Recursos de colección

DSpace at MIT (104.280 recursos)

This site is a university repository providing access to the publication output of the institution. Registered users can set up email alerts to notify them of newly added relevant content. A certain level of encryption and security is embedded in the site which may cause some users accessibility problems.

Political Science - Ph.D. / Sc.D.

Mostrando recursos 1 - 20 de 306

  1. Local accountability : the role of attribution, institutions, and communication

    De Benedictis-Kessner, Justin
    How do people hold local governments accountable? My dissertation shows how cognitive and perceptual biases, as well as electoral institutions and strategic communication, can hinder voters' ability to hold government accountable. I gather data on local politics -- a level of government that people interact with on a daily basis, and one that encompasses the vast majority of elected officials and elections in the United States. My evidence comes from large-scale elections and communications data, surveys, and partnerships with governments and service providers. My findings indicate that widespread confusion around government responsibilities and a cognitive bias favoring recent information shape...

  2. Electoral participation in a new democracy : essays on voting in the new South Africa

    De Kadt, Daniel, 1986-
    Electoral participation is at the heart of democratic politics. Who comes to the polls, who does not, and why? In three essays that leverage natural experimental research designs, I advance new explanations for individual turnout, focused on citizens' access to, and experiences with the core electoral institutions of democracy. In paper 1 I show that policies focused on increasing access to elections can increase the size of the electorate, but also that they may carry compositional costs. Using new administrative data from South Africa and a difference-in-differences design, I show that the Independent Electoral Commission's large scale expansion of access...

  3. The politics of unconventional oil : industrial and technology policy in Brazil, Malaysia, and Mexico

    De Oliveira, Renato Lima
    The oil industry has been an important source of industrial and technological development for countries like the United States, United Kingdom, and Norway but is mostly associated with a range of negative outcomes by the resource curse literature. Studies in this tradition assume that this industry has limited potential for creating local jobs, fostering a domestic supply chain, and interacting with research institutions. Instead, the oil industry is treated as a pure generator of easy rents that flow to governments, which unless they are constrained by good institutions, will turn resource wealth into negative economic and political outcomes. This study...

  4. Essays on networks and social interaction

    Knox, Dean, 1988-
    This dissertation presents new models and experimental designs for understanding network behavior and social interaction. The first paper develops a model for a new kind of data, "path data," that represents the sequential decisions made by actors navigating social, geographic, and other kinds of networks. The model is validated in a benchmark test, then used to measure sectarian influences in the ways that Sunni and Shia individuals navigate the streets of Baghdad in a smartphone-based field activity. The second paper uses a novel experimental design to examine the social network search patterns employed by both sects. Using smartphone and self-reported...

  5. "Courage First" : dissent, debate, and the origins of US responsiveness to mass killing

    Rothschild, Amanda Joan
    The United States has developed a reputation for consistently failing to respond to mass killing and genocide throughout history. The conventional wisdom is that the United States has the resources and intelligence to act, but fails to do so because of a lack of political will. However, a closer examination of history reveals that although the modal response of the United States is indeed to refrain from devoting significant resources to these crises, at times the United States reverses course to pursue policies aimed at assisting victims of atrocity. Previous analyses have not fully explained the sources this policy variation....

  6. Emigration, occupational mobility, and institutionalization: the German democratic republic.

    Hardin, William Russell
    Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Dept. of Political Science. Thesis. 1971. Ph.D.

  7. Television and political party identification in the states : is there a relationship?

    Ridout, Christine Furstenberg
    by Christine Furstenberg Ridout.

  8. Uneasy welcome--the political economy in migration policy in Kuwait

    Russell, Sharon Stanton, 1944-
    by Sharon Stanton Russell.

  9. Uneasy welcome--the political economy in migration policy in Kuwait

    Russell, Sharon Stanton, 1944-
    by Sharon Stanton Russell.

  10. The grand strategy of the Han Empire in the second century B.C.

    Arminio, Joseph Anthony
    by Joseph Anthony Arminio.

  11. Electoral reform in an authoritarian regime--the case of Mexico

    Klesner, Joseph L. (Joseph Lee)
    by Joseph L. Klesner.

  12. Rise and decline of ethno-national movements of Pakistan : domestic and international factors

    Amin, Tahir
    by Tahir Amin.

  13. Competitive intervention and its consequences for civil wars

    Anderson, Noel Thomas
    This dissertation explores two interrelated puzzles about external intervention and internal war. The first asks why rebels, governments, and third party interveners often continue to invest in costly and protracted conflicts rather than sue for peace and a negotiated settlement. The second considers the consequences of these behaviors for temporal variation in the average duration and global prevalence of civil wars. A central finding that emerges concerns the critical role of competitive intervention-two sided, simultaneous military assistance from different third party states to both government and rebel combatants-in the dynamics and intractability of civil wars across time and around the...

  14. Nuclear weapons and foreign policy

    Bell, Mark Stephen
    How do states change their foreign policies when they acquire nuclear weapons? This question is central to both academic and policy debates about the consequences of nuclear proliferation, and the lengths that the United States and other states should go to to prevent proliferation. Despite this importance to scholars and practitioners, existing literature has largely avoided answering this question. This dissertation aims to fill this gap. In answering this question, I first offer a typology of conceptually distinct and empirically distinguishable foreign policy behaviors that nuclear weapons may facilitate. Specifically, I distinguish between aggression, expansion, independence, bolstering, steadfastness, and compromise....

  15. The politics of new industrial policy : sectoral governance reform in Vietnam's agro-export industries

    Chirot, Laura H
    Research on new industrial policy suggests that developing economies' ability to enter and upgrade in new export industries in the context of globalization depends significantly on the existence of supporting institutions and services, developed through public-private collaboration. Yet despite the consensus that "good" sectoral governance matters, we have little understanding of how it emerges, particularly in countries that lack the prerequisites for successful industrial policy. What drives sectoral governance reforms - defined as shifts in sector-specific institutional arrangements or regulations that lower barriers to entry and/or provide collective resources to support firm-level upgrading - in export industries in developing economies?...

  16. Three papers on congressional communication and representation

    Loose, Krista (Krista M.)
    This project evaluates how elected officials communicate with their constituents and whether voters can tell if their interests are being represented. Specifically, I examine whether political communication strategies may inadvertently lead to suboptimal representation. In my first paper, I evaluate whether members of Congress use criticism of Congress as a means to connect with their constituents, using approximately 10,000 campaign advertisements aired throughout the 2000s. In both this observational evidence and through an original experimental study, I show that when members criticize Congress, this message has little impact on attitudes toward Congress in general or the member in particular. However,...

  17. Between rhetoric and reality : explaining the Russian Federation's nuclear force posture

    Oliker, Olga
    This dissertation proposes and evaluates the performance of three theories that aim to explain Russia's nuclear force posture choices since the collapse of the Soviet Union. Two are rooted in concepts of inter-state competition. Of these, one begins with a central hypothesis that nuclear weapons, being more destructive than other weapons, are sufficient to deter a broad range of threats and will be preferred for doing so. The second argues that nuclear weapons contribute to a state's overall power and prestige, but are not sufficient to define it. They are preferred to deter nuclear, but not conventional, threats. The third...

  18. Media coverage, industrial policy, and safety : explaining shifting state and Private ownership in China's coal-mining industry

    Martin, Nicholas, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology
    This thesis uses the case of large-scale, expropriatory nationalization of private coal mines to investigate the puzzle of uneven policy implementation in China. It casts new light on the role media coverage and public opinion play in the Chinese policy process, on the party-state's disciplinary (wenze) practices, and on the dynamics of China's state capitalism and the apparent "advance of state and retreat of private firms" (Guo Jin, Min Tui) in the late 2000s. Despite being an authoritarian state, China often finds implementing policies that damage the interests of local political and business elites difficult. Decisions-making and implementation usually require...

  19. Prestige, manipulation, and coercion : elite power struggles and the fate of three revolutions

    Torigian, Joseph (Joseph P.)
    How do leaders win power struggles in Leninist regimes? Many political scientists emphasize the importance of institutions in such regimes. Such institutionalization allegedly provides a mechanism for distributing patronage and debating policies, stipulates rules that delineate a group that selects the leadership, and prevents the military and secret police from playing a special coercive role. This dissertation instead argues that the defining feature of one-party states is weak institutionalization. Power struggles are therefore determined by prestige and sociological ties, the manipulation of multiple decision-making bodies, and politicized militaries and secret police. Leaders with legacies as successful warfighters are especially capable...

  20. Organization and community : the determinants of insurgent military effectiveness

    Worsnop, Alec
    The United States and other members of the international community have expended billions of dollars and thousands of lives confronting insurgent organizations across the globe. Strikingly, however, there has been little analysis of how some groups have developed the military capacity to challenge superior forces. The importance of this question has been illustrated by the recent rise of the Islamic State in Iraq and Syria. Yet, existing research provides limited insight as (1) it has not conceptualized military effectiveness in a sub-state context, and (2) it is focused on structural determinants of insurgent behavior. Thus, I construct a conception of...

Aviso de cookies: Usamos cookies propias y de terceros para mejorar nuestros servicios, para análisis estadístico y para mostrarle publicidad. Si continua navegando consideramos que acepta su uso en los términos establecidos en la Política de cookies.