Mostrando recursos 1 - 20 de 497

  1. Forensic criminal identification is hampered by the limited capacity of witness memory

    Onwuegbusi, Tochukwu; ,; ,; ,; ,
    Previous research has shown that memory performance for unfamiliar faces are very inaccurate. This is important because judgements of identity are often used in criminal proceedings. Errors of identification have been shown to be a major source of miscarriages of justice; both in the conviction of the innocent and in approximately 75% of DNA exonerations (www.innocenceproject.org). This study investigates the way capacity limits in visual short term memory (VSTM) affect the accuracy of recall for unfamiliar faces. To test this, a Change Detection paradigm was used to contrast visual memory for unfamiliar faces at different levels of memory-to-test similarity in...

  2. Implementing a university-wide digital strategy

    Smith, Mark F.; Kissoon, Chavan
    •Outlining the work and journey of the Digital Education Team at the University of Lincoln and how they are promoting and implementing digital learning strategies across the university •Developing digital education on the principle that education comes first; making sure technology will always improve teaching and learning and avoiding promoting technology for technologies sake •Delegating responsibility within the team for the digital learning of each separate university college; encouraging the sharing of best practice and inter-disciplinary collaboration •Establishing a team with a broad range of experience in technology, media, IT, marketing and project management to ensure a holistic approach to digital learning across...

  3. Modelling and predicting rhythmic flow patterns in dynamic environments

    Molina Mellado, Sergi; Cielniak, Grzegorz; Krajnik, Tomas; Duckett, Tom
    In this paper, we introduce a time-dependent probabilistic map able to model and predict future flow patterns of people in indoor environments. The proposed representation models the likelihood of motion direction by a set of harmonic functions, which efficiently capture long-term (hours to months) variations of crowd movements over time, so from a robotics perspective, this model could be useful to add the predicted human behaviour into the control loop to influence the actions of the robot. Our approach is evaluated with data collected from a real environment and initial qualitative results are presented.

  4. Spatiotemporal models for motion planning in human populated environments

    Vintr, Tomas; Molina Mellado, Sergi; Cielniak, Grzegorz; Duckett, Tom; Krajnik, Tomas
    In this paper we present an effective spatio-temporal model for motion planning computed using a novel representation known as the temporary warp space-hypertime continuum. Such a model is suitable for robots that are expected to be helpful to humans in their natural environments. This method allows to capture natural periodicities of human behavior by adding additional time dimensions. The model created thus represents the temporal structure of the human habits within a given space and can be analyzed using regular analytical methods. We visualize the results on a real-world dataset using heatmaps.

  5. Power capabilities and cross-border dissemination in multinational corporations: the influence of internationally-assigned managers

    Haynes, Rochelle
    This paper proposes that internationally assigned managers possess various power capabilities, which if employed strategically can facilitate smooth transfer and operationalisation of policies and practices within the foreign subsidiaries of multinational corporations (MNCs). Utilizing Lukes’ (1974) power model, it is argued that managers’ unique international status, vast knowledge access and control over verbal information networks allow them to exercise power on various dimensions and influence the behaviour and interests of various local actors. The effectiveness of IA-managers within the global arena has been recognised as crucial to the success of international business (Tung, 1984; Young and Hamil, 1992; Dowling et...

  6. The role of expatriate managers within foreign subsidiaries: a micro-level examination

    Haynes, Rochelle
    The last forty years has seen the development of significant literature and research examining the role of expatriate staff within the multinational context. Since Edstrom and Galbraith (1977) identified the three main purposes of expatriates as knowledge transfer, management development and coordination and control, subsequent research has confirmed that these functions continue to be the main reasons for assigning staff to foreign subsidiaries (e.g. Hocking et al., 2004). What remains under-investigated, however, is how the functions for which expatriate managers are assigned are fulfilled at a micro- or individual-level. Among the reasons given for this is the distinct and path-dependent nature of individual expatriate assignments (Torbiorn, 1994; Hocking...

  7. A mobile robot for on-line registration of indoor 3D models

    Pulido Fentanes, Jaime; Marcos Pablos, Samuel; Dominguez Quijada, Salvador; Zalama, Eduardo; Garcia-Bermejo, Jaime; ,
    In this paper a mobile robot for indoor 3D reconstruction is presented, this robot uses a laser range finder for capturing the geometry of a scene and a web camera for texture registration. Robot's modular hardware and software architecture is discussed as well the communication protocol that allows on-line supervision and model reconstruction, Finally the data treatment and model updating method is briefly described.

  8. Toward supervised reinforcement learning with partial states for social HRI

    Senft, Emmanuel; Lemaignan, Severin; Baxter, Paul; Belpaeme, Tony
    Social interacting is a complex task for which machine learning holds particular promise. However, as no sufficiently accurate simulator of human interactions exists today, the learning of social interaction strategies has to happen online in the real world. Actions executed by the robot impact on humans, and as such have to be carefully selected, making it impossible to rely on random exploration. Additionally, no clear reward function exists for social interactions. This implies that traditional approaches used for Reinforcement Learning cannot be directly applied for learning how to interact with the social world. As such we argue that robots will...

  9. Leveraging human inputs in interactive machine learning for human robot interaction

    Senft, Emmanuel; Lemaignan, Severin; Baxter, Paul E.; Belpaeme, Tony
    A key challenge of HRI is allowing robots to be adaptable, especially as robots are expected to penetrate society at large and to interact in unexpected environments with non- technical users. One way of providing this adaptability is to use Interactive Machine Learning, i.e. having a human supervisor included in the learning process who can steer the action selection and the learning in the desired direction. We ran a study exploring how people use numeric rewards to evaluate a robot's behaviour and guide its learning. From the results we derive a number of challenges when design- ing learning robots: what...

  10. From characterising three years of HRI to methodology and reporting recommendations

    Baxter, Paul; Kennedy, James; Senft, Emmanuel; Lemaignan, Severin; Belpaeme, Tony
    Human-Robot Interaction (HRI) research requires the integration and cooperation of multiple disciplines, technical and social, in order to make progress. In many cases using different motivations, each of these disciplines bring with them different assumptions and methodologies.We assess recent trends in the field of HRI by examining publications in the HRI conference over the past three years (over 100 full papers), and characterise them according to 14 categories.We focus primarily on aspects of methodology. From this, a series of practical rec- ommendations based on rigorous guidelines from other research fields that have not yet become common practice in HRI are proposed....

  11. Solve memory to solve cognition

    Baxter, Paul
    The foundations of cognition and cognitive behaviour are consistently proposed to be built upon the capability to predict (at various levels of abstraction). For autonomous cognitive agents, this implicitly assumes a foundational role for memory, as a mechanism by which prior experience can be brought to bear in the service of present and future behaviour. In this contribution, this idea is extended to propose that an active process of memory provides the substrate for cognitive processing, particularly when considering it as fundamentally associative and from a developmental perspective. It is in this context that the claim is made that in...

  12. Consumerism: reflections in a splintered paradigm

    Maycroft, Neil
    My paper begins by arguing that a focus on consumption, as a plausible explanation for the nature of modern life, results in a restricted view of the mechanisms, forces and processes which shape our social relations. This is especially so when consumption becomes a research paradigm that claims to unlock our understanding of society. The paper will then argue that a focus on consumerism, as the key element of consumption, leads to both a restricted view of consumption and to an even more attenuated account of contemporary social relations and conditions. A thin slice of a paradigm becomes a magnified...

  13. Never mind my jet-pack, where’s my four-legged chicken: design futurism, technology, and Utopian hubris

    Maycroft, Neil
    The early 1970s were driven by diverse Utopian energies. There was still power in ‘high-tech’ visions of material abundance and individual freedom, exemplified by the jet-pack, a key motif of mid-twentieth century Utopian optimism. A competing Utopian longing for ecological and convivial Utopian community was also being strongly promoted, such as in the 1974 ‘Open University’ reader Man-Made Futures. Often these two forces intersected, for example, the film Silent Running (1972). All elements meet in Rick Guidice’s illustrations for NASA; jet-packs move smiling colonists through the green abundance of gigantic space cities. Such professional Utopian hubris was gloriously undermined by a...

  14. 3D modeling of indoor environments for a robotic security guard

    Biber, P.; Fleck, S.; Duckett, T.
    Autonomous mobile robots will play a major role in future security and surveillance tasks for large scale environments such as shopping malls, airports, hospitals and museums. Robotic security guards will autonomously survey such environments, unless a remote human operator takes over control. In this context a 3D model can convey much more useful information than the typical 2D maps used in many robotic applications today, both for visualisation of information and as human machine interface for remote control. This paper addresses the challenge of building such a model of a large environment (50m x 60m) using data from the robot’s own sensors:...

  15. 'Uselessness’ as a response to ambiguity: diminished things and marginal places

    Maycroft, Neil
    While the scope of the term ‘useless’ is a broad one, applied in many different ways to various social phenomena, this paper focuses on uselessness in relation to the designed objects of everyday life. I will argue ‘uselessness’ is not a property of such objects; it is not measurable, quantifiable and is not subsumed qualitatively within one theoretical perspective. There is no ‘theory of uselessness’. Nonetheless, the charge of uselessness is often and confidently made against the designed paraphernalia of everyday life. My thesis here is that we often apply the label of useless to objects which are ambiguous or...

  16. Creating gas concentration gridmaps with a mobile robot

    Lilienthal, A.; Duckett, T.
    This paper addresses the problem of mapping the features of a gas distribution by creating concentration gridmaps from the data collected by a mobile robot equipped with an electronic nose. By contrast to metric gridmaps extracted from sonar or laser range scans, a single measurement of the electronic nose provides information about a comparatively small area. To overcome this problem, a mapping technique is introduced that uses a Gaussian density function to model the decreasing likelihood that a particular reading represents the true concentration with respect to the distance from the point of measurement. This method is evaluated in terms of its suitability...

  17. A genetic algorithm for simultaneous localization and mapping

    Duckett, Tom
    This paper addresses the problem of simultaneous localization and mapping (SLAM) by a mobile robot. The SLAM problem is defined as a global optimization problem in which the objective is to search the space of possible robot maps. A genetic algorithm is described for solving this problem, in which a population of candidate solutions is progressively refined in order to find a globally optimal solution. The fitness values in the genetic algorithm are obtained with a heuristic function that measures the consistency and compactness of the candidate maps. The results show that the maps obtained are very accurate, though the...

  18. Algorithm for efficient 3D reconstruction of outdoor environments using mobile robots

    Pulido Fentanes, Jaime; Zalama, Eduardo; Gomez-Garcia-Bermejo, Jamie
    In this paper, an algorithm for the reconstruction of an outdoor environment using a mobile robot is presented. The focus of this algorithm is making the mapping process efficient by capturing the greatest amount of information on every scan, ensuring at the same time that the overall quality of the resulting 3D model of the environment complies with the specified standards. With respect to existing approaches, the proposed approach is an innovation since there are very few information based methods for outdoor reconstruction that use resulting model quality and trajectory cost estimation as criteria for view planning.

  19. Ethical encounters with autonomous agents

    Headleand, Chris; De angeli, Antonella
    Anthropomorphic agents with increasing levels of autonomy are being used in a growing number of applications. This is especially evident in games where characters are designed with human likeness both in appearance and behaviour, with a level of autonomy that allows them to surprise and engage the player. However, with these autonomous system there is the possibility that non-intended behaviours may emerge, exposing the user to potentially ethically questionable encounters. In this position paper we argue for further protections against such glitches through the implementation of artificial ethics-based behavioural safeguards. We begin by outlining the background and specific challenges of...

  20. Experience and guidance for the use of sketching and low-fidelity visualisation-design in teaching

    Roberts, Jonathan C.; Ritsos, Panagiotis D.; Headleand, Chris
    We, like other educators, are keen to develop the next generation of visualization designers. The use of sketching and low-fidelity designs are becoming popular methods to help developers and students consider many alternative ideas and plan what they should build. But especially within an education setting, there are often many challenges to persuade students that they should sketch and consider low-fidelity prototypes. Students can be unwilling to contemplate alternatives, reluctant to use pens and paper, or sketch on paper, and inclined to code the first idea in their mind. In this paper we discuss these issues, and investigate strategies to help...

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