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(IRN) Artículos post-print
Mostrando recursos 1 - 20 de 111
Searching for Guidelines for "Ecological Thought" Development - Hernández, A. J.; Pastor PIñeiro, Jesús
The present work is concerned with eliciting objectives for a project
aimed at the development of "ecological thought". For our purposes,
we start from interactions among ecological studies teaching what we
have called "ecological thought" and initiation procedures for ecological
method learning and understanding, so as to infer positive population
behaviour patterns, the interacting system being a university
student population and the environment.
In order to define the main elements within the system, we have
studied 33 variables belonging to social, cultural, psychological and
The employed methodology combines the scientific method—which is
used in the investigation of a particular ecological problem—and the
ecological method, which we apply to educational dynamics...
Phytoremediation studies of Zn polluted soils using - Pastor Piñeiro, Jesús; Hernández, A. J.; Prieto, Nuria
In the South of Madrid, áreas occupied by abandoned urban and industrial waste
landfills, are the most polluted soils (CAM, 1998). In these zones, physical degradation,
salinisation (Pastor et al. 1993a; Hernández et al. 1998) and heavy metal pollution are the
most significant. Among the heavy metáis present, Zn is particularly problematic. The Zn
levéis of the cover soils of these landfills are 600 ppm, but they do approach valúes for which
remediation measures are recommended, and even surpass these in áreas prone to leaching
(Hernández et a/., 1998). One such measure is the use of native plants that are capable of
growth in polluted soil. This...
Ecological engineering in the management of an olive orchard on degraded soil - Pastor Piñeiro, Jesús; Hernández, A. J.
THIS report describes the results obtained ¡n a field experiment performed on an olive orchard,
in which the soil is sandy and impoverished. Our study forms part of a project whose main aim
is to evalúate ecological management systems directed towards the conservation of soil in semiarid
áreas. At the start of our analysis, we noted two critical points: soil erosión and a degraded
soil with extremely low levéis of organic matter, N and other nutrients. To resolve these problems
from a perspective of sustainable agricultura, it was decided to implant or to propitiate
the growth of plant covers between rows of trees that would be...
Effect of Heavy Metals from Mine Soils on Avena Sativa L.and Education Strategies - Gutiérrez Ginés, Mª Jesús; Pastor Piñeiro, Jesús; Hernández, A. J.
Heavy metals in the soils of old mining areas, besides
affecting the productivity of their ecosystems, could also
affect animal and human health. To test this hypothesis, we
assessed the bioavailability of heavy metals to forage crops
used as human food sources or components of fodder. The
sites examined were the surrounding soils of two abandoned
mines in Central Spain polluted with Al, Fe, Mn, and more
than one of the heavy metals Zn, Pb, Cd, Cu, Cr or Ni, and
As. All elements were determined by plasma emission
spectroscopy with the exception of As, which was quantified
Levels of Zn, Pb, Cd, Cu and Fe were high in...
Oxidation-reduction potentials of feredoxin-NADP+ reductase and flavodoxin from Anabaena PCC 7119 and their electrostatic and covalent complexes - Pueyo, José J.; Gómez-Moreno, Carlos; Mayhew, Stephen G.
The oxidation-reduction potentials of ferredoxin-NADP' reductase and flavodoxin from the cyanobacterium
Anuhaena PCC 7119 were determined by potentiometry. The potentials at pH 7 for the oxidized flavodoxin/
flavodoxin semiquinone couple (E2) and the flavodoxin seniiquinone/hydroquinone couple (El) were - 21 2 mV
and -436 mV, respectively. El was independent of pH above about pH 7, but changed by approximately
-60 mV/pH below about pH 6, suggesting that the fully reduced protein has a redox-linked pK, at about 6.1,
similar to those of certain other flavodoxins. E2 varied by - 50 mV/pH in the range pH 5 - 8. The redox potential
for the two-electron reduction of...
Preparados para sobrevivir (Ciencia y desarrollo ecología y desarrollo) - Pastor Piñeiro, Jesús
El desarrollo de la ciencia y
de la técnica de una sociedad
es parte de su avance
cultural, y en una sociedad
moderna es parte central
de dicho desarrollo.
Por tanto, el progreso
científico y técnico no puede darse con
independencia del desarrollo cultural,
lo que a su vez no puede producirse sin
un desarrollo económico y político paralelo.
Es un hecho que, aunque puede haber
investigaciones originales y valiosas
en condiciones políticas y económicas
duras, no puede existir un desarrollo
científico y técnico integral y sostenido,
a menos que exista libertad política,
tolerancia intelectual y cierta holgura
económica. En suma, el desarrollo
científico-técnico y económico requiere
el avance de la sociedad en todos sus
Molecular and functional analysis of α-amylase inhibitor genes and proteins in the common bean Phaseolus vulgaris - Mirkov, T. E.; Pueyo, José J.; Mayer, J. E.; Kjemtrup, S.; Cardona, C.; Chrispeels, Maarten J.
Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) seeds accumulate three evolutionarily related plant defense proteins: phytohemaglutinin (PHA), arcelin (Arc) and α-amylase inhibitor (αAI). we identified the gene that encodes snap bean(cv. Greensleeves) αAI on the basis of a partial amino acid sequence of purified αAI supplied by John Whitaker (UC Davis), and the expression of the gene in tobacco seeds.
Independent induction of two blue light-dependent monovalent anion transport systems in the plasma membrane of Monoraphidium braunii - Mora, Cristina; Witt, Federico G.; Aparicio, Pedro J.; Quiñones, Miguel Angel
In the plasma membrane of the green alga Monoraphidium braunii there are at least two monovalent anion transport systems. One of them is specific for bicarbonate. This transport system is activated by blue light and its induction is triggered by a decrease in the external CO2 concentration. The second transport system is responsible for nitrate uptake at least. This transport system is also activated by blue light and its induction occurs when there is no ammonium in the external medium. Both transport systems are synthesized independently. Hence, when M. braunii cells grow with nitrate as the only nitrogen source under...
La revegetación de vertederos de residuos urbanos basada en principios ecológicos - Hernández, A. J.; Pastor Piñeiro, Jesús
El mayor nivel de degradación de ecosistemas terrestres se da en aquellos casos en los que la
misma es debida a la interacción erosión-contaminación. En la situación actual, los vertederos de
residuos sólidos urbanos (VRSU) que son clausurados nos permiten tener una visión adecuada para la
investigación acerca de la rehabilitación de dichos ecosistemas. Sin duda, el proceso de la revegetación
ha sido considerado como primario a fin de conseguir nuestros objetivos.
La metodología ha consistido en estudiar comparativamente (91 estaciones de muestreo) tres
vertederos con presencia de erosión-contaminación y los ecosistemas del entorno que tuvieron
abundancia en especies herbáceas, ya que las primeras etapas de la...
Nutrient recycling as an ecological basis for the technologies involved in a sustainable development in semiarid mediterranean rangelands - Pastor Piñeiro, Jesús; Hernández, A. J.; Bello, A.
Recycling is the central axis for the conservaron of ecosystems ¡n the scenario of
sustainable development. This subject implies the study of an important frame of interactions.
Nevertheless, the complex study of nutrient recycling in agroecosystems would
be reduced on the basis of the actual knowledge of the soil biocenoses, mainly represented
by soil nematodes.
Nematodes are indicator organisms of several processes related with the trophic
structure of soil systems. This question, combined with the study of nematode interactions
with the herbaceous communities growing over these soils, can provide guidelines
for a more rational planning of pasture management.
The results of our work show that nematode density is posrtively...
In situ microscopical diagnosis of biodeterioration processes at the convent of Santa Cruz la Real, Segovia, Spain - Ríos, Asunción de los; Galván, Virginia; Ascaso, Carmen
This report describes the in situ evaluation of biodeterioration processes occurring in the stone (granodiorite and carbonate) of the
Convento de Santa Cruz la Real, Segovia, Spain. Scanning electron microscopy with back-scattered electron imaging (SEM–BSE) and
11 X-ray microanalysis were used to examine stone samples from the convent. Free-living algae and fungi, lichen thalli, mosses, cyanobacteria
and bacterial colonies were observed. Some of these organisms were located epilithically, while others were found to inhabit ssures
13 or cavities inside the lithic substrate, a few of which showed an euendolithic ecological niche. Biogeomechanical and biogeochemical
processes associated with the presence and action of lithobiontic microorganisms were...
The effect of desiccation on cell shape in the lichen Parmelia Sulcata taylor - Brown, D. H.; Rapsch, S.; Beckett, A.; Ascaso, Carmen
Comparisons have been made of the shape of algal cells in the lichen Parmelia sulcata which
was subjected to controlled desiccation regimes inducing substantial water loss. The spherical
appearance of algal cells obtaiiíed by conventional techniques for transmission electrón
microscopy (TEM) was shown by low temperature scanning electrón microscopy (LTSEM)
to be the consequence of rapid rehydration during fixation. Collapse of the walls of algal cells
and fungal hyphae in the medulla and algal layer when desiccated were observed with LTSEM
and shown to be reversible on rehydration. Desiccation-induced contraction of cortical fungal
protoplasts was detected with LTSEM. Fixation with osmium vapour only before TEM
demonstrated a similar...
Temporal variations in the carbon budget of forest ecosystems in Spain - Rodríguez Murillo, Juan Carlos
Temperate and boreal forests of the Northern Hemisphere have recently been
identified as important carbon sinks. Accurate calculation of forest carbon budget and
appraisal of the temporal variations of forest net carbon fluxes are important topics to
elucidate the ‘‘missing sink’’ question and to follow up the changing carbon dynamics in
In this article, recent carbon budgets of the forests of a region in northern Spain have
been calculated using data from forest inventories and a carbon cycle model for the human
perturbations to the forests. Two methods are used, one that requires data from two forest
inventories (growing stocks), and another that uses data from only...
Sedimentation in the semi-arid freshwater wetland Las Tablas de Daimiel (Spain) - Sánchez Carrillo, Salvador; Álvarez Cobelas, Miguel; Angeler, D. G.
Despite sedimentation being recognized as a very important process in wetlands, very little is known about its dynamics. This study analyzed sedimentation on a short-term scale in the semiarid floodplain wetland Las Tablas de Daimiel National Park (central Spain). In monthly sampling intervals during 1997 and 1998, we measured seasonal and spatial sedimentation patterns of total solids, organic and mineral matter, nitrogen, and phosphorus using sediment traps. The highest mean mass accumulation rates were obtained at the wetland-input site (135 ± 57 g m−2 d−1), but a decrease in sedimentation rates was noted with increasing distance from the inflow (49...
Cultivation-Induced Effects on the Organic Matter in Degraded Southern African Soils - Pardo, Mª Teresa; Almendros, G.; Zancada, M. C.; López-Fando, Cristina; González-Vila, F.J.
We studied quantitative and qualitative changes in soil organic matter (SOM) due to
different land uses (reference woodland versus cultivated) on six soils from Tanzania
(Mkindo and Mafiga), Zimbabwe (Domboshawa and Chickwaka), and South Africa
(Hertzog and Guquka). Structural characteristics of the humic acids (HAs) were measured
by Curie-point pyrolysis–gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (Py–GC/MS)
and solid-state 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (CPMAS 13C NMR) spectroscopy.
Significant changes in concentration and composition of SOM were observed between
land uses. Losses of organic carbon after cultivation ranged from 35% to 50%. Virgin
soils showed large proportions of colloidal humus fractions: humic acids (HAs) and
fulvic acids (FAs) but negligible amounts of not-yet decomposed...
Mutants of coliphage BF23 able to propagate on smooth strains of Salmonella Typhimurium - Mojica-A, T.; García, E.; Ascaso, Carmen
Mutants of coliphage BF23 able to propágate on smooth strains of
The host range of a bacteriophage can be modified by mutation
(and/or recombination) either of the host and/or of the bacteriophage.
We have previously reported (MOJICA-A & CHARLES, 1975)
that coliphage BF23 was able to propágate on rough strains (mutation
of the host) of Salmonella typhimurium (strains with incomplete
lipopolysaccharide of the cell wall), and that the sensitivity of
rough strains was dependent on the presence of an intact bfe+
gene. Moreover the inability of the phage to propágate on smooth
strains was due to failure of the phage to absorb to the bacterial
Unmutagenized stocks of phage...
Leguminosas y gramineas como base para la tipificación de pastos. II comunidades de caracter subhúmedo y xerofítico - Pastor Piñeiro, Jesús; Oliver, Salvador; Gómez Sal, A.
Using only legume and grass species, we pretend to characterize a group of pastures,
subhumid and xerophytic by means of an ordination analysis. This analysis
differentiates clearly the communities with mesomediterranean bioclimatic characteristics
from those with supramediterranean ones.
The transition between both bioclimatic environments is defined by the "tomillar-
pasto" (al. Brachypodion phoenicoidé) and 'lastonares" (al. Festuco-Poion
ligulatae) according to topographic and soil characteristics.
Given the complex character of these subhumid pastures, in the southem limit
of their distribution área, the use of only these species belonging to the above mentioned
families, is not sufficient to differentiate the main types of communities
described for the studied área, although it does...
Boron, Zinc, Iron, and Manganese Content in Four Grassland Species - Adarve, M. J.; Hernández, A. J.; Gil, A.; Pastor Piñeiro, Jesús
A pot experiment was carríed oul to test the response of the B,
Zn, Fe, and Mn concentraron in four wild herbaceous specics exposcd
to three landñll leachate treatments of increasing concentration of
contaminants. The species tested «ere clustered clover (Trifolium
(¡lomera tum L.), col ton clover (T. tomentosum L.), wall barley
(Hordeum murinum L.), and soft brome (Bromus hordaceus L.). The
legume specics accumulated more Fe and B than the grasses. The
least contaminated leachate (leachate A) significantly increased the
Fe and Mn content in T. glomeratum. Leachate B significantly increased
the Zn content in both clover species and Fe content in T.
glomeratum and H. murinum, while it...
Efecto de diferentes tipos de uso sobre los componentes edáfico y biótico de agroecosistemas de secano - Hernández, A. J.; Pastor Piñeiro, Jesús; Estalrich, E.; Urcelay, A.; Lacasta Dutoit, Carlos
Los principales problemas ambientales asociados con las prácticas cerealistas
en la submeseta sur son la evolución negativa de las características edáficas y su repercusión
en los procesos erosivos. En esta región semiárida interactúan el clima, la topografía, el suelo y la
cubierta vegetal para determinar el grado de degradación del medio. Desde este punto de vista, el
objetivo de este estudio ha sido examinar los componentes edáfico y biológico de los agroecosistemas
subsiguientes a la retirada del cultivo cerealista, en los que la cantidad y el tipo de la cubierta
vegetal son los que controlan la protección del suelo. Como consecuencia de ello la vegetación es
Cubiertas vegetales en olivar y viñedo: balance de diez años en relación al agua del suelo y su monitorización - Pastor Piñeiro, Jesús; Benítez, M.; Hernández, A. J.
Plant covers in olive grove and vineyard: ten years balance in relation to soil water and its monitoring
The conceptual framework affects necessary ecológica! engineering for the sustainability of woody cultivations
in semiarid Mediterranean environments and tries to articúlate the management of several components of these
ecological agroecosystems to optimize soil water without covers irrigation.
This report describes ways of managing plant covers ("weeds" or native legumes) in relation to the prevailing
rainfall régimen. Over the past 10 years, we have been monitoring soil moisture levéis in an extensive olive
plantation and vineyard at different depths under the different plant canopies through standard procedures
(gravimetric followed by...