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(CCMA) Artículos post-print
Mostrando recursos 1 - 20 de 34
Field evaluation of a decision support system for herbicidal control of Avena sterilis ssp. ludoviciana in winter wheat - González-Andújar, José Luis; Fernández Quintanilla, César; Bastida, F.; Calvo, R.; González Díaz, L.; Izquierdo, J.; Lezaún, J. A.; Perea, F.; Sánchez del Arco, M. J.; Urbano, J.M.
Two field studies were conducted in Central and Northern Spain over a total of five seasons to assess the usefulness of a decision support system (AVENA-PC) from agronomic, economic and environmental points of view on herbicidal control of Avena sterilis ssp. ludoviciana in winter wheat. The control treatments evaluated were: (i) AVENA-PC-based recommendations, (ii) full herbicide dose (standard farmer practice), (iii) half herbicide dose and (iv) no herbicide. The herbicide rates used in the AVENA-PC treatment averaged 65% and 30% lower than the full and half dose treatments respectively. AVENA-PC implementation controlled A. ludoviciana with similar efficacy as standard herbicide...
Soil parameters related with the sorption of 2,4-D and atrazine - Dorado, J.; Tinoco, P.; Almendros, G.
In order to explain the retention of 2,4-D and atrazine in fourteen soils from Madrid (central Spain) a series of soil physical and chemical characteristics has been analyzed. Simple and multiple regression models coincided in pointing out that soil abiotic characteristics (physical, mineralogical and cation exchange) comparatively had smaller influence in herbicide sorption than the organic matter. The multiple regression models for 2,4-D suggest that its retention in soil is significantly related with parameters such are the accumulation of particulate organic matter or the proportion of aromatic structures in the humic acids, indicating prevalence of π - πbonding interactions favored...
Molecular characteristics related to the biodegradability of humic acid preparations - Almendros, G.; Dorado, J.
The resistance of soil humic material in soil seems to depend on its molecular characteristics. We have studied 12 chemically modified humic samples in mineral soil to identify molecular characteristics connected with their resistance to biodegradation. The treatments, used to introduce changes in the composition, reactivity and N content of the original humic acid (HA), consisted of acetylation, amidation, methylation, nitration, oximation, sulfonation, acid and alkaline hydrolysis, hydrogen peroxide oxidation and fixation of ammonia and of stearic acid. The relations between respirometric data (total mineralization coefficient and mineralization rates at different stages of the 85-day mineralization curve) and a series...
Infrared spectroscopy analysis of hemp (Cannabis sativa) after selective delignification by Bjerkandera sp. at different nitrogen levels - Dorado, J.; Almendros, G.; Field, J.A.; Sierra Álvarez, Reyes
Fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy has been used to monitor changes in C/N-modified lignocellulosic substrates from Cannabis sativa L. in a 7-week solid-state fermentation with the white-rot fungus Bjerkandera sp. strain BOS55. The microbial transformation of hemp was considered as a pretreatment to pulping processes in paper industries. Special emphasis was paid on the N-content of the substrate, which was modified by: (i) external ammonium inputs, (ii) water extraction, and (iii) protease treatment. Selective delignification in the N-limited media was observed. The most diagnostic FT-IR spectral bands in relation to changes in the lignocellulosic substrate were those corresponding to alkyl structures...
Compounds released by sequential chemolysis from cuticular remains of the Cretaceous Gymnosperm Squamastrobus tigrensis (Patagonia, the Argentine) - Almendros, G.; Dorado, J.; Sanz, J.; Álvarez Ramis, Concepción; Fernández Marrón, M. T.; Archangelsky, S.
The chemical composition of morphologically well-preserved cuticular remains of the Cretaceous Gymnosperm Squamastrobus tigrensis found in the Bajo Tigre locality (Patagonia) was analysed by a progressive chemical degradation sequence involving: (i) lipid extraction after ultrasonic treatments; (ii) further BF3-MeOH transesterification; and (iii) repeated mild NaBO2-H2O2 degradation of the final residue. The compound assemblages released after the successive treatments were considered to reflect lipid speciation patterns in the different levels of the cuticular structure. In particular, after all the treatments, the dominance of a homologous series of α,ω-alkanedioic acids with maxima at C9 and C10 indicates a polymethylene network based on...
El ozono en la Salud - de la Mata, J.; Felipe Antón, Mª Rosario
[EN]The present review enhances the major importance of
the ozone, both by protecting the life in the Earth, and also by its
medicinal interest, due to the beneficial effect in the treatment of
several diseases. The ozone protects the human health from the
environment contamination and also helps to get over of several
human diseases. The ozone layer (stratospheric ozone) is as a thin
shield, surrounding the Earth and protecting it against the dangerous
sun rays. The ozone is the only substance in the atmosphere
being able to absorb the dangerous ultraviolet radiation (UV-B)
from the sun.
[ES]La presente revisión alude al importante papel del
ozono estratosférico en la protección del...
Estudio limnológico de seis medios leníticos de La Rioja (España) - Soriano, O.; Velasco, José Luis; Álvarez Cobelas, Miguel
[EN] Seasonal limnological samples in six waterbodies from La Rioja (Northern Spain) were taken during a year (july 1996-May 1997). Different saliniry and eutrophication levels were found. 90 phytoplankton,
45 rotifers and 56 macrozoobenthic taxa were identified. All environments weee shallow lakes, lying on a Tertiary valley, most of them experiencing high turbidity. Most phyroplankton algae were new records for the area. Likewise, all macrozoobenthic taxa were new records for La Rioja. Brachionus
leydigi f. tridentatlts (Sernov, 1901), Keratella cochlearis var hispida Lauterborn 1900 and Euchfanis alata Voronkov 1912 were new rotifer records for Spain.
23 de abril de 2010, Día del Libro - Blanco Temprano, Clara María
A finales marzo, principios de abril, empezamos a pensar en el “Día del Libro”, ¡qué bien, este año cae en viernes! Ya es algo tradicional en nuestra biblioteca la celebración del “Día del Libro”.
Vibrational study of dawsonite type compounds MAl(OH)2CO3 (M = Na, K, NH4) - Serna, Carlos J.; García-Ramos, José Vicente; Peña, M. J.
Infrared and Raman spectra of polycrystalline dawsonite type compounds MAl(OH)2CO3 (M = Na, K, NH4) have been obtained between 4000 and 40 cm-1. The data are interpreted on the basis of the factor group analysis of the proposed structures (D28 2h for Na and K dawsonite and D17 2h for NH4 dawsonite). In the dawsonites, lattice vibrational modes are clearly separated from the internal at around 700 cm-1. Most of the internal (OH- and CO2- 3) modes are identified and agree well with theoretical predictions. Vibrations of the OAl unit are responsible for the main features in the 700-250 cm-1...
Identifying elements in rocks from the Dry Valleys desert (Antarctica) by ion beam proton induced X-ray emission - Wierzchos, J.; Ascaso, Carmen; Ager, F. J.; García-Orellana, Isabel; Carmona, Asunción; Respaldiza, M. A.
In some zones of Antarctica’s cold and dry desert, the extinction of cryptoendolithic microorganisms leaves behind inorganic traces of
microbial life. The extinction of these microorganisms is considered to be the best terrestrial analogue of the disappearance of possible life on early Mars. In the present study, sandstone rock samples from several sites of the Dry Valleys known to harbour endolithic microorganisms, as well as samples with microbial fossils, were analysed by proton induced X-ray emission (PIXE). Our findings suggest significant
differences in major element concentrations among the different zones within the same sample. In some sample fractions, these differences could be...
Influence of heavy metal supplementation on specific methanogenic activity and microbial communities detected in batch anaerobic digesters - Milán, Z.; Sánchez Vilches, Enrique; Borja Padilla, Rafael; Montalvo, S.; Ruiz-Tagle, N.; Urrutia, H.; Chamy, R.
Natural and modified zeolites (0.5–1.0 mm) from the Tasajera deposit in Cuba were used to enhance the anaerobic digestion process of synthetic substrates. Natural zeolites were modified by ionic exchange and by adsorption with nickel, cobalt and magnesium. The experiments were carried out by using an inoculum from a full-scale anaerobic reactor treating winery wastewater. Modified natural zeolites not only enhanced the anaerobic digestion process, but also increased the specific methanogenic activity (SMA) of the sludges. The textural and chemical surface characteristics of the modified zeolites were related to the process performance, volatile fatty acid (VFA) production and microbial communities...
Performance evaluation of a two-phase anaerobic digestion process of synthetic domestic wastewater at ambient temperature - Guerrero, L.; Montalvo, S.; Coronado, Eugenio; Chamy, R.; Poirrier, P.; Crutchik, D.; Sánchez, E.; Rubia, M. A. de la; Borja Padilla, Rafael
A two-phase anaerobic digestion process of synthetic domestic wastewater was studied at ambient temperature in mild to cold climates. The hydrolytic stage was carried out in a continuous stirred tank reactor with an effective volume of 1.2 L. The hydrolytic reactor operated at hydraulic retention times (HRTs) in the range of 1.3 to 2.7 h, which allowed for optimum HRT to be obtained in order to achieve a maximum amount of soluble COD. For the methanogenic stage, an up-flow anaerobic filter with a volume of 1.35 L and corrugated plastic rings as biomass immobilization support were used. During the investigation,...
Kinetics of anaerobic degradation of screened dairy manure by upflow fixed bed digesters: Effect of natural zeolite addition - Nikolaeva, S.; Sánchez, E.; Borja Padilla, Rafael; Raposo Bejines, Francisco; Colmenarejo Morcillo, Manuel F.; Montalvo, S.; Jiménez-Rodríguez, A. M.
The effect of the hydraulic retention time (HRT) on the performance of two up-flow anaerobic fixed bed digesters (UFAFBDs) packed with waste tire rubber (D1) and waste tire rubber and zeolite (D2) as micro-organism immobilization supports was studied. It was found that a first-order kinetic model described well the experimental results obtained. The kinetic constants for COD, BOD5, total solids (TS) and volatile solids (VS) removal were determined to be higher in digester D2 than in digester D1 or control. Specifically, they were 0.28 ± 0.01, 0.32 ± 0.02, 0.16 ± 0.01 and 0.24 ± 0.01 d− 1 respectively for...
Molecular features of fossil organic matter in remains of the Lower Cretaceous fern Weichselia reticulata from Przenosza basement (Poland) - Almendros, G.; Zancada, M. C.; González-Vila, Francisco Javier; Lesiak, M. A.; Álvarez Ramis, Concepción
Przenosza (Western Carpathians, Poland) is an important palaeobotanical Cretaceous basement site with morphologically
well-preserved plant remains. Both the morphology of the macro remains and microscopic examination of isolated
plant cuticles reveal species typical of coastal swampy palaeoenvironments, mainly the fern Weichselia reticulata.
After isolation of the plant remains, preliminary characterisation of the fossil organic matter was carried out using
cross-polarization, magic angle spinning (CP-MAS) 13C Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (13C NMR) spectroscopy and
Curie point analytical pyrolysis.
The 13C NMR results suggested a type III kerogen from predominantly terrestrial material which was subjected to
intense diagenetic and catagenetic changes. The prominent resonance at ca. 130 ppm indicates C-...
Evolución de las propiedades físicas y la materia orgánica del suelo con enmiendas orgánicas y fertilización mineral - López-Fando, Cristina; Dorado, José; González-Vila, Francisco Javier; Zancada, M. C.; Almendros, G.
[EN]: After 16 years of continuous amendment either with farmyard manure or crop wastes and two levels of mineral N fertilisation in a Calcic Haploxeralf at Toledo (central Spain), significant changes
in soil physical properties, soil fertility and in the amount and characteristics of soil organic matter have
been found. Such changes depended on the type of organic matter applied, the N dose (O and 100 kg ha-1 NH4N03) and their interaction. When compared with control plots, visible spectroscopy suggested that
the organic matter accumulated in the amended plots was less transformed, with a more marked aliphatic
character, its humification degree decreasing when increasing...
Evaluation of the water quality in the Guadarrama river at the section of Las Rozas-Madrid, Spain - Vicente, J.; Colmenarejo Morcillo, Manuel F.; Sánchez, E.; Rubio, A.; García, M. G.; Borja, R.; Jiménez, A. M.
The variation of the water quality of the Guadarrama river and its tributaries in a section of Las Rozas-Madrid, Spain, was studied during the time period between January 2003 and January 2008. The parameter water quality index (WQI) was used to determine the water quality based on the conventional parameters of pollution. It was found that the WQI was slightly affected in the section evaluated. The value of the WQI was in the range of 56-64, which corresponded to the classification of 'good quality'. It was determined that 64.3% of the organic matter present in the river was removed in...
Dynamics of understorey herbaceous plant diversity following shrub clearing of cork oak forests: A five-year study - Pérez-Ramos, Ignacio Manuel; Zavala, Miguel A.; Marañón, Teodoro; Díaz-Villa, Mª D.; Valladares, Fernando
Cork oak forest management has been traditionally oriented towards optimization of cork production. Shrub clearing is a traditional silvicultural practice aimed to: (1) facilitate cork extraction (conducted every nine years); (2) increase cork yield by reducing competition from neighbouring shrubs; and (3) reduce fire risk by decreasing fuel load. These silvicultural practices, however, may interfere with current objectives of conservation and sustainable use of biodiversity. The effects of shrub clearing on different diversity components were assessed in three structurally contrasting forests sites, located in Southern Spain. A fenced experimental plot (1 ha) was established at each forest site. Half of...
Patterns and ecological consequences of abiotic heterogeneity in managed cork oak forests of Southern Spain - Quilchano, Consuelo; Marañón, Teodoro; Pérez-Ramos, Ignacio Manuel; Noejovich, L.; Valladares, Fernando; Zavala, Miguel A.
Spatial heterogeneity of abiotic factors influences the structure and function of forests and must be taken into account for their conservation and sustainable management. In this study, we evaluate the heterogeneity of abiotic environmental variables in managed cork oak (Quercus suber L.) forests in southern Spain at patch, site and regional scales. The extent of spatial heterogeneity depended on the environmental variable examined and the scale considered. For example, soil Mn and P and light availability in the understorey were very heterogeneous at the regional scale, while soil N had low regional heterogeneity, but high spatial variability, at patch scale,...