Recursos de colección

Archivo Digital UPM (122.777 recursos)

This is an institutional repository providing access to the research output of the institution. Primarily contains thesis.

Tipo de documento = Ponencia en Congreso o Jornada

Mostrando recursos 1 - 20 de 982

  1. Improvements of air quality simulations of particulate matter in the Iberian peninsula with road dust resuspension and dust emission modules

    Paz Martín, David de la; Borge García, Rafael; Vedrenne, Michel
    The Mediterranean Basin is one of the most sensitive zones in the planet to air pollution. Besides anthropogenic emissions, the Iberian Peninsula is affected by natural particule matter (PM) sources. Dry weather conditions allow road dust to be resuspended by vehicle-induced turbulence. These emissions may be as important as those directly emitted by vehicles (combustion and from road abrasion and tyre and break wear processes). In addition, it is widely documented that crustal particles transported from the Saharan Desert may contribute significantly to ambient PM concentration in Madrid. This poster summarizes the methodology and results of the implementation of a...

  2. Modelling the effects of local emission abatement measures in hot-spots of Madrid

    Quaassdorff, Christina Violetta; Borge García, Rafael
    This work aims at estimating NOx and PM10 emissions from road traffic with high spatial and temporal resolution (seconds and meters). This is useful to understand the effect of local abatement measures and it is an essential input to microscale air quality models. For that, 1-hour representative traffic scenarios are simulated with the traffic microsimulation model VISSIM in selected hot-spots. Measured traffic data (fluxes and fleet composition) are used as inputs for the model to obtain speed-time profiles for each vehicle. These profiles are used to calculate specific emission factors for different vehicle classes according to the VERSIT+micro model through...

  3. CFD modelling of particle matter dispersion in a real hot-spot

    Santiago, José Luis; Sanchez, Beatriz; Martín, Fernando; Martilli, Alberto; Quaassdorff, Christina Violetta; Paz Martín, David de la; Borge García, Rafael; Gómez-Moreno, F. J.; Díaz, Elías; Artíñano, Begoña; Yagüe, C.; Blanco, C.; Vardoulakis, Sotiris
    Urban air quality is one of the main environmental concerns. The interaction between atmosphere and buildings induces complex flows within the streets and squares. This fact joint with the traffic emissions produce a heterogeneous distribution of pollutants with high gradients of concentration. The main objective of this work is to obtain high resolution maps of particle matter concentration using a CFD model so as to analyze air quality and population exposure. This study is focused on a heavily trafficked roundabout in Madrid (Fernandez Ladreda square). To achieve this objective, CFD modelling coupled with detailed emissions of PM10 and PM2.5 and...

  4. Modelling reactive pollutants dispersion in an urban hot-spot in summer conditions using a CFD model coupled with meteorological mesoscale and chemistry-transport models

    Sanchez, Beatriz; Santiago, José Luis; Martín, Fernando; Martilli, Alberto; Quaassdorff, Christina Violetta; Paz Martín, David de la; Borge García, Rafael
    Air quality assessment requires detailed studies about urban air pollution. In a city, the interaction between atmosphere and urban morphology induces complex flow pattern which leads to irregular spatial distributions of pollutants in the streets. In addition, the influence of chemical reactions and the variability of air temperature and wind make difficult to reproduce the pollutants dispersion at microscale during long periods, especially in summer conditions. The aim of this work is to simulate reactive pollutants dispersion in summer conditions in an urban hot-spot using a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model. In summer, the high solar radiation and the high...

  5. Ajuste óptimo y automático de un sistema de control en cascada. Aplicación al seguimiento de trayectorias en servosistemas con fricción y zona muerta.

    Haber Guerra, Rodolfo E.; Arenas, Javier; Matía Espada, Fernando; Villalonga, Alberto; González Fontanet, Javier
    En la actualidad, el control en cascada continúa siendo una de las estrategias más utilizada en la industria de procesos y manufacturera. Los nuevos requisitos de precisión y robustez en los sistemas de control de posición y trayectoria para la fabricación de componentes en la micro escala, obligan a rediseñar los métodos de ajuste para hacer frente a no linealidades duras como la fricción y la zona muerta. Este trabajo presenta el diseño y aplicación de un método de ajuste automático basado en simulación y optimización para el ajuste de los parámetros de sistema de control cascada del lazo de...

  6. Gaudí's La Pedrera, sustainable masonry building from the beginning of the 20th century

    Salas Mirat, Carlos Jose; Bedoya Frutos, Cesar; Adell Argiles, Josep Maria
    Architect Antonio Gaudí built La Pedrera at the beginning of the 20th century, it was declared a World Heritage Site by the Unesco in 1984, and its extraordinary brick masonry façade—in contrast with the stone or brick masonry buildings of the period—can be considered a sustainability model for the architecture of that time. Gaudí tends to use simple, profuse and close materials, such as bricks, tiles and stones from the surroundings, for the construction of innovative masonry buildings in which he moulds—in surprising ways—stone and brick to achieve his objectives of efficacy, economy, functional - ity and beauty. In order to be...

  7. Traffic Emission Simulation and Validation with Measured Data in South Korea

    Quaassdorff, Christina Violetta; Kwak, K. H.; Borge García, Rafael; Lee, S. B.
    In major urban areas, air quality is directly related to traffic emissions. Major efforts have been made in recent years to compute emissions from simulated traffic conditions at microscale level in an accurate way. To validate this modelling techniques on-road air pollutant emissions of Nitrogen Oxides (NOx) estimated from mobile monitoring laboratory data are compared to the computed emissions results. The selected location is a traffic hot-spot with more than 4000 vehicles at weekday peak hours. The study area is a 300 m x 300 m domain focused on a signalized intersection of two major roads in Seoul (South Korea)....

  8. TECNAIRE. Técnicas para la mejora de la calidad del aire urbano

    Quaassdorff, Christina Violetta
    TECNAIRE (innovative technologies for the assessment and improvement of urban air quality) is a scientific programme funded by the Directorate General for Universities and Research of the Greater Madrid Region (S2013/MAE-2972). This research project ultimately aims to solve air quality issues in the Greater Madrid Region (CM) by bridging the gaps among the modelling and measuring techniques to consistently assess air quality in urban environments. The expected output from this research effort is a significant contribution to atmospheric science with a decided focus on providing useful information and tools to air quality managers and decision-makers, so that the project is also...

  9. El Control de sistemas ciberfísicos industriales. Revisión y primera aproximación.

    Villalonga Jaén, Alberto; Castaño Romero, Fernando; Haber Guerra, Rodolfo E.; Beruvides López, Gerardo; Arenas, Javier
    Los sistemas ciberfísicos industriales (ICPS) abarcan las cuestiones de diseño, modelado y análisis de los sistemas ciberfísicos con especial énfasis en las aplicaciones industriales. El paradigma de la Industria 4.0 y las cuestiones asociadas a la transformación digital de la industria se pueden considerar un caso especial de ICPS. Uno de los pilares científico-técnicos para tratar el modelado y control de los ICPS es la inteligencia computacional y todos los métodos y técnicas agrupados dentro del control inteligente. En este trabajo se tratan algunos conceptos básicos de los ICPS, se presenta una aproximación a las principales estrategias de control utilizadas...

  10. Análisis cuantitativo de defectos en módulos fotovoltaicos de instalaciones españolas

    Santos, José Domingo; Alonso Garcia, M. Carmen; Camero, M; Balenzategui, José Lorenzo; Muñoz-García, Miguel Angel; Vela, Nieves
    Se han caracterizado módulos fotovoltaicos (FV) defectuosos procedentes de plantas FV españolas empleando las técnicas de termografía IR (TIR) y electroluminiscencia (EL). El análisis cualitativo de las imágenes reveló roturas de célula, roturas de tiras de interconexión, y la posible existencia de PID entre otros defectos. Adicionalmente se realizó el estudio cuantitativo mediante el análisis estadístico del histograma de TIR y EL a nivel de célula. La moda y el coeficiente de variación mostraron ser sensibles a múltiples tipos de defectos, lo que permitiría cuantificar la gravedad de los mismos. Por otra parte, la combinación de TIR y EL empleando...

  11. Co-integration of acoustic simulation software and GIS for speech intelligibility analysis in complex multi-source acoustic environments. Application to Toledo's Cathedral

    Pedrero González, Antonio; Iglesias Martínez, Luis; Ruiz Martínez, Rogelio; Díaz Sanchidrián, César
    The speech intelligibility in complex multi-source acoustic environments depends on a variety of factors such as speech level, background noise level, reverberation time, as well as psychoacoustic effects. Since these factors can change for each source-receiver combination, in order to integrate information from various sources, efficient tools and techniques are required to determine the speech intelligibility at every listener position. In drawing up this study, two types of tools are used: (i) an acoustic simulation software (ODEON) and (ii) spatial analysis tools of a Geographic Information System (ArcGIS). To determine the speech intelligibility, the Speech Transmission Index (STI) has been...

  12. Design and Biomechanical Simulation of Custom Dental Implants

    Ojeda, Carlos; Céspedes, Javier; Chumán, Victor; Arriola, Alonso; Díaz Lantada, Andrés
    The design and simulation of some proposals of unconventional and conventional dental implants and their results are presented. The process of obtaining models with reverse engineering in Mimics, mechanical simulations in ANSYS and some results and tests with an algorithm of remodeling meant to simulate the behavior of the possible influence of stem cells in the proposed implants are explained.

  13. Diseño de presas en áreas de alta sismicidad. Presas de Coaque y Briceño. Costa norte provincia de Manabí (Ecuador)

    Perotas Van Heckenrode, Héctor; Toledo Municio, Miguel Angel; Caballero Jiménez, Francisco Javier; Salete Díaz, Eduardo; García, Roberto; Pablos Maldonado, José David; Costa, César; Morán Moya, Rafael
    La necesidad de solventar la histórica carencia de disponibilidad de agua en la zona litoral del norte de la provincia de Manabí, ha llevado al Gobierno de la República del Ecuador a través de la Secretaria del Agua y la Empresa Pública del Agua (EPA-EP), buscando la máxima racionalización de los recursos disponibles en la zona, a concebir una solución mediante un sistema de dos embalses, Coaque y Briceño, con capacidad conjunta de unos 120 hm3, para abastecimiento poblacional a más de 350.000 habitantes, suministro para riego a más de 6.500 has, y otros usos o desarrollos como el turístico,...

  14. Mejora eficiente de la seguridad hidrológica de las presas

    Morán Moya, Rafael; Toledo Municio, Miguel Angel; Caballero Jiménez, Francisco Javier; Peraita, Javier; San Mauro, Javier; Salazar González, Fernando; Ruano, Luis; Granell Ninot, Carlos; Flórez, Víctor
    En la actualidad, la sociedad demanda un incremento del nivel de se-guridad de las presas. En muchos países esta realidad se ha traducido en una mayor exigencia en las normativas técnicas aplicables. En estas circunstancias, el caso par-ticular de la seguridad hidrológica adquiere aún más importancia debido al recrudecimiento de las avenidas extremas provocado por el cambio climático. Ante este escenario, se requieren respuestas que tengan en consideración el efecto sobre la disminución del riesgo realmente alcanzado y la limitación de los recursos económicos disponibles. Todo ello ha dado como resultado un cambio de paradigma a nivel internacional y que...

  15. Designing conditions for a better building management

    Álvarez Cano, Carolina; Piña Ramirez, Carolina
    All professionals related to the building sector are conscious that buildings need to be maintained. Otherwise, the costs of repairs after years of doing nothing will be much higher than even demolishing and reconstruct again. But, what must be considered? Which considerations must be taken? When you, as an architect, start a new project, you think about shapes, volumes, lighting, colours and surroundings. However, some-thing very important is forgotten: the life afterwards, and how to take care of the building you have just drawn .

  16. Comparison of Microscale Traffic Emission Models for Urban Networks

    Quaassdorff, Christina Violetta; Smit, R.; Borge García, Rafael; Hickman, M.
    Traffic is the major source of pollution in many cities. Despite recent efforts to improve air quality, some issues (usually related to NOX and PM) remain in urban areas worldwide. Ambient air quality standards non-compliance situations are often linked to traffic-related hot-spots. The assessment of potential solutions for such locations requires very high-resolution models that can successfully capture the complexity of the processes that determine emissions from mobile sources and provide accurate inputs for highly detailed microscale air quality models. These estimations are based on acceleration-deceleration processes and speed that are significantly influenced by congestion. There are several approaches that...

  17. Current Trends in Recovering Used Products in Retail Fashion Industry: An Exploratory Study

    Bukhari, Mohammad; Carrasco Gallego, Ruth; Ponce Cueto, Eva María
    The fashion industry is currently shifting towards sustainable practices through the entire supply chain. Many fashion retailers like H&M, Zara and others consider sustainability the cornerstone of their corporate social responsibility programs. At the same time, Extended Producer Responsibility (EPR) legislation is holding manu-facturers and retailers responsible, especially in Europe, for waste generated at end-of-use and end-of-life phases for some specific products. Finding alternatives to the landfill for textile waste will extend textile life, contributing to the development of circular economy and sustainable business models in the fashion industry. This study identifies and characterizes, as a first stage research, current...

  18. Modelos avanzados para la gestión a largo plazo de sistemas lacustres y fluviales contaminados por accidentes nucleares

    Gallego Díaz, Eduardo Florentino; García Ramos, Alejandro; Pato Martínez, Rocío
    Un problema a largo plazo derivado de la contaminación radiactiva de áreas extensas tras un accidente nuclear grave, es el impacto sobre los sistemas lacustres y fluviales, receptores de la radiactividad arrastrada por la escorrentía desde sus cuencas hidráulicas. Este problema, junto con las posibles alternativas de gestión para reducir el impacto radiológico derivado del mismo, lo analizaba el sistema europeo MOIRA, desarrollado hace ya cerca de 20 años y cuyos modelos fueron validados frente a distintos escenarios reales (post-Chernóbil y otros). Recientemente, en el proyecto PREPARE del 7º Programa Marco europeo, se abordó la tarea de integrar dichos modelos...

  19. La comunicación en accidentes nucleares. Recomendaciones del proyecto europeo PREPARE

    Gallego Díaz, Eduardo F.
    La comunicación es sin duda una de las cuestiones más importantes en caso de emergencia nuclear. Dichas situaciones son extremadamente complejas al involucrar múltiples actores y cuestiones delicadas de tipo sanitario, medioambiental, económico, social, cultural o ético. Por ello, una de las grandes áreas tratadas en el proyecto PREPARE del 7º Programa Marco europeo ha estado centrada en esta cuestión, abordando varios aspectos relativos a la misma: por un lado, la interacción entre redes de expertos durante la emergencia y en la post-emergencia; por otro, la información y participación de las poblaciones afectadas y por otro la comunicación global a...

  20. Modelling of the mechanical behaviour of the photopolymerization processes of resins intended for additive manufacturing (AMT) using laserstereolithography: The influence on part quality

    Blas Romero, Adrián de; Fernández, Guillermo; Díaz Lantada, Andrés
    This study presents a simplified model of the polymerization process of photo-cured epoxy resin, with the aim of finding theoretical values for the mechanical properties of the material in its transition stage from liquid to solid state, approximating these properties to a single figure at the instant of its gelation in the time denominated as tg. By evaluating a phenomenon observed during the fabrication of samples using a stereolithography additive manufacturing printer, it is hoped to fit a model that will replicate the mechanical forces undergone by the manufactured part. The introduction of new hypotheses to simplify the case under...

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