Caltech Authors
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Repository of works by Caltech published authors.

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1.
Results from MINOS and NOνA - Backhouse, C.
The MINOS experiment, operating in the NuMI beam since 2005, has provided the most
precise measurement of the atmospheric mass splitting |Δm^2_(32)|, and the recent combination
of the ν_μ, ν_e, and atmospheric neutrino samples has provided some evidence of non-maximal
mixing, and hints about the neutrino mass hierarchy and the Φ_(23) octant. Construction of the
NOνA experiment, situated off-axis in the upgraded NuMI beam, is almost complete. Over the
coming years it will have significant power to probe the questions of the mass hierarchy, Φ _(23)
octant, and the possibility of CP violation in the lepton sector. This paper gives an overview
of the results from MINOS,...

2.
The Difficulty Getting High Escape Fractions of Ionizing Photons from High-redshift Galaxies: a View from the FIRE Cosmological Simulations - Ma, Xiangcheng; Kasen, Daniel; Hopkins, Philip F.; Faucher-Giguère, Claude-André; Quataert, Eliot; Kereš, Dušan; Murray, Norman
We present a series of high-resolution (20-2000 Msun, 0.1-4 pc) cosmological
zoom-in simulations at z~6 from the Feedback In Realistic Environment (FIRE)
project. These simulations cover halo masses 10^9-10^(11) Msun and rest-frame
ultraviolet magnitude Muv = -9 to -19. These simulations include explicit
models of the multi-phase ISM, star formation, and stellar feedback, which
produce reasonable galaxy properties at z = 0-6. We post-process the snapshots
with a radiative transfer code to evaluate the escape fraction (fesc) of
hydrogen ionizing photons. We find that the instantaneous fesc has large time
variability (0.01%-20%), while the time-averaged fesc over long time-scales
generally remains ~5%, considerably lower than the estimate in many
reionization...

3.
A Comparison Between Dislocation Theory and Experimental Measurements of Delayed Yield in Steel - Vreeland, T., Jr.; Wood, D. S.
A dislocation model of a yield nucleus for materials, such as
annealed low-carbon steel, which exhibit a distinct yield point, is
presented. On the basis of the model an analytical expression is derived
which relates the time delay for yielding under constant applied stress to
the magnitude of the stress and the temperature. This expression involves
the ratio of the binding energy of a dislocation with a Cottrell
“atmosphere" to the total energy of a dislocation. The expression also
involves the frequency of thermal fluctuations associated with the release
of a dislocation from an "atmosphere". The numerical values of
these two constants are chosen to fit the analytical expression...

4.
Quasinormal Modes Beyond Kerr - Zimmerman, Aaron; Yang, Huan; Mark, Zachary; Chen, Yanbei; Lehner, Luis
The quasinormal modes (QNMs) of a black hole spacetime are the free, decaying
oscillations of the spacetime, and are well understood in the case of Kerr
black holes. We discuss a method for computing the QNMs of spacetimes which are
slightly deformed from Kerr. We mention two example applications: the
parametric, turbulent instability of scalar fields on a background which
includes a gravitational QNM, and the shifts to the QNM frequencies of Kerr
when the black hole is weakly charged. This method may be of use in studies of
black holes which are deformed by external fields or are solutions to
alternative theories of gravity.

5.
A 3d-3d appetizer - Pei, Du; Ye, Ke
We test the 3d-3d correspondence for theories that are labelled by Lens
spaces. We find a full agreement between the index of the 3d N=2 "Lens space
theory" T[L(p,1)] and the partition function of complex Chern-Simons theory
on L(p,1). In particular, for p=1, we show how the familiar S^3 partition
function of Chern-Simons theory arises from the index of a free theory. For
large p, we find that the index of T[L(p,1)] becomes a constant independent
of p. In addition, we studyT[L(p,1)] on the squashed three-sphere S^3_b.
This enables us to see clearly, at the level of partition function, to what
extent G_ℂ complex Chern-Simons theory can be...

6.
IR fixed points in SU(3) gauge Theories - Ishikawa, K.-I.; Iwasaki, Y.; Nakayama, Yu; Yoshie, Y.
We propose a novel RG method to specify the location of the IR fixed point in
lattice gauge theories and apply it to the SU(3) gauge theories with N_f
fundamental fermions. It is based on the scaling behavior of the propagator
through the RG analysis with a finite IR cut-off, which we cannot remove in the
conformal field theories in sharp contrast with the confining theories. The
method also enables us to estimate the anomalous mass dimension in the
continuum limit at the IR fixed point. We perform the program for N_f=16, 12,
8 and N_f=7 and indeed identify the location of the IR fixed points in...

7.
Long-lived Light Mediator to Dark Matter and Primordial Small Scale Spectrum - Zhang, Yue
We calculate the early universe evolution of perturbations in the dark matter
energy density in the context of simple dark sector models containing a GeV
scale light mediator. We consider the case that the mediator is long lived,
with lifetime up to a second, and before decaying it temporarily dominates the
energy density of the universe. We show that for primordial perturbations that
enter the horizon around this period, the interplay between linear growth
during matter domination and collisional damping can generically lead to a
sharp peak in the spectrum of dark matter density perturbation. As a result,
the population of the smallest DM halos gets enhanced. Possible...

8.
Complementarity of LHC and EDMs for Exploring Higgs CP Violation - Chen, Chien-Yi; Dawson, S.; Zhang, Yue
We analyze the constraints on a CP-violating, flavor conserving, two Higgs
doublet model from the measurements of Higgs properties and from the search for
heavy Higgs bosons at LHC, and show that the stronger limits typically come
from the heavy Higgs search channels. The limits on CP violation arising from
the Higgs sector measurements are complementary to those from EDM measurements.
Combining all current constraints from low energy to colliders, we set generic
upper bounds on the CP violating angle which parametrizes the CP odd component
in the 126 GeV Higgs boson.

9.
Kinematic classifications of local interacting galaxies: implications for the merger/disk classifications at high-z - Hung, Chao-Ling; Rich, Jeffrey A.; Yuan, Tiantian; Larson, Kirsten L.; Casey, Caitlin M.; Smith, Howard A.; Sanders, D. B.; Kewley, Lisa J.; Hayward, Christopher C.
The classification of galaxy mergers and isolated disks is key for
understanding the relative importance of galaxy interactions and secular
evolution during the assembly of galaxies. The kinematic properties of galaxies
as traced by emission lines have been used to suggest the existence of a
significant population of high-z star-forming galaxies consistent with isolated
rotating disks. However, recent studies have cautioned that post-coalescence
mergers may also display disk-like kinematics. To further investigate the
robustness of merger/disk classifications based on kinematic properties, we
carry out a systematic classification of 24 local (U)LIRGs spanning a range of
galaxy morphologies: from isolated spiral galaxies, ongoing interacting
systems, to fully merged remnants. We artificially...

10.
NuSTAR and multifrequency study of the two high-redshift blazars S5 0836+710 and PKS 2149-306 - Tagliaferri, G.; Ghisellini, G.; Perri, M.; Hayashida, M.; Baloković, M.; Covino, S.; Giommi, P.; Madejski, G. M.; Puccetti, S.; Sbarrato, T.; Boggs, S. E.; Chiang, J.; Christensen, F. E.; Craig, W. W.; Hailey, C. J.; Harrison, F. A.; Stern, D.; Zhang, W. W.
The most powerful blazars are the flat spectrum radio quasars whose emission
is dominated by a Compton component peaking between a few hundred keV and a few
hundred MeV. We selected two bright blazars, PKS 2149-306 at redshift z=2.345
and S5 0836+710 at z=2.172, in order to observe them in the hard X-ray band
with the NuSTAR satellite. In this band the Compton component is rapidly rising
almost up to the peak of the emission. Simultaneous soft-X-rays and UV-optical
observations were performed with the Swift satellite, while near-infrared (NIR)
data were obtained with the REM telescope. To study their variability, we
repeated these observations for both sources on...

11.
Luminous and Dark Matter Profiles from Galaxies to Clusters: Bridging the Gap with Group-scale Lenses - Newman, Andrew B.; Ellis, Richard S.; Treu, Tommaso
Observations of strong gravitational lensing, stellar kinematics, and mass tracers on larger scales
enable accurate measures of the distribution of dark matter and baryons in massive early-type galaxies
(ETGs). While such techniques have previously been applied to galaxy-scale and cluster-scale lenses,
the paucity of intermediate-mass systems with high-quality data has precluded a uniform analysis of
mass-dependent trends. With the aim of bridging this gap, we present new observations and analyses
of 10 group-scale lenses at hzi = 0.36 characterized by Einstein radii θ_(Ein) = 2.
005 − 5.001 and a mean
halo mass of M_(200) = 10^(14.0)M_⊙. For these groups, we find a mean halo concentration c_(200)...

12.
Pulsed excitation dynamics of an optomechanical crystal resonator near its quantum ground-state of motion - Meenehan, Sean M.; Cohen, Justin D.; MacCabe, Gregory S.; Marsili, Francesco; Shaw, Matthew D.; Painter, Oskar
Using pulsed optical excitation and read-out along with single phonon
counting techniques, we measure the transient back-action, heating, and damping
dynamics of a nanoscale silicon optomechanical crystal cavity mounted in a
dilution refrigerator at a base temperature of 11mK. In addition to observing a
slow (~740ns) turn-on time for the optical-absorption-induced hot phonon bath,
we measure for the 5.6 GHz 'breathing' acoustic mode of the cavity an initial
phonon occupancy as low as 0.021 ± 0.007 (mode temperature = 70mK) and an
intrinsic mechanical decay rate of 328 ± 14 Hz (mechanical Q-factor =
1.7x10^7). These measurements demonstrate the feasibility of using short pulsed
measurements for a variety of...

13.
Quantum many-body models with cold atoms coupled to photonic crystals - Douglas, James S.; Habibian, H.; Hung, C. -L.; Gorshkov, A. V.; Kimble, H. Jeff; Chang, D. E.
Using cold atoms to simulate strongly interacting quantum systems represents an exciting frontier of physics. However, achieving tunable, coherent long-range interactions between atoms is an outstanding challenge, which currently leaves a large class of models inaccessible to quantum simulation. Here, we propose a solution exploiting the powerful new platform of cold atoms trapped near nano-photonic systems. We show that the dielectric contrast of an atom trapped near a photonic crystal can seed a localized cavity mode around the atomic position. In a dynamic form of "all-atomic" cavity QED, the length of these cavity modes can be tuned, and atoms separated...

14.
Superradiance for atoms trapped along a photonic crystal waveguide - Goban, A.; Hung, C.-L.; Hood, J. D.; Yu, S.-P.; Muniz, J. A.; Painter, O.; Kimble, H. J.
We report observations of superradiance for atoms trapped in the near field of a photonic crystal waveguide (PCW). By fabricating the PCW with a band edge near the D_1 transition of atomic cesium, strong interaction is achieved between trapped atoms and guided-mode photons. Following short-pulse excitation, we record the decay of guided-mode emission and find a superradiant emission rate scaling as Γ_(SR)∝N¯⋅Γ_(1D) for average atom number 0.19≲N¯≲2.6 atoms, where Γ1D/Γ_0=1.1±0.1 is the peak single-atom radiative decay rate into the PCW guided mode and Γ_0 is the Einstein-A coefficient for free space. These advances provide new tools for investigations of photon-mediated...

15.
Optomechanical creation of magnetic fields for photons on a lattice - Schmidt, M.; Keßler, S.; Peano, V.; Painter, O.; Marquardt, F.
We propose using the optomechanical interaction to create artificial magnetic
fields for photons on a lattice. The ingredients required are an optomechanical
crystal, i.e. a piece of dielectric with the right pattern of holes, and two
laser beams with the right pattern of phases. One of the two proposed schemes
is based on optomechanical modulation of the links between optical modes, while
the other is an lattice extension of optomechanical wavelength-conversion
setups. We illustrate the resulting optical spectrum, photon transport in the
presence of an artificial Lorentz force, edge states, and the photonic
Aharonov-Bohm effect. Moreover, we also briefly describe the gauge fields
acting on the synthetic dimension related...

16.
The VIMOS Ultra-Deep Survey: ∼10 000 galaxies with spectroscopic redshifts to study galaxy assembly at early epochs 2 < z ≃ 6^⋆ - Le Fèvre, O.; Capak, P.; Scoville, N.
We present the VIMOS Ultra Deep Survey (VUDS), a spectroscopic redshift survey of ∼10 000 very faint galaxies to study the major phase of galaxy assembly 2 < z ≃ 6. The survey covers 1 deg^2 in 3 separate fields: COSMOS, ECDFS and VVDS-02h, with targets selection based on an inclusive combination of photometric redshifts and color properties. Spectra covering 3650 < λ < 9350Å are
obtained with VIMOS on the ESO-VLT with integration times of 14h. Here we present the survey strategy, the target selection, the data processing, as well as the redshift measurement process, emphasizing the specific methods adapted...

17.
Local renormalization group functions from quantum renormalization group and holographic bulk locality - Nakayama, Yu
The bulk locality in the constructive holographic renormalization group requires miraculous cancellations among various local renormalization group functions. The cancellation is not only from the properties of the spectrum but from more detailed aspects of operator product expansions in relation to conformal anomaly. It is remarkable that one-loop computation of the universal local renormalization group functions in the weakly coupled limit of the N=4 super Yang-Mills theory fulfils the necessary condition for the cancellation in the strongly coupled limit in its SL(2,Z) duality invariant form. From the consistency between the quantum renormalization group and the holographic renormalization group, we determine...

18.
Higher-Dimensional Supertranslations and Weinberg's Soft Graviton Theorem - Kapec, Daniel; Lysov, Vyacheslav; Pasterski, Sabrina; Strominger, Andrew
Asymptotic symmetries of theories with gravity in d=2m+2 spacetime dimensions
are reconsidered for m>1 in light of recent results concerning d=4 BMS
symmetries. Weinberg's soft graviton theorem in 2m+2 dimensions is re-expressed
as a Ward identity for the gravitational S-matrix. The corresponding asymptotic
symmetries are identified with 2m+2-dimensional supertranslations. An alternate
derivation of these asymptotic symmetries as diffeomorphisms which preserve
finite-energy boundary conditions at null infinity and act non-trivially on
physical data is given. Our results differ from those of previous analyses
whose stronger boundary conditions precluded supertranslations for d>4. We find
for all even d that supertranslation symmetry is spontaneously broken in the
conventional vacuum and identify soft gravitons...

19.
Generating Einstein gravity, cosmological constant and Higgs mass from restricted Weyl invariance - Edery, Ariel; Nakayama, Yu
Recently, it has been pointed out that dimensionless actions in four dimensional curved spacetime possess a symmetry which goes beyond scale invariance but is smaller than full Weyl invariance. This symmetry was dubbed {it restricted Weyl invariance}. We show that starting with a restricted Weyl invariant action that includes a Higgs sector with no explicit mass, one can generate the Einstein-Hilbert action with cosmological constant and a Higgs mass. The model also contains an extra massless scalar field which couples to the Higgs field (and gravity). If the coupling of this extra scalar field to the Higgs field is negligibly...

20.
Bel-Robinson as stress-tensor gradients and their extensions to massive spin (0,1,2) - Deser, S.; Franklin, J.
We show that the Bel-Robinson (BR) tensor is - generically, as well as in its
original GR setting - an autonomously conserved part of the, manifestly
conserved, double gradient of a system's stress-tensor. This suggests its
natural extension from GR to matter models, first to (known) massless scalars
and vectors, then to massive ones, including tensors. These massive versions
are to be expected, given that they arise upon KK reduction of massless D+1
ones. We exhibit the resulting spin (0, 1, 2) "massive" BR.