Recursos de colección

Digital.CSIC (158.952 recursos)

Repositorio institucional del Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas. Digital.CSIC es un depósito de documentos digitales, cuyo objetivo es organizar, archivar, preservar y difundir en modo de acceso abierto la producción intelectual resultante de la actividad investigadora del CSIC.

(IC) Artículos post-print

Mostrando recursos 1 - 20 de 257

  1. Action des stéroïdes sur le cerveau

    García-Segura, Luis M.; Naftolin, F.; Chowen, Julie A.
    Brain is a target organ for steroids produced by pheripheral glands, such estradiol, as well as for those synthesized locally by nerve tissue (neurosteroids, name introduced by E.E. BAULIEU). Steroids are able to affect neuronal and glial activity. Some steroids regulate synaptic function, and therefore brain function, by having rapid effects on neurotransmitter receptors such as GABAA or nicotinic receptors. Hormonal steroids have genomic actions as well, consecutive to the activation of their intranuclear receptors; transcription factors that regulate the expression of specific genes. By activating their receptors, estradiol regu- lates neuronal survival and differentiation as well as synaptic plasticity...

  2. 17 β-estradiol decreases the expression and association of kinases responsible of Tau hyperphosphorylation | El 17β-estradiol disminuye la expresión y asociación de quinasas responsables de la hiperfosforilación de Tau

    Cepeda-Prado, E.; López-Tobón, A.; García-Segura, Luis M.; Cardona-Gómez, G. P.
    Introduction: A predominant molecular component analyzed in the study of neurodegenerative diseases is the presence of the Tau-GSK3β complex and its association with protein aggregation into the cell. Several evidences show that GSK3β has an important role in abnormal pattern of the phosphorylation of Tau. However, the molecular events that are governing this complex are unknown. Aim: To determine the effect of 17 β-estradiol treatment on the expression and association of Tau hyperphosphorylation responsible kinases. Methods: 17 β-estradiol treatments were realized in the hippocampus of ovariectomized adult wistar rats and in hippocampal primary cultures treated with β-amiloid. Protein complex association...

  3. Astrocyte-neuron signaling in the brain - Implications for disease

    Araque, Alfonso
    Studies have demonstrated the existence of bidirectional communication between astrocytes and neurons. Beside the active role of astrocytes in the physiology of the nervous system, recent findings indicate the direct participation of astrocytes in the pathogenesis of some nervous system dysfunctions. In addition to the well-known pathological consequences of disturbances to astrocytes in brain homeostasis, it is recognized that the uncontrolled function or disruption of mechanisms involved in astrocyte-neuron signaling may result in the occurrence of brain diseases. Therefore, astrocytes may be considered as appropriate cellular targets to direct therapeutic approaches for the treatment of several brain diseases. © The...

  4. Old hormones of the insulin family as new developmental signals

    Pablo, Flora de; Hernández-Sánchez, Catalina; Vicario-Abejón, Carlos; De la Rosa, Enrique J.
    Insulin was first identified as an anabolic pancreatic hormone responsible for glucose homeostasis, and Insulin-like Growth Factor (IGF-I) as the mediator of the action of Growth Hormone on postnatal growth. New molecular, pharmacological and embryological information has broadened the scope of the physiological roles of these hormones and their related molecules, particularly the insulin precursor proinsulin, during vertebrate development. Studies in our laboratory have demonstrated that proinsulin is expressed and functional before emergence of the pancreas. Proinsulin gene expression in the chick and mouse embryo shows fine transcriptional and postrancriptional regulation with generation of specific embryonic transcripts which are differentially...

  5. Synthesis of 6-kestose using an efficient β-fructofuranosidase engineered by directed evolution

    Abreu, J. M. de; Álvaro-Benito, Miguel; Sanz-Aparicio, J.; Plou Gasca, Francisco José; Fernández Lobato, María; Alcalde Galeote, Miguel
    The β-fructofuranosidase (Ffase) from Schwanniomyces occidentalis (Ffase-Leu196 variant) was subjected to four cycles of directed evolution to enhance the transglycosylation activity for the synthesis of β-(2→6) linked fructooligosaccharides (FOS). With a 5.5-fold improvement in fructose transferase activity over the parental type and greater selectivity for the synthesis of 6-kestose (up to 73% of the total FOS), the mutants doubled FOS synthesis to 168 g L.-1 Whilst the F523V and H510P mutations were located at the C-terminus of the protein, mutations Q78L and I203L were associated with the acidic catalytic triad where they modified its interactions with the surrounding residues, in...

  6. Time of origin and early fate of preplate cells in the cerebral cortex of the rat

    Valverde, Facundo; Carlos, Juan A. de; López-Mascaraque, Laura
    The time of origin, development, and morphology of neurons originating before the establishment of the cortical plate (preplate cells) were studied in the telencephalic vesicle of the rat from the embryonic day 10 (E10) to E15. The first postmitotic neurons settle superficial to the ventricular zone in the preplate at E12. We have observed mitotic figures in the preplate of E12 end E13, and regarded them as a possible source of cortical neurons outside the ventricular zone. It is suggested that these cells may correspond to Cajal-Retzius cells. The appearance of cells before the formation of the cortical plate was...

  7. Structure of the olfactory bulb of the hedgehog (Erinaceus europaeus): Description of cell types in the granular layer

    López-Mascaraque, Laura; Carlos, Juan A. de; Valverde, Facundo
    Peer Reviewed

  8. Nitric oxide: Target for therapeutic strategies in alzheimer's disease

    Fernández Fernández, Ana Patricia; Pozo-Rodrigálvarez, Andrea; Serrano, Julia; Martínez-Murillo, Ricardo
    Alzheimeŕs disease (AD) constitutes a progressive neurodegenerative disorder and the main cause of dementia. Numerous studies have focused on the pathogenic mechanism of AD to cure or prevent this devastating disease. But, despite recent advances, our understanding on the pathophysiology of this genetically complex and heterogeneous disorder is rather limited and treatment of the disease consists of medications to control the symptoms. Acetylcholinesterase inhibitors and N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonists are the only available treatments recommended to manage the cognitive deficits caused by the disease. Therefore, the production of new drugs that may be able to cure the underlying cause of...

  9. Action of gostatin and beta-methylene-DL-aspartate (BMA) on cerebellar aspartate aminotransferase(AAT) histochemical reaction

    Arenas-Díaz, G.; Martínez-Rodríguez, Ricardo
    Peer Reviewed

  10. Guía de uso adecuado de modelos animals para el desarrollo de terapias en esclerosis múltiple | Guidelines on the appropriate use of animal models for developing therapies in multiple sclerosis

    Moreno, Beatriz; Espejo, Carmen; Mestre, Leyre; Suardíaz, Margarita; Clemente, Diego; Castro Soubriet, Fernando de; Fernández-Fernández, Óscar; Montalbán, Xavier; Villoslada, Pablo; Guaza, Carmen
    Introduction. The advance in the achievement of efective therapies for multiple sclerosis (MS), the defnition of appropriate therapeutic windows and to establish better diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers have become a challenging task for both researchers and clinicians. Some pitfalls in clinical trials might be related to lack of adequacy of the preclinical studies in MS experimental animal models. Aim. To standardize the methodological protocols of experimental models by developing a set of guidelines for preclinical studies by groups of experts from REEM (Spanish Network for MS). Development. A guide with recommendations for the application of MS models including a detailed...

  11. A histochemical investigation on mucopolysaccharides in the dog sympathetic ganglia

    García-Segura, Luis M.; Martínez-Rodríguez, Ricardo; Toledano Gasca, Adolfo
    A histochemical study in the dog Superior Cervical ganglion and in the Cervicothoracic or Stellate ganglion is reported. The mucopolysaccharide composition of these ganglia are studied by means of five histochemical techniques. The different histochemical composition between the neurons of these ganglia is investigated. In the sections stained with the PAS technique some neurons appeared more intensely stained than the others. With Thionin or Toluidine blue some neurones appeared more metachromatic than others. A peculiar distribution of the Nissl bodies, related with metachromasia, is reported. In sections stained with the Colloidal Iron method yellow neurons like those presented in the...

  12. A histochemical research of phospholipids and simple triglyceride esters in human liver tissues

    García-Segura, Luis M.; Martínez-Rodríguez, Ricardo; Toledano Gasca, Adolfo
    The content of phospholipids and simple triglyceride esters in different specimens of normal human liver tissues is investigated. Eight histochemical methods were developed for the lipid identification. Eight histochemical methods were applied to tissues fixed in Baker's formol and cut off by freezing microtome. Some sections were previously treated with acetone, pyridine or bromine water, and others were paraffin embedded with or without previous treatment with potassium dichromate. The histochemical investigations in these experimented conditions were very useful to demonstrate the lipophobic, saturated or unsaturated characteristics of the above mentioned lipids.

  13. Cellular mechanisms of high frequency oscillations in epilepsy: on the diverse sources of pathological activities.

    Menéndez de la Prida, Liset; Trevelyan, Andrew J.
    A major goal in epilepsy research is to understand the cellular basis of pathological forms of network oscillations, particularly those classified as high-frequency activity. What are the underlying mechanisms, and how do they arise? The topic of this review is the pattern of high-frequency oscillations that have been recorded in epileptic tissue, and how they might differ from physiological activity. We discuss recent experimental and clinical data with a major focus on the diverse sources of extracellular signals and the contribution of different neuronal populations, including GABAergic interneurons and glutamatergic principal cells. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Adrenomedullin and nitric oxide: Implications for the etiology and treatment of primary brain tumors

    Fernández Fernández, Ana Patricia; Serrano, Julia; Amorim, M. A. R.; Pozo-Rodrigálvarez, Andrea; Martínez-Murillo, Ricardo
    Gliomas, defined as tumors of glial origin, represent between 2-5% of all adult cancer and comprise the majority of primary brain tumors. Infiltrating gliomas, with an incidence of more than 40% of brain tumors, are the most common and destructive primary brain tumors for which conventional therapies have not significantly improved patient outcome. In fact, patients suffering from malignant gliomas have poor prognoses and the majority have local tumor recurrence after treatment. Tumor growth and spread of tumor cells depend basically upon angiogenesis and on functional abnormalities of tumor cells in the control of apoptosis, as they are paradigmatic for...

  15. 5-Hydroxytryptamine (5-HT)1A autoreceptor adaptive changes in substance P (neurokinin 1) receptor knock-out mice mimic antidepressant-induced desensitization

    Froger, N.; Gardier, A. M.; Moratalla, Rosario; Alberti Villanueva, Israel; Lena, I.; Boni, C.; Felipe, Carmen de; Rupniak, Nadia M. J.; Hunt, S. P.; Jacquot, C.; Hamon, M.; Lanfumey, L.
    Antagonists at substance P receptors of the neurokinin 1 (NK1) type have been shown to represent a novel class of antidepressant drugs, with comparable clinical efficacy to the selective serotonin (5-HT) reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs). Because 5-HT1A receptors may be critically involved in the mechanisms of action of SSRIs, we examined whether these receptors could also be affected in a model of whole-life blockade of NK1 receptors, i.e. knock-out mice lacking the latter receptors (NK1 -/-). 5-HT1A receptor labeling by the selective antagonist radioligand [3H]N-[2-[4-(2-methoxyphenyl)1-piperazinyl]-ethyl]-N- (2-pyridinyl)-cyclohexanecarboxamide (WAY 100635) and 5-HT1A-dependent [35S] GTP-γ-S binding at the level of the dorsal raphe nucleus...

  16. Mechanisms of opioid tolerance in the control of pain | Mecanismos de tolerancia a los opioides en el control del dolor

    Garzón, Javier; Sánchez-Blázquez, Pilar
    During the last few years nervous system research has unveiled the crucial role of a series of regulatory proteins in opioid receptor signaling. Therefore, our understanding of the molecular mechanisms responsible for the development of tolerance to opioid-induced analgesia has greatly expanded. Obviously, research of this kind is not carried out in clinical studies, and has to be performed in animal models, cultured cells, and in vitro systems. Clinical approaches such as opioid rotation or the combination of opioids with other analgesic drugs bring about the benefit of pain control during extended periods of time. Thus, the advances achieved by...

  17. Lack of thyroid hormone receptor α1 is associated with selective alterations in behavior and hippocampal circuits

    Guadaño-Ferraz, Ana; Benavides-Piccione, Ruth; Venero, César; Vennström, Björn; Sandi, Carmen; Felipe, Javier de; Bernal, Juan
    Brain development and function are dependent on thyroid hormone (T3), which acts through nuclear hormone receptors. T3 receptors (TRs) are transcription factors that activate or suppress target gene expression in a hormone-dependent or -independent fashion. Two distinct genes, TRα and TRβ, encode several receptor isoforms with specific functions defined in many tissues but not in the brain. Mutations in the TRβ gene cause the syndrome of peripheral resistance to thyroid hormone; however, no alterations of the TRα gene have been described in humans. Here we demonstrate that mice lacking the TRα1 isoform display behavioral abnormalities of hippocampal origin, as shown...

  18. Corticosterone-releasing activity of immune mediators

    Torres Alemán, Ignacio; Rejas, M. Teresa; Barasoain Blasco, María Isabel
    Products derived from the activated immune system have been reported to modulate neuroendocrine function. In addition, a direct connection between neuroendocrine and immune responses to stress has recently been proposed. We now provide evidence that heterogenous lymphokine-containing supernatants from mitogen-stimulated rat spleen cells can stimulate both basal and corticotropin-induced corticosterone secretion from rat adrenal cells in an in vitro perifusion system. Moreover, thymosin α1, a 28-aminoacid residue peptide found both in thymus and lymphocyte-derived supernatants was also able to synergistically stimulate corticotropin-stimulated corticosterone release, without affecting basal corticosterone output in this same in vitro adrenal cell perifusion system. These results...

  19. Chandelier cell axons are immunoreactive for GAT-1 in the human neocortex

    Felipe, Javier de; González-Albo, M. C.
    WE have examined the pattern of immunostaining for the high-affinity GABA transporter GAT-1 in the human temporal neocortex. Immunocytochemistry for GAT-1 labels terminal-like puncta in the neuropil and around unstained cell bodies. The characteristic terminal portions of chandelier cell axons (Ch-terminals, which form multiple inhibitory GABAergic synaptic contacts with the axon initial segments of pyramidal cells) were among the strongest immunocytochemically stained elements for GAT-1. Since Ch-terminals are immunoreactive for the calcium-binding protein parvalbumin, experiments were carried out to study the co-localization of GAT-1 and parvalbumin in Ch- terminals. These experiments showed that the vast majority of Ch-terminals immunoreactive for...

  20. Control of retinal ganglion cell axon growth: A new role forSonic hedgehog

    Trousse, Francoise; Martí, Elisa; Gruss, P.; Torres, Miguel; Bovolenta, Paola
    Retinal ganglion cell (RGC) axons grow towards the diencephalic ventral midline during embryogenesis guided by cues whose nature is largely unknown. We provide in vitro and in vivo evidence for a novel role of Sonic hedgehog (SHH) as a negative regulator of growth cone movement. SHH suppresses both the number and the length of neurites emerging from the chick retina but not from neural tube or dorsal root ganglia explants, without interfering with their rate of proliferation and differentiation. Similarly, retroviral-mediated ectopic expression of Shh along the chick visual pathway greatly interferes the growth of RGC axons. Upon SHH addition...

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