Qiu, S; Lai, J; Guo, M; Wang, K; Lai, X; Desai, U; Juma, N; Li, M
The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of three chemically diverse polymers, namely hydroxypropylmethylcellulose acetate succinate (HPMCAS), polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) and polyethylene glycol (PEG) on the phase transformation of three carbamazepine (CBZ) cocrystals including carbamazepine–nicotinamide (CBZ–NIC), carbamazepine–saccharin (CBZ–SAC) and carbamazepine–cinnamic acid (CBZ–CIN) in solution and tablet-based formulations. Based on the solubility and powder dissolution studies, it is demonstrated that cocrystals can be easily formulated through a simple solution formulation or powder formulation to generate supersaturated concentrations and faster dissolution rates to overcome those drugs with solubility and/or dissolution limited bioavailability. However, a polymer-based CBZ cocrystal tablet formulation has...
Brockhaus, M; Korhonen-Kurki, K; Sehring, J; Di Gregorio, M; Assembe-Mvondo, S; Babon, A; Bekele, M; Gebara, MF; Khatri, DB; Kambire, H; Kengoum, F; Kweka, D; Menton, M; Moeliono, M; Paudel, NS; Pham, TT; Resosudarmo, IAP; Sitoe, A; Wunder, S; Zida, M
Reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation (REDD+) has emerged as a promising climate change mitigation mechanism in developing countries. This paper examines the national political context in 13 REDD+ countries in order to identify the enabling conditions for achieving progress with the implementation of countries’ REDD+ policies and measures. The analysis builds on a qualitative comparative analysis (QCA) of various countries’ progress with REDD+, conducted in 12 REDD+ countries in 2012, which highlighted the importance of factors such as already initiated policy change, and the presence of coalitions calling for broader policy change A follow-up survey in 2014 was...
McEachan, R; Taylor, N; Harrison, R; Lawton, R; Gardner, P; Conner, M
Background: Reasoned action approach (RAA) includes subcomponents of attitude (experiential/instrumental), perceived norm (injunctive/descriptive), and perceived behavioral control (capacity/autonomy) to predict intention and behavior. Purpose: To provide a meta-analysis of the RAA for health behaviors focusing on comparing the pairs of RAA subcomponents and differences between health protection and health-risk behaviors. Methods: The present research reports a meta-analysis of correlational tests of RAA subcomponents, examination of moderators, and combined effects of subcomponents on intention and behavior. Regressions were used to predict intention and behavior based on data from studies measuring all variables. Results: Capacity and experiential attitude had large, and other...
Cameron, TC; O'Sullivan, D; Reynolds, A; Hicks, JP; Piertney, SB; Benton, TG
The interaction between environmental variation and population dynamics is of major importance, particularly for managed and economically important species, and especially given contemporary changes in climate variability. Recent analyses of exploited animal populations contested whether exploitation or environmental variation has the greatest influence on the stability of population dynamics, with consequences for variation in yield and extinction risk. Theoretical studies however have shown that harvesting can increase or decrease population variability depending on environmental variation, and requested controlled empirical studies to test predictions. Here, we use an invertebrate model species in experimental microcosms to explore the interaction between selective harvesting...
Barbarulo, A; Iansante, V; Chaidos, A; Naresh, K; Rahemtulla, A; Franzoso, G; Karadimitris, A; Haskard, DO; Papa, S; Bubici, C
Regulation of cell survival is a key part of the pathogenesis of multiple myeloma (MM). Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) signaling has been implicated in MM pathogenesis, but its function is unclear. To elucidate the role of JNK in MM, we evaluated the specific functions of the two major JNK proteins, JNK1 and JNK2. We show here that JNK2 is constitutively activated in a panel of MM cell lines and primary tumors. Using loss-of-function studies, we demonstrate that JNK2 is required for the survival of myeloma cells and constitutively suppresses JNK1-mediated apoptosis by affecting expression of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP)14, a key...
Bourke, L.; Sohanpal, R.; Nanton, V.; Crank, H.; Rosario, D.J.; Saxton, J.M.
Background: The severe iatrogenic hypogonadal state induced by medical castration used for treatment of
prostate cancer is associated with adverse effects including fatigue, increased fracture risk, and a decrease in skeletal
muscle function, which negatively impact quality of life. We have previously reported beneficial changes in healthy
lifestyle behaviors, physical function and fatigue as a result of a novel combined exercise and dietary advice
intervention (a lifestyle intervention) in men with prostate cancer on androgen suppression therapy (AST). The aim
of this research was to conduct a qualitative evaluation of the lifestyle intervention in these men with advanced
prostate cancer receiving androgen suppression therapy (AST).
Greasley, R.; Khabazhaitajer, M.; Rosario, D.J.
Recent advances in understanding the mechanisms underlying the development and progression of castration resistant prostate cancer from androgen-sensitive prostate cancer have provided new avenues exploring efficacious therapies in a disease which is the second leading cause of cancer deaths among men in the western world. In the evolution of second generation anti-androgens, enzalutamide, a novel androgen-receptor signaling inhibitor, has emerged targeting multiple steps within the androgenic stimulation pathway. This review discusses what is currently known of the mechanisms surrounding castration resistant prostate cancer development and the current human clinical trials to determine whether enzalutamide presents a new hope for men...
Watson, A.J.M.; Bruhn, H.; MacLeod, K.; McDonald, A.; McPherson, G.; Kilonzo, M.; Norrie, J.; Loudon, M.A.; McCormack, K.; Buckley, B.; Brown, S.; Curran, F.; Jayne, D.; Rajagopal, R.; Cook, J.A.; eTHoS study group,
Background: Current interventions for haemorrhoidal disease include traditional haemorrhoidectomy (TH) and
stapled haemorrhoidopexy (SH) surgery. However, uncertainty remains as to how they compare from a clinical,
quality of life (QoL) and economic perspective. The study is therefore designed to determine whether SH is more
effective and more cost-effective, compared with TH.
Methods/Design: eTHoS (either Traditional Haemorrhoidectomy or Stapled Haemorrhoidopexy for Haemorrhoidal
Disease) is a pragmatic, multicentre, randomised controlled trial. Currently, 29 secondary care centres are open to
recruitment. Patients, aged 18 year or older, with circumferential haemorrhoids grade II to IV, are eligible to take part.
The primary clinical and economic outcomes are QoL profile (area under...
dos Santos, L.F.; Gobato, Y.G.; Teodoro, M.D.; Lopez-Richard, V.; Marques, G.E.; Brasil, M.J.S.P.; Orlita, M.; Kunc, J.; Maude, D.K.; Henini, M.; Airey, R.J.
We have investigated the polarization-resolved photoluminescence (PL) in an asymmetric n-type GaAs/AlAs/GaAlAs
resonant tunneling diode under magnetic field parallel to the tunnel current. The quantum well (QW) PL presents
strong circular polarization (values up to -70% at 19 T). The optical emission from GaAs contact layers shows
evidence of highly spin-polarized two-dimensional electron and hole gases which affects the spin polarization of
carriers in the QW. However, the circular polarization degree in the QW also depends on various other parameters,
including the g-factors of the different layers, the density of carriers along the structure, and the Zeeman and
Gordo, V.O.; Herval, L.K.S.; Galeti, H.V.A.; Gobato, Y.G.; Brasil, M.J.S.P.; Marques, G.E.; Henini, M.; Airey, R.J.
We have studied the polarized resolved photoluminescence of n-type GaAs/AlAs/GaAlAs resonant tunneling diodes
under magnetic field parallel to the tunnel current. Under resonant tunneling conditions, we have observed two
emission lines attributed to neutral (X) and negatively charged excitons (X−
). We have observed a
voltage-controlled circular polarization degree from the quantum well emission for both lines, with values up to
−88% at 15 T at low voltages which are ascribed to an efficient spin injection from the 2D gases formed at the
Fairlamb, JR; Oudmaijer, RD; Mendigutia, I; Ilee, JD; Van den Ancker, ME
Herbig Ae/Be stars (HAeBes) span a key mass range that links low- and high-mass stars, and thus provide an ideal window from which to explore their formation. This paper presents Very Large Telescope/X-shooter spectra of 91 HAeBes, the largest spectroscopic study of HAeBe accretion to date. A homogeneous approach to determining stellar parameters is undertaken for the majority of the sample. Measurements of the ultraviolet are modelled within the context of magnetospheric accretion, allowing a direct determination of mass accretion rates. Multiple correlations are observed across the sample between accretion and stellar properties: the youngest and often most massive stars...
Evans, JAJ; Ivaldi, G
This research note looks to forecast the number of seats the Front National (FN) will win in the 2017 legislative election, using support in the 2015 regional election, the most recent nation-wide election. These regional elections showed another surge in electoral support for the Front National (FN). The party received 27.7 per cent of the first-round vote, and reached the runoff ballot in every metropolitan region except Corsica. In the second round, the FN won 27.1 per cent nationally, amassing a record 6.8 million votes and 358 regional councillors. Given the information this provides us about the geographical spread of...
Koufopoulos, J; Conner, MT; Gardner, P; Kellar, I
Background: Online communities hold great potential as interventions for health, particularly for the management of chronic illness. The social support that online communities can provide has been associated with positive treatment outcomes, including medication adherence. There are few studies that have attempted to assess whether membership of an online community improves health outcomes using rigorous designs. Objective: Our objective was to conduct a rigorous proof-of-concept randomized controlled trial of an online community intervention for improving adherence to asthma medicine. Methods: This 9-week intervention included a sample of asthmatic adults from the United Kingdom who were prescribed an inhaled corticosteroid preventer....
Background International agencies have viewed West Africa as a major player in the global trade in cocaine and heroin and in efforts to control that trade, as there have been reports of escalating arrests of drug smugglers, large-scale drug seizures and ‘narco-states’ in the subregion. It is claimed that a substantial share of the drugs available in Western markets transit through West Africa today and are increasingly used there as well. Notwithstanding this growing alarm, there is little serious scholarship addressing the issue of drugs and drug policy in West Africa. Methods The article assesses and challenges some of the...
Cameron, DA; Anderson, A; Toy, E; Evans, TRJ; Le Vay, JH; Kennedy, ICS; Grieve, RJ; Perren, TJ; Jones, A; Mansi, J; Crown, J; Leonard, RCF
After the publication of the 10-year survival data from Milan on the adjuvant use of the block sequential regimen consisting of four cycles of adriamycin followed by eight cycles of intravenous CMF, many centres adopted this as standard of care for high risk, multiple node-positive breast cancer. For this reason it was identified as the standard arm for the Anglo-Celtic adjuvant high-dose chemotherapy trial. This study reports on the experience of this regimen in 329 women with early breast cancer involving at least four axillary nodes, who were treated outside any adjuvant chemotherapy trial. At a median follow-up of 3...
Papa, S; Bubici, C
Cancer cells become dependent on aerobic glycolysis to sustain rapid proliferation and escape apoptosis. How this metabolic change, also known as the Warburg effect, is linked to apoptosis remains largely unknown. Our new data place c-Jun N-terminal kinase in the center of a hub regulating apoptosis and cancer metabolism.
Baxter, S; Muir, DP; Brereton, L; Allmark, C; Barber, R; Harris, L; Hodges, B; Khan, S; Baird, W
Background: A regional Research Design Service, funded by the National Institute for Health Research, introduced a small grant in 2008, to support public involvement (often known as patient and public involvement [PPI]) activities during the development of applications for research funding. Successful applicants are requested to submit a report detailing how the grant money was used, including a description of the aims and outcomes of the public involvement activities. The purpose of this study was to analyse the content of these reports. We aimed to find out what researcher views and experiences of public involvement activities were, and what lessons...
Boyle, P; Norman, P; Rees, P
Few epidemiological studies of the links between health and environmental variables account for the potentially confounding effects of population migration. Here we explore the relationship between self-reported limiting long-term illness and material deprivation, using individual-level 1991 census data extracted for Scotland. The aim is to investigate whether the migration patterns of ill individuals influences the relationship between limiting long-term illness and material deprivation. Specifically, we seek to determine whether individuals who are well are more likely to migrate away from deprived areas and whether ill individuals are more likely to migrate towards deprived areas. If true, this would suggest that...
Tromans, N; Natamba, E; Jefferies, J; Norman, P
During the past 20 years fertility patterns within England and Wales have changed considerably. The total fertility rate experienced a prolonged decline during the 1990s and hit a record low in 2001. Since then the level of fertility has increased fairly rapidly. Over the two decades, fertility has been constantly increasing at ages above 30, and as a consequence the mean age of motherhood has been rising. This article explores fertility trends within statistical regions and local authorities to improve our understanding of changes in fertility at the subnational level between 1986 and 2006.
Stillwell, JCH; Hussain, S; Norman, P
Internal migration propensities of ethnic groups are examined using three types of census data. Special Migration Statistics show variation in aggregate propensities whereas commissioned age-specific flow data indicate age variations by ethnic group. Micro data from Samples of Anonymised Records confirm low Asian propensities and suggest convergence between 1991 and 2001. Inter-district net migration reveals familiar counterurbanisation trends for whites but more complex patterns for non-whites. Evidence suggests white net migration at this scale is greater in areas with higher non-white population shares which themselves experience higher non-white immigration rates.