Mostrando recursos 1 - 20 de 3.684

  1. Pumping in oxygen

    Winston, Brian
    Coverage of so called Islamic State (IS), as with the reporting of the jihadi threat in the “war against terror” in general, continues to be confused, even in the hands of the most effective practitioners. The extremists' loss of control over their caliphate is not being ignored but the story is being constantly obfuscated by a lingering determination to buy into a frame of terror exactly echoing their hyperbolic rhetoric.

  2. Time for a cover-up

    Winston, Brian
    The most boring headline imaginable according, supposedly, to Claud Cockburn, is: “Small earthquake in Chile, not many dead.” I want to suggest an update: “Futile jihadi attack in (insert); not many dead.” For, not to be too Swiftian about this and with all due honour to those who have perished and with deepest of condolences to those who knew and loved them, not many dead is what we have. Since January of last year in Europe there have been, depending how you count, between five and 10 attacks identified as Islamist. The tolls have been 206 murdered and 728 injured (including...

  3. Animal and human emotion: concepts and methodologies

    Correia Caeiro, Catia
    The human-dog relationship is particularly interesting for the study of emotions. The underlying concepts need to be made explicit and methods need to be adapted to the characteristics of the species studied as well as the shortcomings of the human experimenter’s perception.

  4. Indigenous self-determination: the root of state resistance

    Melling, Graham
    States have long expressed some resistance towards granting the right of self-determination to identifiable groups of people within their boundaries. This includes the granting of the right to minorities and to indigenous groups. One of the ways in which this reluctance reveals itself is in States‟ resistance to the granting of recognition of “peoples” to certain groups. States, it would seem, draw the erroneous conclusion that recognition of groups as “peoples” under international law will inexorably lead to such “peoples” asserting a right to self-determination and with that an unfettered ability to secede from the state. However states‟ fear of indigenous secession has no realistic basis. Yet states continually...

  5. British action in Libya: the lawful protection of nationals abroad?

    Melling, Graham
    The forcible protection of one states‟ own nationals on another state‟s territory is one which stretches the boundaries of the broader, inherent right of self-defence available to states under international law. Known as the „protection of nationals abroad‟ this doctrine is one which remains, at best, highly controversial. This Article examines the lawfulness of action taken by British forces when they rescued and evacuated British nationals prior to Libya descending into civil war. It also considers the extent to which action by British forces fits within the highly controversial paradigm of „protection of nationals abroad‟.

  6. Mass spectroscopic characterization of the coronavirus infectious bronchitis virus nucleoprotein and elucidation of the role of phosphorylation in RNA binding by using surface plasmon resonance

    Chen, Hongying; Gill, Andrew C.; Dove, Brian K.; Emmett, Stevan R.; Kemp, C. Fred; Ritchie, Mark A.; Dee, Michael; Hiscox, Julian A.
    Phosphorylation of the coronavirus nucleoprotein (N protein) has been predicted to play a role in RNA binding. To investigate this hypothesis, we examined the kinetics of RNA binding between nonphosphorylated and phosphorylated infectious bronchitis virus N protein with nonviral and viral RNA by surface plasmon resonance (Biacore). Mass spectroscopic analysis of N protein identified phosphorylation sites that were proximal to RNA binding domains. Kinetic analysis, by surface plasmon resonance, indicated that nonphosphorylated N protein bound with the same affinity to viral RNA as phosphorylated N protein. However, phosphorylated N protein bound to viral RNA with a higher binding affinity than...

  7. Conservation of biological properties of the CD40 ligand, CD154 in a non-mammalian vertebrate

    Tregaskes, Clive A.; Glansbeek, Harrie L.; Gill, Andrew C.; Hunt, Lawrence G.; Burnside, Joan; Young, John R.
    Signals delivered by the CD40 ligand, CD154, have crucial roles in immune responses in mammals, being required for development of germinal centres, maturation of T-dependent antibody responses, and generation of B-cell memory. To determine whether these functions were conserved in a non-mammalian species, a putative chicken CD154 cDNA was used to make an oligomeric fusion protein, and to raise monoclonal antibodies. The antibodies detected surface expression on activated T-cells. The fusion protein detected expression of a receptor on B-cells, thrombocytes and macrophages. Biological effects of the fusion protein included induction of NO synthesis in a macrophage cell line, enhancement of...

  8. Calcium binding activity of the epidermal growth factor-like domains of the apicomplexan microneme protein EtMIC4

    Periz, Javier; Gill, Andrew C.; Knott, Vroni; Handford, Penny A.; Tomley, Fiona M.
    Microneme proteins are secreted from apicomplexan parasites during invasion of host cells and they play crucial roles in parasite–host cell adhesion. EtMIC4 is a 240 kDa transmembrane protein from Eimeria tenella that contains 31 tandemly arranged epidermal growth factor (EGF), like repeats within its extracellular domain. The majority of these repeats have calcium binding (cb) consensus sequences. Little is known about cbEGFs in apicomplexan parasites but their presence in microneme proteins suggests that they may contribute to parasite–host interactions. To investigate the potential role of cbEGFs we have expressed and correctly refolded a cbEGF triplet from EtMIC4 (cbEGF7–9) and demonstrated...

  9. Synthesis and structural characterization of a mimetic membrane-anchored prion protein

    Hicks, Matthew R.; Gill, Andrew C.; Bath, Imanpreet K.; Rullay, Atvinder K.; Sylvester, Ian D.; Crout, David H.; Pinheiro, Teresa J. T.
    During pathogenesis of transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs) an abnormal form (PrPSc) of the host encoded prion protein (PrPC) accumulates in insoluble fibrils and plaques. The two forms of PrP appear to have identical covalent structures, but differ in secondary and tertiary structure. Both PrPC and PrPSc have glycosylphospatidylinositol (GPI) anchors through which the protein is tethered to cell membranes. Membrane attachment has been suggested to play a role in the conversion of PrPC to PrPSc, but the majority of in vitro studies of the function, structure, folding and stability of PrP use recombinant protein lacking the GPI anchor. In order...

  10. A novel, resistance-linked ovine PrP variant and its equivalent mouse variant modulate the in vitro cell-free conversion of rPrP to PrPres

    Kirby, Louise; Goldmann, Wilfred; Houston, Fiona; Gill, Andrew C.; Manson, Jean C.
    Prion diseases are associated with the conversion of the normal cellular prion protein, PrPc, to the abnormal, disease-associated form, PrPSc. This conversion can be mimicked in vitro by using a cell-free conversion assay. It has recently been shown that this assay can be modified to use bacterial recombinant PrP as substrate and mimic the in vivo transmission characteristics of rodent scrapie. Here, it is demonstrated that the assay replicates the ovine polymorphism barriers of scrapie transmission. In addition, the recently identified ovine PrP variant ARL168Q, which is associated with resistance of sheep to experimental BSE, modulates the cell-free conversion of...

  11. The microneme proteins EtMIC4 and EtMIC5 of Eimeria tenella form a novel, ultra-high molecular mass protein complex that binds target host cells

    Periz, Javier; Gill, Andrew C.; Hunt, Lawrence; Brown, Philip; Tomley, Fiona M.
    Eimeria tenella, in common with other parasitic protozoa of the phylum Apicomplexa, invades host cells using an actinomyosin-powered “glideosome” complex and requires the secretion of adhesive proteins from the microneme organelles onto the parasite surface. Microneme proteins of E. tenella include EtMIC4, a transmembrane protein that has multiple thrombospondin type I domains and calcium-binding epidermal growth factor-like domains in its extracellular domain, and EtMIC5, a soluble protein composed of 11 tandemly repeated domains that belong to the plasminogen-apple-nematode superfamily. We show here that EtMIC4 and EtMIC5 interact to form an oligomeric, ultrahigh molecular mass protein complex. The complex was purified...

  12. Internet of things for disaster management: state-of-the-art and prospects

    Ray, P. P.; Mukherjee, M.; Shu, L.
    Disastrous events are cordially involved with the momentum of nature. As such mishaps have been showing off own mastery, situations have gone beyond the control of human resistive mechanisms far ago. Fortunately, several technologies are in service to gain affirmative knowledge and analysis of a disaster's occurrence. Recently, Internet of Things (IoT) paradigm has opened a promising door toward catering of multitude problems related to agriculture, industry, security, and medicine due to its attractive features, such as heterogeneity, interoperability, light-weight, and flexibility. This paper surveys existing approaches to encounter the relevant issues with disasters, such as early warning, notification, data...

  13. Effects of temperature and diet on black soldier fly, Hermetia illucens (L.) (Diptera: Stratiomyidae), development

    Harnden, Laura M.; Tomberlin, Jeffery K.
    The black soldier fly, Hermetia illucens, is recognised for its use in a forensic context as a means for estimating the time of colonisation and potentially postmortem interval of decomposing remains. However, little data exist on this species outside of its use in waste management. This study offers a preliminary assessment of the development, and subsequent validation, of H. illucens. Larvae of H. illucens were reared at three temperatures (24.9 °C, 27.6 °C and 32.2 °C) at 55% RH on beef loin muscle, pork loin muscle and a grain-based diet (control). Each of the temperatures and diets were found to...

  14. Hand hygiene: going for gold

    Cole, Mark
    Noting the high mortality rate in a medical student delivery room, in 1896, Ignaz Phillip Semmelweiss introduced a policy of hand washing with chlorinated lime solution and witnessed a ten-fold reduction in death rate (Noakes et al, 2008). Initially contentious, his findings gradually gained traction, and hand hygiene is now accepted as one of the most important measures for preventing infection. A series of guidelines developed in the USA between 1981 and 2002 were considered the seminal works, until the World Health Organization (WHO) provided a comprehensive overview of the essential aspects of hand hygiene. These consensus-based recommendations are seen...

  15. A comparison of the emotional and behavioural problems of intellectual disability offenders in medium and low security

    Ashworth, Sarah; Mooney, Paul
    Purpose There are few reliable psychometric measures of the psychopathology of offenders with intellectual disabilities (ID). However, previous research has indicated that the emotional problems scale (EPS) is useful in identifying a range of treatment needs and in predicting risk to self and others. The purpose of this paper is to compare the severity of the emotional and behavioural problems of a small sample of offenders with ID in medium and low secure services, as assessed by EPS. Additionally, the data are tentatively compared with those reported in previous research to precipitate discussion regarding the changes in clinical populations in secure...

  16. The effects of a reformer Pilates program on body composition and morphological characteristics in active women after a detraining period

    Vaquero-Cristóbal, Raquel; Alacid, Fernando; Esparza-Ros, Francisco; López-Plaza, Daniel; Muyor, José M.; López-Miñarro, Pedro A.
    The aim of this quasi-experimental pilot study was to explore the effects of a reformer Pilates program on the anthropometry, body composition, and somatotype of active adult women after a short non-exercise period. Twenty-eight women (mean age: 40.21 ± standard deviation of 8.12 years old) with one to three years of reformer Pilates experience participated in the study. The women participated in a reformer Pilates program for 16 weeks (one hour, twice per week) after 4 weeks of detraining (summer holidays) in 2012. The International Society for the Advancement of Kinanthropometry full profile was assessed before and after the intervention...

  17. Local N-ary patterns: a local multi-modal descriptor for place categorization

    Jung, Hojung; Martinez Mozos, Oscar; Iwashita, Yumi; Kurazume, Ryo
    This paper presents an effective integration method of multiple modalities such as depth, color, and reflectance for place categorization. To achieve better performance with integrated multi-modalities, we introduce a novel descriptor, local N-ary patterns (LTP), which can perform robust discrimination of place categorization. In this paper, the LNP descriptor is applied to a combination of two modalities, i.e. depth and reflectance, provided by a laser range finder. However, the LNP descriptor can be easily extended to a larger number of modalities. The proposed LNP describes relationships between the multi-modal values of pixels and their neighboring pixels. Since we consider the...

  18. A web mobile application for agricultural machinery cost analysis

    Sopegno, Alessandro; Calvo, Angela; Berruto, Remigio; Busato, Patrizia; Bocthis, Dionysis
    Machinery cost is the major cost item in farm businesses in highly mechanized production systems. Moreover, in the last years, high power machines, advanced technologies, higher cost for spare parts and repairing, and fuel consumption contributed to an even more higher increase of the machinery costs. Many engineering and economic methodological approaches have been implemented to calculate machinery use and cost, but they are almost confined in scientific and technical documentations making it difficult for a farmer to apply these approaches for deciding on buying, leasing, or sharing agricultural machinery. Information and communications technology (ICT) has an increasingly important role on...

  19. Relationships between personality of human–dog dyads and performances in working tasks

    Hoummady, Sara; Péron, Franck; Grandjean, Dominique; Cléro, Delphine; Bernard, Barbara; Titeux, Emmanuelle; Desquilbet, Loïc; Gilbert, Caroline
    Improving operational performances of working dog–human dyads is receiving more and more attention. Despite this interest, the associations between human personality, dog personality, dog-human personality matching and dyad performances have rarely been addressed. This study explores the links between human and dog personality traits, their matching, the human-dog relationship, and dyad performances of handlers and working dogs belonging to the canine unit of the Paris Firefighters Brigade. Using a repeated searching task in a training field, we evaluated the performances of 14 dyads using three parameters: searching speed, searching precision and speed improvement of the dyad. Using a questionnaire, we...

  20. Reliability of force per unit cross-sectional area measurements of the first dorsal interosseus muscle

    Martin, Daniel; Cooper, Simon; Sale, Craig; Compton, Graham; Elliott-Sale, Kirsty
    The purpose of this study was to determine the reliability of maximum voluntary isometric force (MVIF), cross-sectional area (CSA) and force per unit CSA measures, of the first dorsal interosseus (FDI) muscle, using a custom-built dynamometer and ultrasonography. Twenty-seven participants completed MVIF and CSA measurements on two separate occasions under the same conditions. Reliability was determined using paired samples t-tests, systematic bias ratio and ratio limits of agreement (RLoA), intra-class correlation (ICC) and coefficient of variation (CV). MVIF of the FDI muscle (mean ± s; 31.8 ± 7.6 N and 31.6 ± 7.3 N) was not different between trials (P...

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