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(IRN) Artículos post-print
Mostrando recursos 1 - 20 de 136
Chasma Australe, Mars: Structural framework for a catastrophic outflow origin. - Anguita, F.; Babín, R.; Benito, Gerardo; Gómez, D.; Collado, A.; Rice, Rebeca J.
Chasma Australe, 500 km long and up to 80 km wide, is the most remarkable of the martian south pole erosional reentrants carved in the polar layered deposits. We have interpreted Chasma Australe erosional and depositional features as evidence for a flood origin, which we have reconstructed using a modified Manning equation. The main characteristics of the flow are a water velocity between 30 and 50 m s−1 and discharge values between 7 × 108 and 3 × 109 m3 s−1, very near to MGS data-based estimations for martian outflow channels (D. E. Smith et al. 1998, Science279, 1686–1692). We...
Holocene alluvial morphopedosedimentary record and environmental changes in the Bardenas Reales Natural Park (NE Spain) - Sancho, C.; Peña, J. L.; Muñoz, Alberto; Benito, Gerardo; McDonald, E.; Rhodes, Edward J.; Longares, L. A.
A Holocene alluvial morphostratigraphy, based on geomorphological mapping, sedimentological analysis, soil development and radiocarbon chronology is presented for the semiarid Blanca basin in the Bardenas Reales Natural Park (NE, Spain). Four morphopedosedimentary alluvial units (MU1, MU2, MU3 and MU4) were differentiated, which may correspond to two palaeogeographical stages. The first one includes the morphopedosedimentary unit MU1 and is the most extensive in the area. It is made up of a complex aggradation (fill up) sequence comprising a braided channel system, a sand–mud flat (9200–7900 cal BP) and a playa-lake environment related to a nearly closed depression. An intensive fluvial entrenchment...
Deteriorating effects of lichen and microbial colonization of carbonate building rocks in the Romanesque churches of Segovia (Spain) - Ríos, Asunción de los; Cámara, Beatriz; García del Cura, M. Ángeles; Rico, Víctor J.; Galván, Virginia; Ascaso, Carmen
In this study, the deterioration effects of lichens and other lithobionts in a temperate mesothermal climate were explored. We examined samples of dolostone and limestone rocks with visible signs of biodeterioration taken from the exterior wall surfaces of four Romanesque churches in Segovia (Spain): San Lorenzo, San Martín, San Millán and La Vera Cruz. Biofilms developing on the lithic substrate were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy. The most common lichen species found in the samples were recorded. Fungal cultures were then obtained from these carbonate rocks and characterized by sequencing Internal Transcribed Spacers (ITS). Through scanning electron microscopy in back-scattered...
Biorreceptividad de las dolomías a la colonización fúngica - Cámara, Beatriz; Ríos, Asunción de los; García del Cura, M. Ángeles; Galván, Virginia; Ascaso, Carmen
En este trabajo se evalúa cómo influye la textura de las
dolomías en las estrategias adoptadas por los microorga-
nismos para colonizar estos materiales pétreos. Para ello
se han caracterizado muestras de dolomías con diferen-
tes texturas mediante microscopía electrónica de barrido
en modo de electrones retrodispersados (SEM-BSE),
microscopía electrónica de barrido a bajas temperaturas
(LTSEM), microscopía de luz transmitida (TLM) y porosi-
metría por intrusión de mercurio (MIP). De estas obser-
vaciones se deduce que los hongos son los microorganis-
mos colonizadores más importantes en las dolomías estu-
diadas. Además, en esta colonización fúngica...
Spreading of the invasive Carpobrotus aff. acinaciformis in Mediterranean ecosystems: The advantage of performing in different light environments - Traveset, Anna; Moragues, Eva; Valladares Ros, Fernando
Question: Do specific environmental conditions affect the performance and growth dynamics of one of the most invasive taxa (Carpobrotus aff. acinaciformis) on Mediterranean islands? Location: Four populations located on Mallorca, Spain. Methods: We monitored growth rates of main and lateral shoots of this stoloniferous plant for over two years (2002-2003), comparing two habitats (rocky coast vs. coastal dune) and two different light conditions (sun vs. shade). In one population of each habitat type, we estimated electron transport rate and the level of plant stress (maximal photochemical efficiency Fv/Fm) by means of chlorophyll fluorescence. Results: Main shoots of Carpobrotus grew at...
Gender, season and habitat: Patterns of variation in photosynthetic activity, growth and fecundity in Thymelaea velutina - Bandera, Mari Carmen de la; Traveset, Anna; Valladares Ros, Fernando; Gulías, Javier
Changes in the ecophysiological performance of a plant species due to different environmental conditions generally reflect adaptations to the habitat where the plant grows and are often related to its survival capacity in a particular place. We examined this with the dioecious shrub Thymelaea velutina, in two contrasting populations representing the extremes of the altitudinal gradient where the species lives (coastal dunes and mountain habitats over 1000 m). We measured net photosynthetic rates and stomatal conductance, estimated the level of plant stress by chlorophyll fluorescence, and assessed their correlations with growth rate, plant size, flower production and fruit set. We...
Systems science and the alternatives to the changes of soil in areas of traditional agriculture - Hernández, A. J.; Jiménez, C.; Pastor Piñeiro, Jesús
The ecological theory has been developing for many years in trie same conceptual and
methodological framework as the general theory of Systems (Hernández, 1991). Ecosystems,
as complex systems, are in many cases difficult to study, but much more when they are
subjected to human interventions during many centuries. Such is the case of Agrosystems.
The agricultural landscape is the expression in space and time of human effort in search for
his daily nourishment. But since the landscape is a complex system of relationships, it is
necessary to analyse its components so as to understand the past and their processes of
The present trends about landscape knowledge, taking...
Quality and composition of juniperus sativa l. pastures and according to management and environmental factors - Gómez Sal, A.; Oliver, Salvador; Pastor Piñeiro, Jesús
Creeping savin (Junlperus sabina L.) confers a strong character to the pastures in the calcareous fíat highlands of the Iberian Mountain System. Communities
of creeping savin were found in 24% of sites in a startified sampling.
Each of these was analized as a function of its specific composition, taking
into account edaphic, geomorphologic and climatic factors.
Pastures with creeping savin are found in sites of extreme environmetal conditions
with predominant degrated stony soils and where heaving has selected
plants specialized in producing under these stresses. The pastures belong
mainly to the subhumid type included in Al. Bromion, however according to soil
stoniness and degradation and water holding capacity,...
Epiphytic Evernia Prunastri Ultrastructural Facts (L.) ACH.: Ultrastructural Facts - Ascaso, Carmen; González, C.; Vicente, C.
The insertion of E. prunastri thallus in the bark of Quercus pyrenaica, and
its progression through the plant tissues up to the medidla have been investigated. The material
has been processed for light and electrón microscopic observations. A dramatical destruction
of the bark by hyphae penetration has been observed. Lichen hyphae progress up
to the most internal tissues invading the vascular bundles and penetrating into the xylem
vessels without an apparent destruction of the cellular integrity at this level.
Precisiones histológicas y bioquímicas acerca de los ejemplares de Frenelopsis procedentes de Torrelaguna (Madrid ) - Álvarez Ramis, Concepción; Almendros Martín, Gonzalo; Polo, Alfredo
[ES] Son descritos diferentes aspectos morfológicos de los Frenelopsis del yacimiento de Torrelaguna, comparándose sus características con las descritas por otros autores para las especies F. alata y F. oligostomata . Los restos de Frenelopsis presentan, en el yacimiento estudiado, un notable polimorfismo respecto a las dimensiones del fronde; pero todos los ejemplares descritos poseen características muy similares a las de F. oligostomata . El estudio químico de los constituyentes orgánicos de las cutículas muestra una composición compleja, siendo los componentes mayoritarios un residuo cutinizado insoluble en álcalis y una fracción polifenólica extraíble de características similares a los ácidos húmicos....
Chemical and ultrastructural features of the lichen-volcanic/sedimentary rock interface in a semiarid region (Almería, Spain) - Souza-Egipsy, Virginia; Wierzchos, Jacek; García-Ramos, José Vicente; Ascaso, Carmen
The chemical and ultrastructural features of the interface formed by different biotypes of
saxicolous lichen species with their rock substrata were investigated in the semiarid habitat of the SE
Iberian Peninsula and the relationships between the bioweathering patterns observed and lichen
colonization selectivity towards the different rock substrata evaluated. Xanthoria parietina was able to
fix to the rock substratum by the adherence of single cell walls from the lower cortex. Neofuscelia pulla
used rhizines and loose groups of hyphae for attachment of the thallus to the rock. Colonization by the
foliose lichen species was confined to the rock surface, while Diploschistes diacapsis was also able to
In situ evaluation of the biodeteriorating action of microorganisms and the effects of biocides on carbonate rock of the Jeronimos Monastery (Lisbon) - Ascaso, Carmen; Wierzchos, Jacek; Souza-Egipsy, Virginia; Ríos, Asunción de los; Delgado Rodrigues, J.
The biodeterioration e!ects of microorganisms colonizing the cloister terrace wall of the Jeronimos Monastery (Lisbon) were evaluated
using several microscopy techniques that allow the in situ examination of lithobiontic communities. The techniques applied were:
scanning electron microscopy withback-scattered electron imaging (SEM-BSE), low temperature scanning electron microscopy (LTSEM),
transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and an X-ray energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) microanalytical system. The stone was seen
to be colonized by di!erent lichens and microorganisms and lichen thalli of Thyrea, Aspicilia, Verrucaria and Caloplaca were identi=ed.
Cyanobacteria were frequently observed close-by, as single cells or colonies and heterotrophic bacteria were also found among these. The
lithobiontic community showed biogeophysical...
Viability of endolithic micro-organisms in rocks from the McMurdo Dry Valleys of Antarctica established by confocal and fluorescence microscopy - Wierzchos, Jacek; Ríos, Asunción de los; Sancho, Leopoldo G.; Ascaso, Carmen
The rocks of the McMurdo Dry Valleys desert in Antarctica
harbour endolithic communities of micro-organisms such as
lichens, fungi, cyanobacteria and bacteria. Establishing the
physiological status and viability of these microbial colonies in
their natural microhabitat has far-reaching implications for
understanding the microbial ecology of the harsh environment
of this polar desert. Here we describe the use of confocal
microscopy and a specific fluorescent probe (FUN-1) to evaluate
the metabolic activity of fungal cells. Application of confocal
microscopy also served to identify living and dead bacteria or
cyanobacteria using the fluorescent assay reagents Live/Dead
SYTO 9 and propidium iodide or SYTOX Green, respectively.
In addition, through the use of epifluorescence microscopy,
Role of biological soil crust cover in bioweathering and protection of sandstones in a semiárid landscape )torrollones de Gabarda, Huesca, Spain) - Souza-Egipsy, Virginia; Wierzchos, Jacek; Sancho, C.; Belmonte, Anchel; Ascaso, Carmen
Sandstone structural landscapes in the semi-arid Torrollones de Gabarda area (Province of Huesca, NE Spain) are often
covered by a well developed biological soil crust of lichens, mosses and cyanobacteria and black coatings on vertical
surfaces. By using scanning electron microscopy with backscattered detector imaging, the biological soil crust studied
evidenced high activity in the sandstone–crust interface. Processes such as physical disintegration, etching and dwelling as
well as biomineralization by calcium oxalate and fixation of mineral particles by extracellular polymeric substances were
observed. On the horizontal sandstone surfaces these processes may cause the occurrence of gnammas and the development
of a protective coating that favours intense...
Chara hispida beds as a sink of nitrogen: Evidence from growth, nitrogen uptake and decomposition - Rodrigo, María A.; Rojo, Carmen; Álvarez Cobelas, Miguel; Cirujano, Santos
Chara hispida forms dense beds (0.78–0.95 kg DW m 2) in Colgada Lake. The ability of Chara meadows to act as a nitrogen source or sink was
evaluated by the following methods: (1) investigating Chara growth, (2) nitrogen incorporation and decomposition laboratory experiments and (3)
relating experimental results to field conditions. Sediment oospores were germinated in large aquaria and observed growth rates were
0.001 m day 1 (shoot length) and 0.0002 g day 1 (dry weight). Nitrogen uptake rates were determined by addition of K15NO3 during two
different periods of Chara growth and the rates were 1.21 and 3.86 mM g DW 1 h...
Solid-Phase Micro-Extraction (SPME) in the early detection of potentially active volatile compounds from organic wastes used for the management of soil-borne pathogens - Fuente, E. de la; Díez-Rojo, M. A.; Soria, A. C.; García-Álvarez, A.; Piedra Buena, A.; Almendros Martín, Gonzalo; Bello Pérez, Antonio
The complex molecular assemblages were analysed in the soil gas phase after applying pine forest
wastes (PFW) or sugarbeet vinasses (SBV) for soil-borne crop pests management. For this purpose,
solid-phase micro-extraction (SPME) and gas chromatography (GC) were used coupled with mass
spectrometry (MS). The organic wastes were applied either to Calcic Entisol or Haplic Arenosol
moistened at field capacity and soil was covered with polyethylene sheet for 28-30 days to retain the
volatiles. The PFW-treated soil mainly released volatile terpene hydrocarbons (trans-caryophyllene,
â-myrcene and p-cymene), with a-humulene and ethylbenzotriazole prevailing in the untreated soil.
After SBV application mainly alkyl compounds and alkylbenzenes were released, whereas
cyclohexanone, limonene, butanone,...
Resistencia en pimiento a nematodos formadores de nódulos del género Meloidogyne Göldi - López-Pérez, J. A.; Robertson, L.; Bello Pérez, Antonio; Escuer, M.; Díez-Rojo, M. A.; Piedra Buena, A.; Ros, C.; Martínez, C.
Se hace un estudio sobre la virulencia de diferentes poblaciones de Meloidogyne
arenaria, M. hapla, M. incognita y M. javanica. Las poblaciones de Meloidogyne han
sido recogidas en las regiones hortícolas más representativas de España y Uruguay,
elaborando un biotest para la caracterización de su virulencia. Se encuentra que las
poblaciones de M. arenaria raza 2 y M. javanica no parasitan a los cultivares de
pimiento estudiados, por el contrario las poblaciones de M. hapla son todas virulentas.
Se describen doce poblaciones que no parasitan a pimientos resistentes, de las cuales
dos pertenecen a M. arenaria, ocho a M. incognita y dos a M. javanica. Se señala...
Comportamiento de Meloidogyne incognita sobre tomate y pimiento resistente en Uruguay - Piedra Buena, A.; Díez-Rojo, M. A.; Bello Pérez, Antonio; Robertson, L.; López-Pérez, J. A.; Escuer, M.; León, L. de
[ES] Para evaluar la influencia del sistema de cultivo en la selección de biotipos virulentos de
en Uruguay, se estudió la virulencia de 33 poblaciones de este nematodo procedentes de
invernaderos, tanto en monocultivo como en rotación, mediante bioensayos con cultivares de tomate
y pimiento resistentes a
Se encontraron 36,4% de las poblaciones virulentas a tomate y
pimiento resistentes; 33,3% virulentas a tomate resistente, pero no a pimiento; 24,2% avirulentas a
tomate y pimiento resistentes y el 6,1% restante presentó virulencia sólo a pimientos portadores de
genes de resistencia. Se encontró una asociación positiva entre los monocultivo de tomate o pimiento
con cultivares resistentes y la presencia de...
Use of crop residues for the control of Meloidogyne incognita under laboratory conditions - Piedra Buena, A.; García-Álvarez, A.; Díez-Rojo, M. A.; Bello Pérez, Antonio
This laboratory study evaluates the biofumigant effect of different organic materials with the aim of developing non-chemical alternatives for the management of Meloidogyne incognita (Kofoid & White) Chitwood populations. Sources of organic material from the production system were selected with the aim of reducing agricultural residue accumulation problems as well as decreasing the costs due to the use of chemical fertilizers and pesticides. The selected materials were residues from pepper, strawberry, tomato and cucumber crops, orange juice industry residues, commercial manure and sheep manure, applied at different dosages. Two biofumigation assays were performed under laboratory conditions, using alkaline soils from...
Biofumigation, fallow and nematode management in vineyard replant - Bello Pérez, Antonio; Arias Fernández, Mª E.; López-Pérez, J. A.; García-Álvarez, A.; Fresno, J.; Escuer, M.; Arcos, S. C.; Lacasa, A.; Sanz, R.; Gómez, P.; Díez-Rojo, M. A.; Piedra Buena, A.; Goitia, C.; Horra, J. L. de la; Martínez, C.
[EN] The epidemiology of Grapevine fanleaf virus (GFLV) and its nematode vector, Xiphinema index, was analyzed by studying the efficacy of biofumigation, fallow, and solarization as nematode control alternatives. The study was carried out in the southeastern Iberian Peninsula, at two sites in the Jumillla area (Murcia, Spain), which has a continental Mediterranean climate, a sand/loamy based soil which had been in fallow for one year and on another loam/clay/sandy soil under 10-year fallow. An absence of X. index and live grapevine roots was observed in the loam/clay/sandy soil in the 10-year fallow site X. index was not found either...