Recursos de colección

Archivo Digital UPM (114.084 recursos)

This is an institutional repository providing access to the research output of the institution. Primarily contains thesis.

Materia = Energía Nuclear

Mostrando recursos 1 - 20 de 69

  1. Plasmonic nanoparticles for the protection of the final optics in inertial confinement fusion facilities: capabilities and limitations

    Peña Rodríguez, Ovidio Y.
    Final lenses in laser fusion plants. Challenges for the protection of the final lenses. Plasmonic nanoparticles. Radiation resistance

  2. Nanostructured tungsten as a first wall material for the future nuclear fusion reactors

    Gordillo Garcia, Nuria; Gonzalez Arrabal, Raquel; Rivera de Mena, Antonio; Fernández, I.; Briones Fernández-Pola, Fernando; Rio, David del; Gómez, C.; Pastor, Jose Ygnacio; Tejado Garrido, Elena Maria; Panizo-Laiz, M.; Perlado Martín, José Manuel
    The lack of materials able to withstand the severe radiation conditions (high thermal loads and atomistic damage) expected in fusion reactors is the actual bottle neck for fusion to become a reality. The main requisite for plasma facing materials (PFM) is to have excellent structural stability since severe cracking or mass loss would hamper their protection role which turns out to be unacceptable. Additional practical requirements for plasma facing materials are among others: (i) high thermal shock resistance, (ii) high thermal conductivity (iii) high melting point (iv) low physical and chemical sputtering, and (v) low tritium retention.

  3. Nanostructured tungsten as a first wall material for the future nuclear fusion reactors

    Gordillo Garcia, Nuria; Gonzalez Arrabal, Raquel; Rivera de Mena, Antonio; Fernández, I.; Briones Fernández-Pola, Fernando; Rio, David del; Gómez, C.; Pastor, Jose Ygnacio; Tejado Garrido, Elena Maria; Panizo Laíz, Miguel; Perlado Martín, José Manuel
    The lack of materials able to withstand the severe radiation conditions (high thermal loads and atomistic damage) expected in fusion reactors is the actual bottle neck for fusion to become a reality. The main requisite for plasma facing materials (PFM) is to have excellent structural stability since severe cracking or mass loss would hamper their protection role which turns out to be unacceptable. Additional practical requirements for plasma facing materials are among others: (i) high thermal shock resistance, (ii) high thermal conductivity (iii) high melting point (iv) low physical and chemical sputtering, and (v) low tritium retention.

  4. Nanocrystals in the manufacture of target for inertial confinement fusion

    Guerrero, Carlo; Perlado Martín, José Manuel; Cuesta Lopez, Santiago
    Systems inertial confinement fusion (ICF) need of a manufacturing process targets very accurate and efficient (Fig. A). Due to the frequency needed for energy production techniques are necessary to achieve high repetition rates, however it is also necessary to increase or maintain the quality and efficiency of these targets. In order to observe more resolution possible problems in the target manufacture (B), we propose the following theoretical methodology, by means of which analyze different phenomena present in the conditions which are fabrication and handled deuterium tritium target spheres (DT ice). Recent experiments show that addition of instabilities caused by the...

  5. Conceptual design of liquid lithium laboratory in the TECHNOFUSION project

    González del Moral, Octavio; García, A.; Casal, N.; Abánades Velasco, Alberto; Ibarra, A., A.; Perlado Martín, José Manuel
    The Technofusion project involves the construction of a relevant set of scientific technical facilities in Madrid, providing new tools to fusion energy community.

  6. Quantum molecular dynamics and ab initio studies of the crystal structure of hydrogen and deuterium

    Guerrero, Carlo; Perlado Martín, José Manuel; Cuesta Lopez, Santiago
    Hydrogen isotopes play a critical role both in inertial and magnetic confinemen Nuclear Fusion. Since the preferent fuel needed for this technology is a mixture of deuterium and tritium. The study of these isotopes particularly at very low temperatures carries a technological interest in other applications. The present line promotes a deep study on the structural configuration that hydrogen and deuterium adopt at cryogenic temperatures and at high pressures. Typical conditions occurring in present Inertial Fusion target designs. Our approach is aims to determine the crystal structure characteristics, phase transitions and other parameters strongly correlated to variations of temperature and pressure.

  7. Ionoluminescence on α-quartz: mechanisms and modeling

    Peña Rodríguez, Ovidio Y.; Jimenez Rey, D.; Olivares, J.; Rivera de Mena, Antonio; Agullo Lopez, Fernando
    Ionoluminescence of α - quartz exhibits two dominant emission bands peaking at 1.9 eV. (NBOHCs) and 2.7 eV (STEs. The evolution of the red emission yield does not show a correlation with the concentrations of neither the NBOHC nor with that of other color centers. The blue emission yield closely follows the amorphization kinetics independently measured by RBS/C spectrometry. A simple theoretical model has been proposed; it assumes that the formation and recombination of STEs are the primary event and both, the light emissions and the lattice structural damage are a consequence this phenomenon. The model leads to several simple mathematical equations that...

  8. Ionoluminescence induced by swift heavy ions in silica and quartz: a comparative analysis

    Jimenez Rey, D.; Peña Rodríguez, Ovidio Y.; Manzano Santamaría, Javier; Olivares, J.; Muñoz Martín, Ángel; Rivera de Mena, Antonio; Agullo Lopez, Fernando
    Ionoluminescence (IL) of the two SiO2 phases, amorphous silica and crystalline quartz, has been comparatively investigated in this work, in order to learn about the structural defects generated by means of ion irradiation and the role of crystalline order on the damage processes. Irradiations have been performed with Cl at 10 MeV and Br at 15 MeV, corresponding to the electronic stopping regime (i.e., where the electronic stopping power Se is dominant) and well above the amorphization threshold. The light-emission kinetics for the two main emission bands, located at 1.9 eV (652 nm) and 2.7 eV (459 nm), has been...

  9. Ionoluminescence as sensor of structural disorder in crystalline SiO2: determination of amorphization threshold by swift heavy ions

    Peña Rodríguez, Ovidio Y.; Jimenez Rey, D.; Manzano Santamaría, Javier; Olivares, J.; Muñoz, A.; Rivera de Mena, Antonio; Agullo Lopez, Fernando
    Ionoluminescence (IL) has been used in this work as a sensitive tool to probe the microscopic electronic processes and structural changes produced on quartz by the irradiation with swift heavy ions. The IL yields have been measured as a function of irradiation fluence and electronic stopping power. The results are consistent with the assignment of the 2.7 eV (460 nm) band to the recombination of self-trapped excitons at the damaged regions in the irradiated material. Moreover, it was possible to determine the threshold for amorphization by a single ion impact, as 1:7 keV/nm, which agrees well with the results of...

  10. Refractive index changes in amorphous SiO2 (silica) by swift ion irradiation

    Peña Rodríguez, Ovidio Y.; Manzano Santamaría, Javier; Olivares, J.; Rivera de Mena, Antonio; Agullo Lopez, Fernando
    The refractive index changes induced by swift ion-beam irradiation in silica have been measured either by spectroscopic ellipsometry or through the effective indices of the optical modes propagating through the irradiated structure. The optical response has been analyzed by considering an effective homogeneous medium to simulate the nanostructured irradiated system consisting of cylindrical tracks, associated to the ion impacts, embedded into a virgin material. The role of both, irradiation fluence and stopping power, has been investigated. Above a certain electronic stopping power threshold (∼2.5 keV/nm), every ion impact creates an axial region around the trajectory with a fixed refractive index...

  11. Kinetics of amorphization induced by swift heavy ions in α-quartz

    Peña Rodríguez, Ovidio Y.; Manzano Santamaría, Javier; Rivera de Mena, Antonio; García, Gastón; Olivares Villegas, José; Agullo Lopez, Fernando
    The kinetics of amorphization in crystalline SiO2 (α-quartz) under irradiation with swift heavy ions (O+1 at 4 MeV, O+4 at 13 MeV, F+2 at 5 MeV, F+4 at 15 MeV, Cl+3 at 10 MeV, Cl+4 at 20 MeV, Br+5 at 15 and 25 MeV and Br+8 at 40 MeV) has been analyzed in this work with an Avrami-type law and also with a recently developed cumulative approach (track-overlap model). This latter model assumes a track morphology consisting of an amorphous core (area σ) and a surrounding defective halo (area h), both being axially symmetric. The parameters of the two approaches...

  12. Tritium clouds environmental impact in air into the Western Mediterranean Basin evaluation

    Castro, Paloma; Velarde Mayol, Marta; Ardao, Jose; Perlado Martín, José Manuel; Sedano, L.
    The paper considers short-term releases of tritium (mainly but not only tritium hydride (HT)) to the atmosphere from a potential ITER-like fusion reactor located in the Mediterranean Basin and explores if the short range legal exposure limits are exceeded (both locally and downwind). For this, a coupled Lagrangian ECMWF/FLEXPART model has been used to follow real time releases of tritium. This tool was analyzed for nominal tritium operational conditions under selected incidental conditions to determine resultant local and Western Mediterranean effects, together with hourly observations of wind, to provide a short-range approximation of tritium cloud behavior. Since our results cannot...

  13. Neutron performance analysis for ESS target proposal

    Magán, Miguel; Terrón, Santiago; Thomsen, Knud; Sordo Balbín, Fernando; Perlado Martín, José Manuel; Bermejo, F. J.
    In the course of discussing different target types for their suitability in the European Spallation Source (ESS) one main focus was on neutronics' performance. Diverse concepts have been assessed baselining some preliminary engineering and geometrical details and including some optimization. With the restrictions and resulting uncertainty imposed by the lack of detailed designs optimizations at the time of compiling this paper, the conclusion drawn is basically that there is a little difference in the neutronic yield of the investigated targets. Other criteria like safety, environmental compatibility, reliability and cost will thus dominate the choice of an ESS target.

  14. The use of the ESS Bilbao installations for laser fusion studies

    Rodríguez Páramo, Ángel; Sordo, Fernando; Rivera de Mena, Antonio; Perlado Martín, José Manuel
    In this work the use of ESS-Bilbao fast neutron lines for irradiation of materials for nuclear fusion is studied. For the comparison of ESS-Bilbao with an inertial fusion facility a simplified model of HiPER chamber has been used. Several positions for irradiation at ESS-Bilbao have been also compared. The material chosen for the damage analysis is silica due to its importance on IFC optics. In this work a detailed comparison between the two facilities for silica irradiation is given. The comparison covers the neutron fluxes, doses, defect production and PKA spectra. This study is also intended as a methodological approach...

  15. Plasma facing materials for fusion reactor applications

    Gonzalez Arrabal, Raquel; Gordillo Garcia, Nuria; Rivera de Mena, Antonio; Alvarez Ruiz, Jesus; Garoz, D.; Perlado Martín, José Manuel
    The lack of plasma facing materials (PFM) able to withstand the severe magnetiicffusiion radiation conditions expected in fusion reactors is the actual bottle In both fusions approaches energy is released in the form of kinetic energy of neck for fusion to becomes a reality.

  16. Laser Driven Neutron Sources: Characteristics, Applications and Prospects

    Alvarez Ruiz, Jesus; Fernández-Tobias, J.; Mima, K.; Nakai, S.; Kar, S.; Kato, Y.; Perlado Martín, José Manuel
    The basics of laser driven neutron sources, properties and possible applications are discussed. We describe the laser driven nuclear processes which trigger neutron generation, namely, nuclear reactions induced by laser driven ion beam (ion n), thermonuclear fusion by implosion and photo-induced nuclear (gamma n) reactions. Based on their main properties, i.e. point source (<100 μm) and short durations (< ns), different applications are described, such as radiography, time-resolved spectroscopy and pump-probe experiments. Prospects on the development of laser technology suggest that, as higher intensities and higher repetition rate lasers become available (for example, using DPSSL technology), laser driven methodologies may...

  17. Tailoring the Optical Properties of Silica Irradiated with Swift Heavy Ions

    Rivera de Mena, Antonio; Prada, A.; Peña Rodríguez, Ovidio Y.; Manzano-Santamaría, J.; Crespillo Almenara, Miguel; Olivares, J.; Agullo Lopez, Fernando
    Irradiation with swift heavy ions (SHI), roughly defined as those having atomic masses larger than 15 and energies exceeding 1 MeV/amu, may lead to significant modification of the irradiated material in a nanometric region around the (straight) ion trajectory (i.e., latent tracks). In the case of amorphous silica it has been reported that SHI irradiation originates nano-tracks of either higher density than the virgin material (for low electronic stopping powers, Se < 7 keV/nm) [1] or having a low-density core and a dense shell (Se > 12 keV/nm) [2]. The intermediate region has not been studied in detail but we...

  18. Simulación mediante dinámica molecular de la irradiación de sílice con iones rápidos pesados

    Rivera de Mena, Antonio; Peña Rodríguez, Ovidio Y.; Prada, A.; Olivares, J.; Agullo Lopez, Fernando; Caturla Terol, Maria Jose
    Simulación mediante dinámica molecular de la irradiación de sílice con iones rápidos pesados

  19. Crack mechanical failure in ceramic materials under ion irradiation: case of lithium niobate crystal

    Garoz, D.; Rivera de Mena, Antonio; Olivares, J.; Agullo Lopez, Fernando; Crespillo Almenara, Miguel; Perlado Martín, José Manuel
    Swift heavy ion irradiation (ions with mass heavier than 15 and energy exceeding MeV/amu) transfer their energy mainly to the electronic system with small momentum transfer per collision. Therefore, they produce linear regions (columnar nano-tracks) around the straight ion trajectory, with marked modifications with respect to the virgin material, e.g., phase transition, amorphization, compaction, changes in physical or chemical properties. In the case of crystalline materials the most distinctive feature of swift heavy ion irradiation is the production of amorphous tracks embedded in the crystal. Lithium niobate is a relevant optical material that presents birefringence due to its anysotropic trigonal...

  20. Silica final lens performance in laser fusion facilities: HiPER and LIFE

    Garoz, D.; Rivera de Mena, Antonio; Juarez Mañas, Rafael; Alvarez Ruiz, Jesus; Gonzalez Arrabal, Raquel; Sanz, J.; Perlado Martín, José Manuel
    Silica final lens performance in laser fusion facilities: HiPER and LIFE

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