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Archivo Digital UPM (74,816 recursos)
This is an institutional repository providing access to the research output of the institution. Primarily contains thesis.

Materia = Geología

Mostrando recursos 1 - 20 de 932

1. Proyecto de explotación de una cantera de caliza con criterios mineros sostenibles - Sanz Pérez, David José
Este proyecto desarrolla con criterios de sostenibilidad el plan de explotación de un yacimiento de calizas ubicado en la zona de Axpelarre (Bilbao) para la producción de áridos. Para el desarrollo del plan se ha realizado una completa caracterización del emplazamiento con análisis de las infraestructuras de transporte y comunicaciones, los espacios naturales protegidos, la red hidrográfica, los yacimientos arqueológicos, el medio biológico y los ecosistemas de la zona afectada y la climatología de la misma. Asimismo, se ha llevado a cabo el análisis del marco geológico y de la geotecnia y el cálculo de estabilidad de los taludes diseñados....

2. Arrecifes de corales de aguas frías como posibles indicadores de emisiones de hidrocarburos en el banco de Galicia y determinación de su edad mediante racemizacion de aminoácidos - Alonso Provencio, Ignacio
Este proyecto tiene como objetivo analizar la posible relación entre los corales de aguas frías encontrados en el Banco de Galicia con los procesos tectónicos y las estructuras relacionadas con la migración y la emisión de fluidos ricos en hidrocarburos (debido a su interés económico), así como la creación de un algoritmo que establezca una relación entre el grado de racemización sufrido por los aminoácidos de las muestras y la edad de estas. Para ello, se han recopilado datos y muestras en el área de estudio, gracias a los cuales se ha creado una base de datos que contiene una...

3. Horizontal to vertical spectral ratio measurements in Port-au-Prince (Haiti) area damaged by the 2010 Haiti earthquake - Benito Oterino, María Belén; Navarro, Manuel; Enomoto, T.; Belizaire, Dwinel; Navarro, D.; García-Jerez, A.; Dorfeuille, Haendel
In order to evaluate ground shaking characteristics due to surface soil layers in the urban area of Port-au-Prince, short-period ambient noise observation has been performed approximately in a 500x500m grid. The HVSR method was applied to this set of 36 ambient noise measurement points to determine a distribution map of soil predominant periods. This map reveals a general increasing trend in the period values, from the Miocene conglomerates in the northern and southern parts of the town to the central and western zones formed of Pleistocene and Holocene alluvial deposits respectively, where the shallow geological materials that cover the basement...

4. Origin of the gases released from the Acqua Passante and Ermeta wells (Mt. Amiata, central Italy) and possible environmental implications for their closure - Nisi, Bárbara; Vallesi, Orlando; Tassi, Franco; Elio Medina, Javier de; Ortega Romero, Marcelo; Caballero, Juan; Rappuoli, Daniele; Mazadiego Martínez, Luis Felipe
The Mt. Amiata volcano (Tuscany, central Italy) hosts the second largest geothermal field of Italy. Its SW and NE sectors are characterized by the presence of several CO2-rich (mayor que95% by vol.) gas discharges. An intense Hg mining activity had taken place from the 19th century up to the end of the ?70s, particularly close to Abbadia San Salvatore, during which two drillings (Acqua Passante and Ermeta) intercepted a CO2-rich gas fertile horizon. The related gases are emitted in the atmosphere since 1938 and 1959, respectively, causing severe concerns for the local air quality. In this work the results of...

5. Antarctic climate change and the environment: an update - Turner, John; Barrand, Nicholas E.; Bracegirdle, Thomas J.; Convey, Peter; Hodgson, Dominic A.; Jarvis, Martin; Jenkins, Adrian; Marshall, Gareth; Meredith, Michael P.; Roscoe, Howard; French, John; Goosse, Hugues; Guglielmin, Mauro; Gutt, Julian; Jacobs, Stan; Kennicutt II, Marlon C.; Masson-Delmotte, Valerie; Mayewski, Paul; Navarro Valero, Francisco Jose; Robinson, Sharon; Scambos, Ted; Sparrow, Mike; Summerhayes, Colin; Speer, Kevin; Klepikov, Alexander
We present an update of the "key points" from the Antarctic Climate Change and the Environment (ACCE) report that was published by the Scientific Committee on Antarctic Research (SCAR) in 2009. We summarise subsequent advances in knowledge concerning how the climates of the Antarctic and Southern Ocean have changed in the past, how they might change in the future, and examine the associated impacts on the marine and terrestrial biota. We also incorporate relevant material presented by SCAR to the Antarctic Treaty Consultative Meetings, and make use of emerging results that will form part of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate...

6. La habitación subterránea en la Península Ibérica : investigación geológica - Sáenz Sanz, Clemente
La habitación rupestre en la Península Ibérica conforma un amplio conjunto de manifestaciones cuyos orígenes son difíciles de dilucidar. Existen conjuntos primitivos, posiblemente horadados durante la Antigüedad Clásica y Tardía, y otros que probablemente se originaron y excavaron en la Alta Edad Media, en los que se mezclan grupos de origen religioso y otros de probable uso defensivo. El conjunto peninsular es sin duda el más variado de Europa Occidental, pues recibió influencias árabes y usos de la cristiandad antigua, importados de Oriente Próximo, que por tanto relacionan estas manifestaciones con otras del arco mediterráneo. La supervivencia del uso de...

7. Ground-penetrating radar surveys and ice volume estimates of Wedel Jarlsberg Land glaciers, Svalbard - Navarro Valero, Francisco Jose; Martín Español, Alba; Otero García, Jaime; Lapazaran Izargain, Javier Jesús; Vasilenko, Evgeniy; Grabiec, M.
We present volume calculations, with detailed error estimates, for eight glaciers on Wedel Jarlsberg Land, southern Spitsbergen, Svalbard, and compare them to those obtained from area-volume scaling relationships. The volume estimates are based upon a dense net of GPR-retrieved ice thickness data collected over several field campaigns spanning the period 2004-2011.

8. On the errors involved in the estimate of glacier ice volume from ice thickness data - Lapazaran Izargain, Javier Jesús; Martín Español, Alba; Otero García, Jaime; Navarro Valero, Francisco Jose
The assessment of the glacier thickness is one of the most widespread applications of radioglaciology, and is the basis for estimating the glacier volume. The accuracy of the measurement of ice thickness, the distribution of profiles over the glacier and the accuracy of the boundary delineation of the glacier are the most important factors determining the error in the evaluation of the glacier volume. The aim of this study is to get an accurate estimate of the error incurred in the estimate of glacier volume from GPR-retrieved ice-thickness data.

9. Modelling experiments of the variations of the calving front position of Hansbreen, Svalbard - Navarro Valero, Francisco Jose; Otero García, Jaime; Lapazaran Izargain, Javier Jesús; Robinson, Alexander
Hansbreen is a tidewater glacier in Svalbard, with grounded tongue, about 16 km in length and ca. 2.5 km in width at its tongue. The calving front position has shown, over the recent decades, a general retreating trend, often rather smooth but with some occasional abrupt changes. We apply a full-Stokes model of glacier dynamics, incorporating a crevasse-depth calving model, with the aim of reproducing the glacier front positions observed since 1936 and analyzing the sensitivity of the model to environmental parameters.

10. Preliminary results of the relation between ice viscosity and water content using an inverse method - Otero García, Jaime; Navarro Valero, Francisco Jose; Lapazaran Izargain, Javier Jesús
One of the outstanding problems of the modelling of temperate ice dynamics is the limited knowledge on the rheology of temperate ice and, in particular, on how the rate factor depends on the liquid water content. Though it is well known that the rate factor depends strongly on the water content, in practice the only available experimentally-based relationship is that by Duval (1977), which is only valid for water contents up to 1%. However, actual water contents found in temperate and polythermal glaciers are sometimes substantially larger.

11. Modelo de Impacto del Desarrollo Urbano enZonas de Especial Conservación para Aves de la Red Natura 2000. - Garcia Abril, Antonio Damian; Martin Fernandez, Susana; Velázquez Saornil, Javier; Torrubia Iñigo, S.
Modelo de Impacto del Desarrollo Urbano enZonas de Especial Conservación para Aves de la Red Natura 2000.

12. Finite volume modelling of an icefield with subglacial lake - Bucchignani, Edoardo; Mansutti, Daniela; Navarro Valero, Francisco Jose; Otero García, Jaime; Glowacki, Piotr
Momentum, mass and energy balance laws provide the tools for the study of the evolution of an icefield covering a subglacial lake. The ice is described as a non-Newtonian fluid with a power-law constitutive relationship with temperature- and stress-dependent viscosity (Glen?s law) [1]. The phase transition mechanisms at the air/ice and ice/water interfaces yield moving boundary formulations, and lake hydrodynamics requires equation reduction for treating the turbulence.

13. Species richness and similarity of vascular plants in the Spanish dehesas at two spatial scales - Roig Gomez, Sonia; García Del Barrio, Jose Manuel; Alonso Ponce, Rafael; Benavides, Raquel
Aims of study: The goals of this paper are to summarize and to compare plant species richness and floristic similarity at two spatial scales; mesohabitat (normal, eutrophic, and oligotrophic dehesas) and dehesa habitat; and to establish guidelines for conserving species diversity in dehesas. Area of study: We considered four dehesa sites in the western Peninsular Spain, located along a climatic and biogeographic gradient from north to south. Main results: Average alpha richness for mesohabitats was 75.6 species, and average alpha richness for dehesa sites was 146.3. Gamma richness assessed for the overall dehesa habitat was 340.0 species. The species richness...

14. Morphology and distribution of volcanic bombs in Caldera Quemada de Arriba (Lanzarote, Canary Islands): implications for volcanic hazard analysis - Galindo, I.; Romero, M.C.; Sánchez, N.; Dóniz, J.; Yepes Temiño, Jorge; Morales, J.M.; Becerril Carretero, Laura
Análisis del riesgo volcánico. We show the preliminary results of the study of 561 volcanic bombs ejected from a pyroclastic cone during the 1730-1736 Timanfaya eruption (Lanzarote, Canary Islands). This cone displays the highest concentration of big bombs (major axis higher than 1 m) of Timanfaya. More than 560 bombs have been studied to calculate their reach. The results suggest that bombs of 1t have a reach of 409 m, while bombs up to 28 t have a reach of 248 m. These data may be used to define a security area once a vent has been opened, but also to calculate other data such...

15. Plausibility of a subglacial lake under Amundsenisen Icefield (Svalbard): spatially variable water content and sensitivity to thermal effect of snow and firn layers - Bucchignani, Edoardo; Mansutti, Daniela; Navarro Valero, Francisco Jose; Otero García, Jaime; Glowacki, Piotr
Within our study of the plausibility of a subglacial lake under the Amundsenisen Icefield in Southern Spitzbergen, Svalbard achipelago (Glowacki et al., 2007), here we focus on the sensitivity of the system to the thermal effect of the firn and snow layers. Rough heat balance analysis shows that the firn layer plays an important role by driving the heat release to the atmosphere, so that its influence on the ice-water phase transition cannot be neglected (Bucchignani et al., 2012).

16. Ice volume estimates from ground-penetrating radar surveys, Wedel Jarlsberg Land glaciers, Svalbard - Navarro Valero, Francisco Jose; Martín Español, Alba; Lapazaran Izargain, Javier Jesús; Grabiec, M.; Otero García, Jaime; Vasilenko, Evgeniy; Puczko, D.
One of the aims of the SvalGlac project is to obtain an improved estimate, with reliable error estimates, of the volume of Svalbard glaciers and their potential contribution to sea level rise. As part of this work, we present volume calculations, with detailed error estimates, for eight glaciers on Wedel Jarlsberg Land, southern Spitsbergen, Svalbard. The volume estimates are based upon a dense net of GPR-retrieved ice thickness data collected over several field campaigns spanning the period 2004-2011. The total area and volume of the ensemble are 502.9±18.6 km2 and 80.72±2.85 km3, respectively. Excluding Ariebreen (a tiny glacier, menor que...

17. Ice volume estimates from ground-penetrating radar surveys, western Nordenskiöld Land glaciers, Svalbard - Martín Español, Alba; Vasilenko, Evgeniy; Navarro Valero, Francisco Jose; Otero García, Jaime; Lapazaran Izargain, Javier Jesús; Lavrentiev, Ivan; Macheret, Y.Y.; Machío, F.; Glazovsky, A.
As part of ongoing work within the SvalGlac project aimed to obtain a reliable estimate of the total ice volume of Svalbard glaciers and their potential contribution to sea level rise, in this contribution we present volume calculations, with detailed error estimates, for ten glaciers on western Nordenskiöld Land, central Spitsbergen, Svalbard. The volume estimates are based upon a dense net of GPR-retrieved ice thickness data collected over several field campaigns spanning the period 1999-2012, all of them except one within 2010-2012. The total area and volume of the ensemble are 113.38±0.09 km2 and 10.439±0.185 km3, respectively, while the individual...

18. Local effects of depth-dependent water content of ice and snow and firn layers temperature on a conjectured subglacial lake below Amundsenisen Icefield (Svalbard) - Bucchignani, Edoardo; Mansutti, Daniela; Navarro Valero, Francisco Jose; Otero García, Jaime; Glowacki, Piotr
It is known that the Amundsenisen Icefield in Southern Spitzbergen (Svalbard achipelago) is temperate with an upper layer of snow and firn. It is an accumulation area and, though ice/water mass balance is clearly subject to time evolution, observation data on the long-term elevation changes over the past 40 years (Nuth et al., 2010) allow to assume constant icefield surface. Within our study of the plausibility of a subglacial lake (Glowacki et al., 2007), here, we focus on the sensitivity of the system to the thermal effect of the firn and snow layers.

19. Technical criteria for the design of foundation slabs and perimetral wall in difficult terrain in south east Madrid, Spain - Delgado Alonso-Maritrena, Carlos; Escolano Sánchez, Félix
This paper explains a procedure for the choice of ballast modules used for the design of direct continuous foundation in karst terrain. The presence of dangerous cavities is introduced in this procedure thereby evaluating risk failure. It also provides pertinent guidelines to direct the geotechnical survey of the terrain.

20. Cálculo de la recarga natural en grandes áreas, en función de la litología y la precipitación = Calculation of natural recharge in large areas, as a function of lithology and rainfall - Sanz Pérez, Eugenio; Menéndez Pidal de Navascués, Ignacio
En una región amplia como España se demuestra —mediante inferencias estadísticas sobre una muestra completa de 875 manantiales en los que se conoce su caudal medio y la litología de su área de alimentación y que han sido agrupados en regiones de distinta pluviometría— que la recarga media anual es una fracción fija de la precipitación media para cada litología. Se han establecido así unas tasas de recarga respecto de la precipitación para seis grupos litológicos de diferente permeabilidad: arenas, gravas y formaciones aluviales en general, 8.3%; conglomerados, 5.6%; areniscas, 7.3%; calizas y dolomías, 34.3%; margas, margocalizas, limos y arcillas,...

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