Mostrando recursos 1 - 20 de 4.190

  1. New insights from fractional order skyhook damping control for railway vehicles

    Zolotas, Argyrios C.; Goodall, Roger M.
    Active suspensions for railway vehicles have been a topic of research for a number of decades and while their applications in service operation are limited it seems clear that they will in due course see widespread adoption. Railway suspension design is a problem of compromise on the non-trivial trade-off of ride quality vs track following (guidance), and the skyhook damping control approach has been paramount in illustrating the potential benefits. Since skyhook damping control, various advanced control studies appeared contributing to redefine the boundaries of the aforementioned trade-off. Yet there is no study on the impact of fractional order methods...

  2. Towns in Victorian England and Wales: a new classification

    Smith, Harry; Bennett, Robert; Radicic, Dragana
    This article describes the creation of a new urban classification based on the 1891 Census of England and Wales. It is the first attempt to use the recently available electronic version of the census to classify all large towns in late-Victorian England and Wales on the basis of their economic structure. The creation of I-CeM, which is an integrated, standardized electronic dataset of the England and Wales censuses for 1851-1911, allows the previous limitations of census data for urban classification to be overcome. Where previously scholars were restricted by the geographical units and aggregated occupation data provided in the published...

  3. Firm productivity in the Western Balkans: the impact of European Union membership and access to finance

    Howard-Jones, Peter; Hölscher, Jens; Radicic, Dragana
    This study examines the productivity performance of Balkan firms within and outside the European Union (EU), including the influence of loans. A multiple treatment model is used to compare the effects on productivity of membership and loans both separately and collectively, which in the case of loans allows a separate analysis of their influence on firms in non-member states. The use of conditional quantile regressions measures the effect on productivity of membership and loans separately as treatment variables. This provides an analysis of where the treatment influence is greatest across the distribution curve and identifies the significance of selected control...

  4. Widespread, long-term admixture between grey wolves and domestic dogs across Eurasia and its implications for the conservation status of hybrids

    Pilot, Malgorzata; Greco, Claudia; vonHoldt, Bridgett M.; Randi, Ettore; Jędrzejewski, Włodzimierz; Sidorovich, Vadim E.; Konopiński, Maciej K.; Ostrander, Elaine A.; Wayne, Robert K.
    Hybridisation between a domesticated species and its wild ancestor is an important conservation problem, especially if it results in the introgression of domestic gene variants into wild species. Nevertheless, the legal status of hybrids remains unregulated, partially because of the limited understanding of the hybridisation process and its consequences. The occurrence of hybridisation between grey wolves and domestic dogs is well-documented from different parts of the wolf geographic range, but little is known about the frequency of hybridisation events, their causes and the genetic impact on wolf populations. We analysed 61K SNPs spanning the canid genome in wolves from across...

  5. Superfast broadband and rural community resilience: examining the rural need for speed

    Ashmore, Fiona; Farrington, John H; Skerratt, Sarah
    This paper examines the relationship between rural dwellers and Internet technology and aims to understand how that relationship is altered with a significant increase in broadband speed. It presents an argument for using ‘resilience’ as a framework for such technological impact research, positing its potential usefulness for identifying alternative development narratives. Using interview data from 36 individuals in a study conducted with two rural community-based superfast broadband organisations in the UK, it identifies whether superfast broadband plays a role in enhancing rural community resilience. Anticipated outcomes are identified including an increased use of high-capacity services, specifically video services, and also...

  6. The digital divide: patterns, policy and scenarios for connecting the ‘final few’ in rural communities across Great Britain

    Philip, Lorna; Cottrill, Caitlin; Farrington, John; Williams, Fiona; Ashmore, Fiona
    The Internet can bestow significant benefits upon those who use it. The prima facie case for an urban-rural digital divide is widely acknowledged, but detailed accounts of the spatial patterns of digital communications infrastructure are rarely reported. In this paper we present original analysis of data published by the UK telecommunications regulator, Ofcom, and identify and reflect on the entrenched nature of the urban-rural digital divide in Great Britain. Drawing upon illustrative case vignettes we demonstrate the implications of digital exclusion for personal and business lives in rural, and in particular remote rural, areas. The ability of the current UK...

  7. Exploring the rural passenger experience, information needs and decision making during public transport disruption

    Papangelis, Konstantinos; Velaga, Nagendra R.; Ashmore, Fiona H.; Sripada, Somayajulu; Nelson, John D.; Beecroft, Mark
    Individuals in rural areas are often provided with little or no information regarding public transport disruptions. This has strong impact on those with limited access to alternative motorised transport. Though an increasing number of real time passenger information (RTPI) systems are being developed their role in supporting travellers during service disruption is poorly understood, particularly in rural areas. In this paper, we first illustrate and categorise travel disruptions. Requirements for RTPI — particularly for rural public transport users — are then identified for each type and stage of disruption through interviews and focus groups with rural passengers. Patterns of passenger behaviour...

  8. Community-led broadband in rural digital infrastructure development: implications for resilience

    Ashmore, Fiona H.; Farrington, John H.; Skerratt, Sarah
    Community-led broadband initiatives represent a relatively recent shift in rural broadband provision. They are locally-led organisations that voluntarily spring up to respond to the lack, or perceived lack, of adequate broadband in their communities. Particularly present in rural spaces, few studies have investigated this mode of broadband delivery, which is gaining attention in the United Kingdom and internationally. This paper seeks to explore the implications of the participatory nature of such broadband initiatives, identifying a) whether pursuing a participatory community-led model for broadband deployment plays a role in enhancing rural social resilience, and b) specifically how leadership and informal digital...

  9. How to measure well-being in architecture. The benefits of using mixed-method research. Based on a case study involving inhabitants of heritage houses

    Kołakowski, Marcin
    Recently, the pursuit of well-being in architecture has been called one of the main global megatrends. Politicians, economists, developers and researchers try to define the concept. Several methodologies of measuring well-being and satisfaction have been developed and popularised in architectural research. This paper aims to review those tendencies and juxtapose them with established concepts of eudemonia and forgiveness, which have been developed by thinkers and researchers since the time of Socrates and which are being revitalised by positive psychologists today. The paper builds a case for mixed-method research as the best way of investigating and understanding the complexity of well-being....

  10. Information encoding in short firing rate epochs by single neurons in the primate temporal visual cortex

    Tovee, Martin J.; Rolls, Edmund T.
    The information available about face identity from the firing rate and from temporal encoding in the spike train of single neurons recorded in the temporal lobe visual cortical areas of rhesus macaques was analysed using principal component and information theory analyses of smoothed spike trains. The neurons analysed had responses selective for faces. The stimulus set consisted of 20 different faces. The first principal component provided by a considerable extent the most information (57%) available in principal components 1–5, with the second adding 18%, the third 16%, and the fourth and fifth adding 9%. For each image, the weighting on...

  11. The responses of single neurons in the temporal visual cortical areas of the macaque when more than one stimulus is present in the receptive field

    Rolls, E.T.; Tovee, Martin
    Neurons in the temporal visual cortical areas of primates have large receptive fields, which can show considerable selectivity for what the stimulus is irrespective of exactly where it is in the visual field. This is called translation invariance. However, such results have been found when there is only one stimulus in the visual field. The question arises of how the visual system operates in a cluttered environment. To investigate this we measured the responses of neurons with face-selective responses in the cortex in the anterior part of the superior temporal sulcus of rhesus macaques performing a visual fixation task. We...

  12. Encapsulation studies of cationic gold complexes within a self-assembled hexameric resorcin[4]arene capsule

    Adriaenssenss, Louis; Escribano-Cuesta, A.a; Homs, A.a; Echavarren, A.M.a b; Ballester, P.a c
    As the field of supramolecular catalysis develops, a sound fundamental understanding of the catalytic assemblies used will be essential. There is a lack of knowledge regarding systems based on transition-metal catalysts as guests of supramolecular capsules. We investigate the inclusion behaviour of gold complexes based on well-known cationic Au(I) catalysts within a self-assembled hexameric resorcin[4]arene capsule. The results shed light on the nature of the encapsulated species and the way in which those species are encapsulated. We introduce an encapsulation methodology that functions through the transient introduction of an excess of water. Through small modifications in the encapsulation methodology, we...

  13. Commentary: No unique effect of intergroup competition on cooperation: non-competitive thresholds are as effective as competition between groups for increasing human cooperative behavior

    Majolo, Bonaventura; Romero, Teresa
    A commentary on No unique effect of intergroup competition on cooperation: non-competitive thresholds are as effective as competitions between groups for increasing human cooperative behavior by Jordan, M. R., Jordan, J. J., and Rand, D. G. (2017). Evol. Hum. Behav. 38, 102–108. doi: 10.1016/j.evolhumbehav.2016.07.005

  14. Cryptic lineage differentiation among Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops aduncus) in the northwest Indian Ocean

    Gray, H.; Nishida, S.; Welch, A. J.; Moura, A. E.; Tanabe, S.; Kiani, M. S.; Culloch, R.; Möller, L.; Natoli, A.; Ponnampalam, L. S.; Minton, G.; Gore, M.; Collins, T.; Willson, A.; Baldwin, R.; Hoelzel, A. R.
    Phylogeography can provide insight into the potential for speciation and identify geographic regions and evolutionary processes associated with species richness and evolutionary endemism. In the marine environment, highly mobile species sometimes show structured patterns of diversity, but the processes isolating populations and promoting differentiation are often unclear. The Delphinidae (oceanic dolphins) are a striking case in point and, in particular, bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops spp.). Understanding the radiation of species in this genus is likely to provide broader inference about the processes that determine patterns of biogeography and speciation, because both fine-scale structure over a range of kilometers and relative panmixia...

  15. Do thinking styles play a role in whether people pathologise their pornography use?

    Duffy, Athena; Dawson, Dave; Moghaddam, Nima; Das Nair, Roshan
    The concept of pornography addiction remains controversial and as such there are no diagnostic criteria. Despite this, individuals present to services with self-perceived problematic pornography use. Current treatment generally focuses on the pornography use, yet people's relationship with pornography is complex, and other factors may be relevant for therapy. Drawing on cognitive theory literature, this study explored whether thinking styles, influenced how people evaluate their pornography use. Self-reported (n = 265) “pornography addicts”, “somewhat pornography addicts”, and “non-addicts” were compared on their perceived effects of their pornography use, cognitive distortions, impact of religious beliefs, social desirability, and shame, within the...

  16. Promoting physical activity for health: a survey of knowledge, confidence and role-perception in final-year UK physiotherapy students

    Clifford, Ross
    BACKGROUND: Physical inactivity is the fourth leading cause of global mortality and is a significant independent risk factor for a range of chronic conditions. Advice from a healthcare professional can increase activity levels in adults. Current literature does not identify whether UK physiotherapy undergraduate students are prepared to promote physical activity (PA) for health. PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to determine the knowledge, confidence and role perception of final-year UK Physiotherapy undergraduate students to promote physical activity for health. METHODS: An online cross-sectional survey was used. 19 UK undergraduate Physiotherapy courses participated. Descriptive statistics explored knowledge, confidence and role-perception. Inferential statistics tested...

  17. How the laughing, irreverent Briton trumped fact-checking: a textual analysis of fake news in British newspaper stories about the EU.

    Henkel, Imke
    After the British people voted for Brexit in June 2016, the role the media played was intensely debated. However, the research has focused so far on the issues of fake news and biased reporting. This paper will argue that a focus on the role story telling played in persuading voters needs to complement the existing research. The paper builds on insights from political psychology that showed under which conditions misrepresentations of the truth prevail even after they have been debunked. It further uses Roland Barthes’ definition of myth as “depoliticised speech” and Jack Lule’s analysis of archetypal mythologies in news...

  18. Synthesis and hyperpolarisation of eNOS substrates for quantification of NO production by 1H NMR spectroscopy

    Fernandez Diaz-Rullo, Fernando; Zamberlan, Francesco; Mewis, Ryan E.; Fekete, Marianna; Broche, Lionel; Cheyne, Lesley A.; Dall'Angelo, Sergio; Duckett, Simon B.; Dawson, Dana; Zanda, Matteo
    Hyperpolarization enhances the intensity of the NMR signals of a molecule, whose in vivo metabolic fate can be monitored by MRI with higher sensitivity. SABRE is a hyperpolarization technique that could potentially be used to image nitric oxide (NO) production in vivo. This would be very important, because NO dysregulation is involved in several pathologies, including cardiovascular ones. The nitric oxide synthase (NOS) pathway leads to NO production via conversion of l-arginine into l-citrulline. NO is a free radical gas with a short half-life in vivo (≈5 s), therefore direct NO quantification is challenging. An indirect method – based on...

  19. The effect of bilateral eye-movements versus no eye-movements on sexual fantasies

    Bartels, Ross; Harkins, Leigh; Harrison, Samantha; Beard, Nikki; Beech, Anthony R.
    Background and Objectives Bilateral eye-movements (EMs) and visual mental imagery both require working memory resources. When performed together, they compete for these resources, which can cause various forms of mental imagery to become impaired (e.g., less vivid). This study aimed to examine whether EMs impair sexual fantasies (a form of mental imagery) in the same manner. Methods Eighty undergraduates (40 males, 40 females) took part in four counterbalanced conditions: (1) EMs and an experience-based sexual fantasy; (2) EMs and an imagination-based sexual fantasy; (3) experience-based sexual fantasy only; and (4) imagination-based sexual fantasy only. In each condition, the vividness, emotionality, and arousability of...

  20. The influence of REM sleep and SWS on emotional memory consolidation in participants reporting depressive symptoms

    Harrington, Marcus O.; Johnson, Jennifer; Croom, Harriet E.; Pennington, Kyla; Durrant, Simon J.
    Negative emotional memory bias is thought to play a causal role in the onset and maintenance of major depressive disorder. Rapid Eye Movement (REM) sleep has been shown to selectively consolidate negative emotional memories in healthy participants, and is greater in quantity and density in depressed patients. Slow-Wave Sleep (SWS) is typically associated with the consolidation of non-emotional memories. However, the effects of REM sleep and SWS on emotional memory consolidation have not been investigated in participants reporting depressive symptoms. In this study, we recruited two groups of healthy participants; one reporting mild-to-moderate depressive symptoms, and another reporting minimal depressive...

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