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The KnowledgeBank at OSU (76.052 recursos)

Knowledge Bank contains collections of presentations, publications and reports related to Ohio State University.

Education and Human Ecology

Mostrando recursos 1 - 20 de 130

  1. Increased Retirement Savings Through the Proteus Effect

    Bennett, Vance
    Researchers are trying to discover what obstacles people encounter when saving for retirement. There is a conflict between the wants of today and the concerns of tomorrow when it comes to retirement savings. Some people are not very closely connected to their future self and therefore are less concerned with their wellbeing. The perspective of the present self is that the future self is a distinct person. This research seeks to make the two one by using the Proteus Effect and question framing that leads to the desired saving action. The Proteus Effect is the tendency of individuals to closely...

  2. What Keeps Columbus Cooking? A Survey of Cooking Behavior

    George, Courtney
    In the last thirty years, the U.S. has seen a rapid decline in home scratch cooking alongside a rise in chronic non-communicable diseases such as heart disease, diabetes, and cancer; yet little research has been done to assess cooking behavior and its possible effects on chronic disease. The purpose of this research is to ascertain the factors contributing to cooking behaviors among adults in Ohio State University campus area of Columbus, Ohio. This study included 150 participants, recruited at three different sites: a natural foods grocery store, a fast food business, and a food pantry. After providing consent, each participant...

  3. Saliva from healthy men and women after exposure to three amorphous black raspberry confections: an analysis of salivary kinetics and polyphenol profile in oral cancer prevention

    Marks, Samantha
    According to the American Cancer Society, an estimated 49,670 Americans will be diagnosed with oral cancer in the year 2016. Oropharyngeal cancer remains to be in the top ten most common cancer types and currently is the eighth most prevalent cancer in the United States. Oral cancer is regarded as a “lifestyle disease”—one that many dental professionals believe can be both caused and prevented by modifiable behaviors such as diet and oral hygiene practices. Previous studies have identified tobacco and alcohol use as risk factors for oral pharyngeal cancers; yet diets rich in fruits and vegetables have shown to reduce...

  4. A Literature Review of the Association Between the Mediterranean Diet and Cancer: The Tale of Two Regions

    McKinnon, Kelly
    According to the World Health Organization (WHO), cancer is the second leading cause of death worldwide after cardiovascular disease. Among women and men, breast and prostate cancers are respectively the most commonly diagnosed and the leading causes of death (WHO, 2017). Much research has been conducted in an attempt to determine the risk factors affecting the initiation, promotion, and proliferation of tumor cells. Obesity has been identified as one such modifiable risk factor. Evidence from studies investigating the relationship between body-mass index (BMI) and the risk for developing 22 different types of cancer shows that a higher BMI is associated...

  5. Effects of sucrose and omega-3 dietary modification on lipid peroxidation in the liver of mouse models of breast cancer and chemotherapy

    Au, Xin Ni
    Doxorubicin, a widely used chemotherapeutic agent, generates free radicals which may increase lipid peroxidation and oxidative stress. Research suggests that sucrose increases oxidative stress; conversely eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) limit oxidative stress and lipid peroxidation in the brain of mice treated with doxorubicin. It is unknown how the combination of sucrose and omega-3 fatty acids impacts lipid peroxidation in metabolically important tissues such as the liver in the presence of chemotherapy or mammary tumors. Livers from mouse models of breast cancer (Tumor model: n=32; 8/diet) and chemotherapy (Chemo model: n=40;10/diet) were analyzed for 4-hydroxynonenal (4-HNE), a lipid...

  6. Family Expressiveness and Children's Emotion Understanding

    Wang, Meng
    This study is to investigate the relation between family emotion expressiveness and child emotion understanding. Research has indicated that children with better emotion understanding show greater social competence, enhanced peer relations, and fewer problem behaviors (Cassidy, Parke, Butkovsky & Braungart, 1992; Castro, Halberstadt, Lozada & Craig, 2015). However, much of the previous research has relied on self-report, such as the Family Expressiveness Questionnaire (FEQ; Halberstadt, 1986), to assess family expressiveness, and most of this line of research has focused on mothers’ emotion expressiveness. The goal of this study is to further the understanding of the impact of family expressiveness (both...

  7. Examining Maternal Responses to Children's Expression of Negative Emotion: Self-reported vs. Observed Responses, and the Impact of Maternal Depressive Symptoms

    Haller, Kelly
    The relation between a mother’s self-reported and exhibited response to a child’s expression of a negative emotion was examined in the context of a pre-visit questionnaire completed by the mother and observation of a clean-up task performed during a mother/child lab visit. The study also examined connections between maternal depressive symptoms (assessed via the Beck Depression Inventory; Beck, Steer, & Brown, 1996), self-reported responses, and observed responses. Eighty-five mother-child pairs were included in the study. Results indicated that mothers may think they are responding in one manner, but they are observed behaving in a somewhat different manner, at least in...

  8. Traumatic Brain Injury Induces Central Insulin Resistance

    Sarac, Benjamin
    TBIs produce a wide-range of neurological issues including, but not limited to, subdural hematoma, cognitive deficits, and in extreme cases, death. Although many mechanisms and consequences of TBI are well studied, there remains a gap in the understanding of the mechanisms by which repeated TBIs result in worse deficits than single injuries. Our lab has previously shown that repeated injuries occurring close in time impair the brain's metabolic recovery. In order to better understand the molecular mechanisms underlying the metabolic crisis associated with repeated TBI, we focused on central insulin signaling in mice injured once or twice, 24 hours apart....

  9. Psychological and Relationship Predictors of Supportive and Undermining Coparenting

    Gerace, Miranda
    Whereas supportive coparenting behavior (warm, cooperative) is linked to better child social-emotional development, undermining coparenting behavior (hostile, competitive) is associated with problems in child social-emotional development such as aggression and inattention. However, few studies have examined prenatal precursors of coparenting behavior in the child's first year. This study examined associations between parental psychological and relationship characteristics during the third trimester of pregnancy and observed coparenting behavior at 3 and 9 months postpartum. Data were obtained from 182 expectant couples. Parental psychological and relationship characteristics were measured via questionnaires in the third trimester. The characteristics assessed included perspective-taking, empathy, and personal...

  10. Examining the Dietary Status and its Implications on Perceived Health Status and Food Security of Food Pantry Clients

    Nagarajan, Meera
    The United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) defines food security as having "access by all people at all times to enough food for an active, healthy life." In 2012, it was estimated that 17.3% of people in Franklin County, Ohio were food insecure. People who are food insecure may experience diet-related health issues, including Type 2 diabetes and high blood pressure. Many also rely on food pantries to meet monthly food needs. While some research has indicated a connection between food insecurity and poor health, more information based on direct communication with food pantry clients can reveal more about dietary...

  11. Influence of Dietary Macronutrient Composition in the Estimation of RMR Using Indirect Calorimetry

    Minagawa, Sakiko
    Background: Endurance running leads to high exercise energy expenditure, and dietary energy intake should be adjusted to fuel this high-energy sport. Energy requirement can be predicted by Resting Metabolic Rate (RMR) and exercise energy expenditure. RMR is the estimated number of calories burned in 24 hours to maintain basic body function and balance, and can be measured using an indirect calorimeter. Prediction of energy needs is important to properly advise athletes for their athletic performance and health. Objective: The purpose of this study is to investigate the inconclusive literature on the influence of dietary macronutrient composition (fat and carbohydrate) in...

  12. The relationship between Self-efficacy and Diabetes management in African Americans with Type 2 diabetes - A pilot study

    Amponsah, Grace
    Abstract. Purpose. The purpose of this study was to examine the association between self-efficacy and diabetes management as indicated by HbA1c, weight, BMI and total cholesterol among African Americans with type 2 diabetes (T2DM) as well as the differences in self-efficacy between genders. Method A convenient sample of 45 participants from a patient centered diabetes education program filled out a self-reported self-efficacy survey (DES) by Michigan Diabetes Research and Training Center, at the time of their metabolic testing. They were tested for their weight, Body Mass Index (BMI), fingerstick glucose and HbA1c. Pearson correlations were calculated to determine the associations between our...

  13. Effects of aerobic interval exercise training on mouse slow and fast twitch skeletal muscles

    Minagawa, Minori
    Aerobic exercise training (AET) is a well-established approach to improve aerobic capacity, cardiovascular function and metabolic efficiency. However, the benefits of exercise have been shown to differ based on the unique modalities of the exercise regimen. We sought to specifically investigate the effects of aerobic interval exercise training on skeletal muscle. For this purpose, 2.5 months old FVB/n male mice (n=6) were subjected to an aerobic interval exercise-training program on a six-lane mouse treadmill for 6 weeks at a maximum speed of 16mts/min/10° incline for 60mins, 5 days/week. Age matched sedentary controls (n=6) were familiarized to the treadmill twice/week at...

  14. Determining the effectiveness of a family nutrition education teacher training curriculum in building knowledge and self-efficacy of program staff

    Nurko, Ilana
    Simple Suppers (SS) is a multi-component, 10-lesson nutrition education and food preparation program tailored to low-income families. SS is designed specifically to improve family mealtime routines as a way to increase child diet quality. Program components include: nutrition education; food preparation; and group meal. SS previously underwent multiple iterations of pilot testing for feasibility and will be tested for efficacy in an upcoming randomized controlled trial (RCT) in a faith-based community center. A SS teacher-training curriculum (SS-TTC) was developed in tandem with the main SS curriculum and is aimed at building program-related knowledge and self-efficacy (SE) of SS staff. The...

  15. Use of Graphic Organizer (GO) and Comparison of Morpheme Recitation Timings by a University Student with Characteristics of Dyslexia

    Dillow, Jessica
    According to recent studies by the International Dyslexia Association (IDA), as many as one in five individuals has dyslexia (2012). Characteristics of dyslexia include difficulty with word decoding, spelling, fluency in word recognition, and a deficit in rapid automatic naming (RAN). Fluency building activities are recommended for most struggling readers; 60-second timings are often used as a typical measure to gauge success. Due to the lack of research pertaining to different instructional approaches and timing methods for individuals with dyslexia, The study poses the following research questions (1) if use of a graphic organizer (GO) improves content knowledge among young...

  16. Methods and Fidelity of Smarter Lunchrooms Program to Decrease Plate Waste in Children’s School Lunch Meal

    Rose, Paula
    Obesity is the most common chronic disease among children. National School Lunch Program (NSLP) plate waste may contribute to caloric overconsumption as students compensate for wasted calories by selecting energy-dense, nutrient-deficient alternatives. The purpose of this study was to develop and implement Smarter Lunchrooms (SL) programming in Ohio to promote healthier food selection and lessen plate waste among children participating in the NSLP. SL was a pre-post intervention trial targeting school-aged children at a convenience sample of 12 schools (mostly grades K-5). Rooted in behavioral economics theory, SL employs multi-component interventions individualized to each school. Trained researchers conducted pre- and...

  17. Stronger than Ever: A Narrative and Photographic Project of Young Adult Cancer Survivors in the Columbus, Ohio Community

    Liou, Heidi
    Stronger Than Ever is a narrative and photographic research project combining stories, inspirational quotes, and photographic portraits of young adult cancer survivors in The Ohio State University community. Young adults, a largely underrepresented group in the battle with cancer, account for 72,000 new cancer diagnoses each year (Stupid Cancer, 2013). My research plan was to interview a sample of Ohio State students and young adults in the Columbus area, concerning their experience in being diagnosed, treated, and surviving various forms of cancer. The goal was to raise awareness within my own generation that cancer can strike at any age and...

  18. Examining the Efficacy of a Topical Nutrition Therapy for Endothelial Cell Tumors

    Schrader, Evan
    Endothelial cell (EC) tumors are the most common soft-tissue tumors in infants and children. Their spontaneity in regional development and capacity can have detrimental effects on their hosts. Hemangioma tumor occurrence is markedly higher in Caucasian children, as nearly 10% of Caucasian children will incur EC tumors compared to other ethnicities. Although these EC tumors are classified as benign, the body’s natural immune response will reach an intermediate grade malignancy, due to their potential to develop Kassabach-Merritt phenomenon. Without resolution, the tumor leads to anemia, heart failure, and excessive bleeding. Tumors with Kassabach-Merritt phenomenon have a mortality rate of 30%....

  19. Maternal Emotion Coaching and Depressive Symptoms and Children's Problem Behaviors

    Harriger, Danielle
    The emotion socialization strategies that mothers use with their children impact children’s adjustment outcomes, such as internalizing and externalizing behavior problems. Maternal emotion socialization strategies may be particularly important for children of depressed mothers, as depressed mothers often show deficits in parenting and their children tend to have elevated behavior problems. The present study examined how maternal emotion coaching and depressive symptoms were associated with children’s internalizing and externalizing behavior problems, and whether mothers’ emotion coaching served as a protective factor for children of depressed mothers. During a laboratory visit, mothers (N = 77) engaged their three-year-old child in conversation...

  20. Oncolytic Viroradiotherapy for Neuroblastoma

    Kunkler, Anne
    Neuroblastoma is the most common extra-cranial solid tumor in childhood and the leading cause of childhood cancer mortality. MIBG (meta-iodobenzylguanidine), an analogue of noradrenaline, is a form of targeted radiation therapy for high-risk neuroblastoma when bound to 131Iodine. MIBG enters cells through the norepinephrine transporter (NET), a protein expressed on the surface of neuroendocrine cells, including most neuroblastoma cells. 131I-MIBG then radiates the cells it enters and induces cytotoxicity in surrounding cells. However, 131I-MIBG is not always effective, likely in part due to low NET expression in high-risk neuroblastomas. Oncolytic virotherapy is a promising therapeutic approach currently in clinical trials....

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