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SciELO Argentina - Scientific Electronic Library Online (5.992 recursos)

La biblioteca científica - SciELO Argentina, es una biblioteca electrónica que abarca una colección seleccionada de revistas científicas argentinas.

Phyton (Buenos Aires) - Revista internacional de botánica experimental

Mostrando recursos 1 - 20 de 30

  1. Anatomía de flor y fruto de Vassobia breviflora (Solanaceae) en el sur de las Yungas australes (Argentina)

    Bernacki,FG; Albornoz,PL; Valoy,M; Ordano,M
    Solanaceae es una familia con aproximadamente 2400 especies de distribución cosmopolita. Vassobia breviflora es la única especie del género presente en Argentina. El objetivo de este trabajo fue revisar y caracterizar la anatomía de la flor y fruto de V. breviflora a partir de muestras recolectadas en poblaciones de las Yungas del noroeste argentino. Se aplicaron técnicas anatómicas convencionales. Los resultados mostraron que la mayoría de las estructuras de la flor, el fruto y la semilla no difirieron de lo previamente reportado respecto de la organización estructural descripta para otras especies de Solanaceae. No obstante, por primera vez, describimos el...

  2. Leaf architecture characters of Vachellia tortilis (Forssk.) Galasso and Banfi along longitudinal gradient in Limpopo Province, South Africa

    Mashile,SP; Tshisikhawe,MP
    This paper looked at the leaf architecture characteristics of Vachellia tortilis to determine if either there is or not an effect of the tropic line on plants. Vachellia tortilis leaves were sampled along a national road (N1) in Limpopo province. Sampling points were set 10 km apart away from the Tropic of Capricon in opposite directions. Leaf morphology revealed that leaves of V. tortilis are bipinnately compound with alternate arrangement. The venation pattern of the pinnules was eucamptodromus and brochidodromous with imperfect reticulation. Areoles were imperfect and pentagonal or irregular in shape.

  3. Actualización de la Flora Orquídeológica del macizo montañoso Guamuahaya, Cienfuegos, Cuba

    Alomá Moreno,O; Freuler,MJ
    El presente estudio de la familia Orchidaceae se desarrolló en la zona del Macizo montañoso Guamuahaya, en el período comprendido desde el año 2000 hasta marzo del 2013, visitándose 15 localidades de la provincia de Cienfuegos en 33 expediciones. Se listan 92 especies para el área estudiada, observándose los parámetros ecológicos en las zonas montañosas de los municipios Cumanayagua y Cienfuegos.

  4. The effects of tin (Sn) additions on the growth of spinach plants

    Müller,FL; Cyster,LF; Raitt,LM; Aalbers,J
    An increase in bioavailable tin in the environment could result in bioaccumulation thereof in agricultural crops, and therefore, have adverse health consequences on humans that eat these crops. The aims of the current study were thus to assess the uptake of Sn by spinach plants, and the subsequent efects this will have on the uptake of Na, Zn, K, Ca, and Mg as well as the growth of spinach plants. Spinach plants were grown in sand culture and received tin at concentrations of 0.02, 0.2, 2 and 20 mg/L along with a nutrient solution. The uptake of tin at detectible...

  5. Nitrate reductase activity, biomass, yield, and quality in cotton in response to nitrogen fertilization

    Hernández-Cruz,AE; Sánchez,E; Preciado-Rangel,P; García-Bañuelos,M L; Palomo-Gil,A; Espinoza-Banda,A
    In the production of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.), nitrogen fertilization is one of the most costly crop practices, but important to reach high yields. However, high nitrogen (N) content in plants does not always translate into a high fibre production. One way of assessing the efciency of the N fertilizer is through the enzymatic activity of the nitrate reductase (NR). This is a key enzyme in N assimilation, whose activity is regulated by a number of endogenous and exogenous factors that determine yield. The aim of this study was to assess the efect of N fertilization on yield, fibre quality,...

  6. Abscisic acid biosynthesis and catabolism and their regulation roles in fruit ripening

    Yang,FW; Feng,XQ
    Abscisic acid (ABA) plays a series of significant physiology roles in higher plants including but not limited to promote bud and seed dormancy, accelerate foliage fall, induce stomatal closure, inhibit growth and enhance resistance. Recently, it has been revealed that ABA also has an important regulator role in the growth, development and ripening of fruit. In higher plants ABA is produced from an indirect pathway from the cleavage products of carotenoids. The accumulation of endogenous ABA levels in plants is a dynamic balance controlled by the processes of biosynthesis and catabolism, through the regulation of key ABA biosynthetic gene and...

  7. Germinación de Eryngium regnellii: especie clave para la restauración ecológica de las interacciones planta-polinizador en la Pampa Austral (Buenos Aires, Argentina)

    Sabatino,M; Rovere,AE; Maceira,N
    Eryngium regnellii Malme pertenece al género más amplio dentro de la familia Apiaceae, con 250 especies en todo el mundo y 65 representadas en América del Sur. Es una especie herbácea típica de las comunidades vegetales serranas, que junto con los remanentes de pastizales, constituyen los hábitats naturales más relevantes para el sostenimiento de la diversidad en la Pampa Austral. Eryngium regnellii es clave para el mantenimiento del mutualismo de polinización, por ser una especie generalista (exhibe un elenco diverso de polinizadores) y ubicua (presente en todas las sierras estudiadas). Sin embargo, la fragmentación del paisaje Pampeano debido a la...

  8. Evaluación in vitro de la actividad antifúngica de extractos de agave (Agave scabra, Salm Dyck) sobre hongos postcosecha

    González-Álvarez,M; Moreno-Limón,S; Salcedo-Martínez,SM; Pérez-Rodríguez,EC
    El sector agrícola, y particularmente la producción de hortalizas tiene una importancia singular en la agricultura, a nivel mundial y nacional, al considerarse que éstas ocupan el segundo lugar de los productos agropecuarios. Las enfermedades fúngicas son una de las principales causas de pérdidas en hortalizas durante el período de almacenamiento, disminuyendo su valor nutricional, calidad y precio de venta. Generalmente las hortalizas se exponen a diversos tratamientos con productos químicos antes de su almacenamiento; esto contribuye a que las poblaciones de hongos sean cada vez más resistentes, y por lo tanto más difícil de controlar. Ante esta situación es...

  9. Wilt and vascular root rot (Pythium tracheiphilum) of lettuce in Bahía Blanca, Argentina

    Kiehr,M; Delhey,R; Lusto,J
    A new disease of lettuce has been observed in the surroundings of Bahía Blanca, Argentina. The symptoms include dwarfing, general chlorosis, wilting, root rot, and leaf blight, sometimes followed by plant death. Pythium tracheiphilum Matta was found to be consistently associated with those symptoms. The morphological and morphometric characteristics of this oomycete are described. Isolates obtained from field-infected lettuce plants were inoculated to lettuce and caused similar symptoms as those found in natural infections. Seedling emergence was also severely affected following experimental inoculation. Koch's Postulates were fulfilled by recovering the fungus from inoculated plants. The new disease shows a high...

  10. Growth of clonal modules on Agropyron michnoi in the Songnen Plain of Northeast China

    Zhang,J; Zhou,C; Yang,YF
    Spatial expansion of clonal plants and growth of their modules are of concern in the field of plant ecology. After measuring a large number of samples, we analyzed the module components and the growth patterns of vegetatively propagated Agropyron michnoi clones in the Songnen Plain on Northeast China. The results showed that the plasticity of clonal growth was large; the coefficients of variation of both extensive areas and the quantitative characters of modules were more than 20%. The numbers of ramets, seedlings, and buds and the cumulative length of the rhizomes showed exponentially and linearly increasing patterns with increases of...

  11. Effects of high arsenic and fluoride soil concentrations on soybean plants

    Bustingorri,C; Balestrasse,K; Lavado,RS
    Arsenic (As) and Fluoride (F) are present in many soils, affecting crops and posing risks in the food chain. We performed pot experiments on spiked soils enriched in these elements either individually or simultaneously, over a wide range of concentrations. Soybean biomass production, grain yield, As and F accumulation and distribution within the plant, and the antioxidant response to these stresses were analyzed. Arsenic was more toxic than F. At As levels >35 mg/kg and F levels >375 mg/kg, yield loss reached 60% and 30%, respectively. At the highest dose of As plants died within 2 weeks, whereas F showed...

  12. Evaluación de un vermicompost y lixiviados en Solidago x hybrida, y mineralización de C orgánico en incubaciones aerobias

    Ramírez Gerardo,MG; Chávez-García,MA; Mejía-Carranza,J
    En la región florícola de Tenancingo en el Estado de México, México, la aplicación de materia orgánica estabilizada como el vermicompost y lixviados contribuye a mejorar la calidad del suelo y la nutrición de la planta. Sin embargo, es importante conocer la composición química del vermicompost y el proceso de mineralización. Esto es debido a que de ello dependerá la cantidad y velocidad a la cual se liberen los nutrientes, y queden disponibles para el cultivo. El objetivo del estudio fue evaluar la aplicación de vermicompost y lixiviados sobre varias variables cuantitativas de Solidago x hybrida, y evaluar la mineralización...

  13. Un modelo de estados y transiciones para el Monte oriental rionegrino

    Kröpf,AI; Deregibus,VA; Cecchi,GA
    Desarrollamos un modelo funcional de la vegetación para una estepa arbustiva del Monte Oriental rionegrino con seis estados y 12 transiciones, en base a: grado de arbustificación, características del estrato herbáceo y de la superficie del suelo, y cobertura de costra biológica. La información se obtuvo de cartas de naturalistas y viajeros que recorrieron la región desde fines del siglo XVIII, reportes de viejos pobladores, y un trabajo de investigación. En el Monte se pueden distinguir distintos grupos funcionales, y nuestro trabajo se centró en los tres más conspicuos para analizar la dinámica del sistema: arbustos, pastos y costra biológica....

  14. Carbon concentration in structures of Arctostaphylos pungens HBK: An alternative CO2 sink in forests

    Pompa-García,M; Jurado,E
    Arctostaphylos pungens HBK is a dominant species with increasing abundance and distribution in chaparral ecosystems as a result of range management and, possibly, changes in climate. The value of this species for carbon (C) sequestration is unknown, and the standard 50% C out of total tree biomass is used as an approximate value. In this study, we aim to determine the C concentration of the primary components of A. pungens. The total C expressed as a percentage of biomass was determined with a Solids TOC Analyzer. We found the C concentration to vary among components. Leaves exhibited the highest C...

  15. Preservation of fresh edible cactus stems (Opuntia ficus indica Mill.) by modified atmosphere packaging

    Osorio-Córdoba,J; Rodriguez-Verástegui,LL; Díaz de León-Sánchez,F; Bosquez-Molina,E; Verde-Calvo,JR; Escalona-Buendía,HB; Pérez-Flores,LJ; Pelayo-Zaldívar,C
    Cactus stems, the cladodes of Opuntia spp. cacti, are consumed in Mexico and other countries due to their fresh and herbaceous flavor, and because of their widely known nutraceutical benefits. In order to extend the postharvest life of this vegetable, the effect of a modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) was studied in cactus stems of the cultivar Atlixco stored at 4 ± 1 °C for 20 days under three types of atmospheres: (1) air (passive atmosphere), (2) 5 kPa O2 + 4 kPa CO2, and (3) N2. During storage, the titratable acidity decreased and the color of cladodes became darker and...

  16. Ectopic expression of the PttKN1 gene in Cardamine hirsuta mediated via the floral dip method

    Chen,XJ; Guo,RJ; Tao,YJ; Hu,X; Xu,QL
    PttKN1 gene (Populus tremula × P. tremuloides KNOT-TED1) was isolated from the vascular cambium of a hybrid aspen. Previous studies on transformed plants with the PttKN1 gene suggested that it plays roles in plant development (typically in meristem initiation), maintenance and organogenesis in simple-leaved species. To investigate the gene functions further, sequence analysis of the deduced amino acid was conducted. The results suggested that the gene belongs to the class I KNOX gene (KNOTTED1-like homeobox genes) family and might play important roles in plant development by coding a transcription factor. The gene was introduced into Cardamine hirsuta using the floral...

  17. Características descriptivas de la raíz de wereke (Ibervillea sonorae Greene) y generalidades bioquímicas de su extracto acuoso

    Sinagawa-García,SR; Gutiérrez-Díez,A; Mora-Olivo,A; Juárez-Aragón,MC; Torres-Castillo,JA
    En el presente trabajo se determinó la descripción general de un extracto acuoso obtenido de la raíz de Ibervillea sonorae; además, se incluyó una descripción histológica de la misma raíz. Un análisis bromatológico general efectuado indicó que la raíz posee valores nutrimentales similares a los reportados para raíces tuberosas comestibles incluyendo al camote, yuca, jícama y arracacha. Por primera vez en la raíz de wereke se reportó la presencia de una proteasa activa a pH alcalino y la actividad inhibitoria de tripsina. A esta raíz se le han atribuido numerosas propiedades medicinales y bioactivas. No obstante, se requieren estudios más...

  18. Physiological and biochemical changes during organogenesis and somatic embryogenesis of HBsAg-transgenic cherry tomato mutant

    Guan,Z-J; Lu,S-B; Huo,Y-L; Guo,B; Guan,Z-P; Wei,Y-H
    Leaf explants of the HBsAg-transgenic cherry tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) mutant were cultured on Murashige and Skoog (MS) basal medium, supplemented with 1.0 mg/L 6-BA and 0.05 mg/L IAA for callus induction, to clarify the physiological and biochemical characteristics of morphogenesis development. Therefore, the physiological and biochemical changes during the development of organogenic shoots and somatic embryos in the mutant were studied. Superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities of the mutant had only one peak value on the 21st day. Peroxidase (POD) activities of the mutant declined less sharply since the explants were cultured. IAA oxidase activity of the mutant increased steadily until...

  19. Hongos micorrizicos arbusculares y sus efectos en el crecimiento de diferentes cultivares de Capsicum annuum L.

    González-Mendoza,D; García-López,A; Ceceña Duran,C; Grimaldo-Juarez,O; Aviles-Marín,M; Pérez-Luna,Y; Álvarez-Gutiérrez,P
    Los cambios en el número de hojas, raíces y altura de tres especies de chile (Jalapeño, Serrano y De árbol) se determinaron luego que las mismas fueron inoculadas con Glomus intraradices FS18 y Glomus Zac-19 bajo condiciones de invernadero. Los resultados indicaron que Glomus intraradices FS18 produjo mayores efectos en altura (6,12 cm y 5,63 cm) y número de hojas (10,66 y 5,84) en chile Jalapeño y De árbol, respectivamente. Por su parte, Glomus Zac-19 estimuló significativamente el número de hojas y raíces en chile Serrano (6,17 hojas y 15,31 raíces) y en chile De árbol (6,52 hojas y 26,32...

  20. Onion yield as affected by plant density, nitrogen level and loss of leaf area

    Siliquini,OA; Orioli,GA; Lobartini,JC
    Onion (Allium cepa) is an important horticulture crop because of its value as a food with a long shelf life being a relatively non-perishable product. It is very helpful to understand the growth response of the seeded onion crop to conduct appropriate field practices in attaining the highest or optimum yields. A three year field experiment was conducted using a variety of onion Valcatorce INTA, in a randomized block design with five replicates. Treatments were two plant densities and three rates of N application. The bulb growth followed a classical sigmoid curve. During the rapid growing period, the crop had...

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