. Ions lead to lens melting and must therefore be mitigated. On the other...

  19. Potential common radiation problems for components and diagnostics in future magnetic and inertial confinement fusion devices

    Alvarez Ruiz, Jesus; Gonzalez Arrabal, Raquel; Rivera de Mena, Antonio; Rio Redondo, Emma del; Garoz Gómez, David; Hodgson, E.R.; Tabares, F.; Vila Vazquez, Rafael A.; Perlado Martín, José Manuel
    This work aims at identifying commonpotentialproblems that futurefusiondevices will encounter for both magnetic and inertialconfinement approaches in order to promote joint efforts and to avoid duplication of research. Firstly, a comparison of radiation environments found in both fusion reaction chambers will be presented. Then, wall materials, optical components, cables and electronics will be discussed, pointing to possible future areas of common research. Finally, a brief discussion of experimental techniques available to simulate the radiation effect on materials is included

  20. Object Kinetic Monte Carlo calculations of irradiated Fe-Cr dilute alloys: The effect of the interaction radius between substitutional Cr and self-interstitial Fe

    Gámez Mejías, María de Linarejos; Gamez Mejias, Berta; Caturla Terol, Maria Jose; Terentyev, D.; Perlado Martín, José Manuel
    ObjectKineticMonteCarlo models allow for the study of the evolution of the damage created by irradiation to time scales that are comparable to those achieved experimentally. Therefore, the essential ObjectKineticMonteCarlo parameters can be validated through comparison with experiments. However, this validation is not trivial since a large number of parameters is necessary, including migration energies of point defects and their clusters, binding energies of point defects in clusters, as well as the interactionradii. This is particularly cumbersome when describing an alloy, such as the Fe–Cr system, which is of interest for fusion energy applications. In this work we describe an ObjectKineticMonteCarlo...

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