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Caltech Authors (126,223 recursos)
Repository of works by Caltech published authors.

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Mostrando recursos 1 - 20 de 5,840

1. The Design of Institutions: An Agency Theory Perspective - Banks, Jeffrey S.
Agency theory provides a systematic analysis of bilateral or multilateral exchange of goods and services in the presence of various factors that bring into question the neoclassical assumption of costless transactions. These factors include most prominently various forms of asymmetric information, wherein one party to an exchange has better information about the consequences of such an exchange than does another. The goal of agency theory is to identify efficient organizational responses to these complicating factors; the intent of this chapter is to survey some of the principle results from this literature and view these as fundamental building blocks in the...

2. Adverse Selection and Moral Hazard in a Repeated Elections Model - Banks, Jeffrey S.; Sundaram, Rangarajan K.
[no abstract]

3. The space shuttle program - Banks, Jeffrey S.
On April 12, 1981, the maiden flight of the space shuttle Columbia began, three years past the original launch date, 30 percent over the original estimated R&D costs, and 120 percent over the original estimated average cost per flight for the first three years of operation. On January 28, 1986, a seal failed on the right solid rocket booster of the shuttle Challenger, leading to an explosion seventy-three seconds into the launch and the loss of the seven crew members on board.

4. The politics of commercial R&D programs - Banks , Jeffrey S.; Cohen, Linda R.; Noll, Roger G.
The Selection and management of commercial research and J. development projects differ between the public and private sectors in two important respects. One is the inclusiveness of the economic effects considered in evaluating a project. Private decisions are largely motivated by prospective profitability, whereas a wider array of social benefits and costs are relevant in the public sector. Specifically, public decisions would normally take into account economic benefits accruing to parties other than the innovating firm (such as competitive copiers of the technology and the customers of the industry), as well as any external costs from adopting the innovation (such as increased environmental pollution).

5. Probabilistic Voting in the Spatial Model of Elections: The Theory of Office-motivated Candidates - Banks, Jeffrey S.; Duggan, John
We unify and extend much of the literature on probabilistic voting in two-candidate elections. We give existence results for mixed and pure strategy equilibria of the electoral game. We prove general results on optimality of pure strategy equilibria vis-a-vis a weighted utilitarian social welfare function, and we derive the well-known “mean voter” result as a special case. We establish broad conditions under which pure strategy equilibria exhibit “policy coincidence,” in the sense that candidates pick identical platforms. We establish the robustness of equilibria with respect to variations in demographic and informational parameters. We show that mixed and pure strategy equilibria...

6. Strategic aspects of political systems - Banks, Jeffrey S.
Early results on the emptiness of the core and the majority-rule-chaos results led to the recognition of the importance of modeling institutional details in political processes. A sample of the literature on game-theoretic models of political phenomena that ensued is presented. In the case of sophisticated voting over certain kinds of binary agendas, such as might occur in a legislative setting, equilibria exist and can be nicely characterized. Endogenous choice of the agenda can sometimes yield “sophisticated sincerity”, where equilibrium voting behavior is indistinguishable from sincere voting. Under some conditions there exist agenda-independent outcomes. Various kinds of “structure-induced equilibria” are...

7. Electoral accountability and incumbency - Austen-Smith, David; Banks, Jeffrey S.
This volume's sample of contemporary political theory draws on the rational choice paradigm in general and game theory in particular, and reveals several facts. First, applications of game theory extend beyond the adaptations of those games made familiar by introductory texts—Prisoner's Dilemma, Chicken, and simple majority-rule voting games. Second, although the usual domain of research employing the mathematical tools has been elections and legislatures, international relations is now an especially fertile area of inquiry. Finally, because the contributions treat elections, legislative processes, and international relations, we see contemporary theory as an integrated subject. Specific models may employ different assumptions about...

8. Graph filter banks with M-channels, maximal decimation, and perfect reconstruction - Teke, Oguzhan; Vaidyanathan, P. P.
Signal processing on graphs finds applications in many areas. Motivated by recent developments, this paper studies the concept of spectrum folding (aliasing) for graph signals under the downsample-then-upsample operation. In this development, we use a special eigenvector structure that is unique to the adjacency matrix of M-block cyclic matrices. We then introduce M-channel maximally decimated filter banks. Manipulating the characteristics of the aliasing effect, we construct polynomial filter banks with perfect reconstruction property. Later we describe how we can remove the eigenvector condition by using a generalized decimator. In this study graphs are assumed to be general with a possibly...

9. Beyond Scientific Visualization: Mapping Information - Cox, Donna J.; Blinn, Jim; Ellson, Richard; Hendriks, Helga M. Leonardt
The term "scientific visualization" conjures up mental images of molecules reacting or velocity vectors whizzing around. Yet, visualization is migrating beyond the scientific domain because it maps not only numerical, but all data into visual representations. This panel compares several visualization methodologies and how they have employed advanced computer graphics to map abstract information into meaningful animations and interactive software. Panelists demonstrate how they have organized abstract data or concepts using spatial, quantitative, dynamic, and symbolic techniques to visually communicate maximum information. Examples from linguistics, humanities, education, statistics, engineering, and science are presented.

10. Specialized languages: an applications methodology - Bigelow, Richard H.; Greenfield, Norton R.; Szolovits, Peter; Thompson, Frederick B.
One objective of the information processing community is to aid the problem-solving activities of its clients. In this paper we will discuss a methodology for serving the needs of the "user", that is, the end-user: the manager running an organization, the accountant understanding the financial condition of a company, the anthropologist studying a culture, the engineer designing some equipment, or the meteorologist predicting the weather. Each of these users has his own particular, idiosyncratic problems. The computer should be an effective tool for him in dealing with these problems. Our methodology is designed to provide each of these users with an appropriate interface to...

11. Tight Bounds for On-line Tree Embedding - Bhatt, Sandeep; Greenberg, David; Leighton, Tom; Liu, Pangfeng
Many tree–structured computations are inherently parallel. As leaf processes are recursively spawned they can be assigned to independent processors in a multicomputer network. To maintain load balance, an on–line mapping algorithm must distribute processes equitably among processors. Additionally, the algorithm itself must be distributed in nature, and process allocation must be completed via message–passing with minimal communication overhead. This paper investigates bounds on the performance of deterministic and randomized algorithms for on–line tree embedding. In particular, we study tradeoffs between performance (load–balance) and communication overhead (message congest ion). We give a simple technique to derive lower bounds on the congestion that any on–line allocation algorithm must incur in order to guarantee load balance. This technique works...

12. Phaseless super-resolution using masks - Jaganathan, Kishore; Saunderson, James; Fazel, Maryam; Eldar, Yonina C.; Hassibi, Babak
Phaseless super-resolution is the problem of reconstructing a signal from its low-frequency Fourier magnitude measurements. It is the combination of two classic signal processing problems: phase retrieval and super-resolution. Due to the absence of phase and high-frequency measurements, additional information is required in order to be able to uniquely reconstruct the signal of interest. In this work, we use masks to introduce redundancy in the phaseless measurements. We develop an analysis framework for this setup, and use it to show that any super-resolution algorithm can be seamlessly extended to solve phaseless superresolution (up to a global phase), when measurements are...

13. BER analysis of the box relaxation for BPSK signal recovery - Thrampoulidis, Christos; Abbasi, Ehsan; Xu, Weiyu; Hassibi, Babak
We study the problem of recovering an n-dimensional BPSK signal from m linear noise-corrupted measurements using the box relaxation method which relaxes the discrete set {± 1}^n to the convex set [-1,1]^n to obtain a convex optimization algorithm followed by hard thresholding. When the noise and measurement matrix have iid standard normal entries, we obtain an exact expression for the bit-wise probability of error P_e in the limit of n and m growing and m/n fixed. At high SNR our result shows that the P_e of box relaxation is within 3dB of the matched filter bound (MFB) for square systems, and...

14. Cooling a nanomechanical resonator using feedback: toward quantum behavior - Hopkins, Asa; Jacobs, Kurt A.; Habib, Salman; Schwab, Keith; Varadan, Vijay K.
Nano-electro-mechanical devices are now rapidly approaching the point where it will be possible to observe quantum mechanical behavior. However, for such behavior to be visible it is necessary to reduce the thermal motion of these devices down to temperatures in the millikelvin range. Here we consider the use of feedback control for this purpose. We analyze an experimentally realizable situation in which the position of the resonator is continuously monitored by a Single-Electron Transistor. Because the resonator is harmonic, it is possible to use a classical description of the measurement process, and we discuss both the quantum and classical descriptions....

15. Quantum measurement with nanomechanical systems - Schwab, Keith
The technology exists for preparing and measuring nanoscale mechanical systems at the quantum limit. A nanomechanical system has recently demonstrated the fundamental limit for heat flow through discrete channels. This universal energy transport limit is intimately related to the predicted maximum information rate per channel. I will discuss this measurement and experiments that are under preparation at LPS, using nanomechanical resonators with rf-SET read-out to achieve positive detection limited by the uncertainty principle: the standard quantum limit. This system offers the possibility of implementing advanced measurement strategies, such as quantum non-demolition techniques, to beat this limit. In addition to revealing...

16. Quantum Electro-Mechanical Systems - Recipe to make a mechanical device interfere with itself - Schwab, Keith
A dominant theme of modern physics is to show that quantum mechanics is a valid description of the world, from atomic lengths scales and upward. This pursuit is aimed at both answering questions about the apparent boundary between the classical and quantum world, and at exploiting quantum behavior for technological purpose. As a result of the intense effort in quantum computing, nano-electronic devices have entered this realm and shown themselves to be fully quantum mechanical. Single electron devices and SQUIDs have recently exhibited quantized energy levels, Schrodinger evolution, and superposition states (Nakamura et al., 1999; Friedman et al., 2000; Vion...

17. Metalloregulation in the Sequence Specific Binding of Synthetic Molecules to DNA - Griffin, John H.; Dervan, Peter B.
The design, synthesis, and DNA binding studies of a series of bis(netropsin)s linked by homologous polyether tethers has been undertaken. DNA affinity cleaving experiments show that one compound, bis(netropsin)-3,6,9,12,15-pentaoxahepta-decanediamine-EDTA:Fe(II) (1b:Fe(II)) is positively activated for specific DNA binding in the presence of Sr^(2+) or Ba^(2+) ions. The effects of linker structure, metal ion concentration, and DNA sequence on the metalloregulated binding are reported.

18. The Origins of the DNA Binding Affinity and Specificity of Minor Groove Directed Ligands: Correlations of Thermodynamic and Structural Data - Breslauer, Kenneth J.; Ferrante, Robert; Marky, Luis A.; Dervan, Peter B.; Youngquist, R. Scott
We report complete thermodynamic binding profiles for the complexation of three minor groove directed ligands [netropsin. P2 (a synthetic analogue of netropsin), and distamycin A] to selected DNA host duplexes. From a comparison of the DNA binding profiles associated with these ligands, we are able to reach the following conclusions: 1) The minor groove binding of each ligand is overwhelmingly enthalpy-driven and exhibits a very high binding affinity (K-109 at 25°C). 2) The thermodynamic binding data primarily reflect local ligand-DNA interactions rather than long-range binding-induced conformational changes at regions distant from the binding site. 3) Deep penetration into the minor...

19. What is biotechnology? - Barton, Jacqueline K.
I have been given the task and opportunity of introducing chapters that describe some of the exciting new chemical advances in the field we call "biotechnology". You may notice that neither the words "chemical" nor "molecular" is incorporated into "biotechnology", but really the heart of what I think is exciting about this are is indeed chemical.

20. Synthetic Tools for Molecular Biology - Dervan, Peter B.
Chemistry has made tremendous advances over the past four decades in the broad fields of synthesis and understanding chemical reactivity. In that same time span, a series of revolutionary events occurred in biology. First came the discovery of the double helical structure of DNA in the 1950s by Watson and Crick. This discovery allowed the elucidation of the mechanisms of DNA replication -- how DNA makes copies of itself -- and DNA transcription and translation -- the processes that allow the genetic code to be read and translated into proteins. In the 1970s, the techniques that permit DNA to be...

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