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Urban Studies and Planning - Ph.D. / Sc.D.

Mostrando recursos 1 - 20 de 464

  1. The politics of community media in the post-disaster city

    Mehta, Aditi, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology
    Disasters are times of information deficits and mass media misrepresentations. While mainstream media reports an array of narratives about crisis situations, it often ignores a variety of perspectives and the lived experiences of minority populations. This creates a biased knowledge base for city planners and the general public about the events before, during, immediately following, and long after the disaster. Accordingly, such events can trigger new forms of community media to amplify marginalized voices in the city. As information communication technologies (ICTs) become more accessible, it is easier for people to produce and disseminate community media, which manifests in varied...

  2. Frames and games : testing a public health orientation to climate adaptation planning

    Kim, Ella Jisun
    Current urban climate adaptation planning efforts tend to focus on protecting a city's physical assets from potential climate-related disasters, with an increasing emphasis on enhancing resilience, or building places that can absorb and withstand climatic shocks. Scholars and practitioners have critiqued climate adaptation planning's current focus on protecting physical assets, pointing out that adaptation plans rarely incorporate equity or social vulnerability. Consequently, calls have emerged for climate adaptation planning to focus on human vulnerabilities instead. To that end, my dissertation probes why and how the health impacts of climate change should be given a more prominent role in climate adaptation...

  3. Household moving and tenure behavior : translating retrospective "Recent Mover" surveys into prospective moving decisions

    Shaw, Jingsi Xu
    To assist policy makers with evaluating urban development policies and anticipating trends in the evolution of cities, researchers have significantly improved modem urban land-use-and-transportation (LUT) simulations. Despite extensive studies regarding the interdependency of household life cycle stages and moving decisions in demography, most existing LUT simulations do not address households changing life cycle stages when modeling residential relocation behavior. The reasons include 1) the data that capture households and housing transitions is hard to obtain, and 2) the analysis methods are mainly for cross-sectional datasets. This dissertation focuses on these issues and contributes to the literature in three respects: behavior...

  4. Reform from above, reinterpretation from below : state making and institutional change in Ghana

    Brookins, Devanne (Devanne Elizabeth)
    The dissertation engages a fundamental question in the social sciences: How do institutions change? The questions that drive this research include: How does institutional change occur, and how do varied forms of social organization within informal institutions influence institutional reforms in the land sector? The dissertation does this by examining land administration reform in Ghana during the period of 2003 -2016. Theoretically, the dissertation employs the literature on institutions and change, critically engaging the role of the state and the role of society in constituting property rights along with the institutions and organizations that support them. Empirically, the study is...

  5. Information technology governance and local public financial management reform : the case of Bangalore, India

    Cook, Mitchell J
    Decentralization policy in India has coalesced in recent years around interrelated concerns over the transparency of local government financial management and reporting systems and the capacity of urban local bodies to implement modern performance budgeting and accrual accounting structures. This dissertation examines the relationship between these policy concerns in the case of Bangalore and looks deeply into the role of information technology providers in advocating for greater local government financial transparency and accountability through financial management information system projects. Utilizing the concept of legitimacy games I find that mechanisms to support coordination in project implementation are subject to partially predictable...

  6. Cultivating risk : weather insurance, technology and financialization in India

    Sheth, Alpen Suresh
    Climate change, technological innovation, and financialization are three of the most transformative processes shaping spatial planning and policymaking. Yet, each of these macro-structural processes and their consequences are experienced in the short-term and at geographically-specific scales. In the context of planning, financialization needs to be better understood to evaluate its actual processes and consequences through in-depth analyses of specific cases. Since 2007, India's weather insurance programs have become the largest in the world offering farmers access to new financial instruments and automated technologies to manage the increasing risks of agricultural cultivation. Insurance has come to be seen as a systematic...

  7. Three essays on urban economics

    Rolheiser, Lyndsey (Lyndsey Anne)
    The three chapters contained in this dissertation represent a body of work concerned with ubiquitous municipal issues that affect the economic health, vibrancy, and stability of municipalities. These issues are generated through the interaction between agents within the municipality and the built environment of the municipality. The first chapter investigates the role of postwar housing characteristics in neighborhood decline. Extant literature hypothesizes that postwar vintage specific housing characteristics are contributing more to observations of decline than general housing age as the postwar home is no longer aligned with current consumer demand. I address this hypothesis by empirically separating aging and...

  8. Three essays on urban economics

    Rolheiser, Lyndsey (Lyndsey Anne)
    The three chapters contained in this dissertation represent a body of work concerned with ubiquitous municipal issues that affect the economic health, vibrancy, and stability of municipalities. These issues are generated through the interaction between agents within the municipality and the built environment of the municipality. The first chapter investigates the role of postwar housing characteristics in neighborhood decline. Extant literature hypothesizes that postwar vintage specific housing characteristics are contributing more to observations of decline than general housing age as the postwar home is no longer aligned with current consumer demand. I address this hypothesis by empirically separating aging and...

  9. To and fro : digital data-driven analyses of pedestrian mobility in urban spaces

    Vanky, Anthony P. (Anthony Phong)
    Understanding how environmental attributes can influence the behavior of pedestrians is of concern for public health officials, transportation engineers, and urban planners. To what degree, if any, do these various environmental characteristics influence how much and for how long people walk? To answer these questions, this thesis analyzes large-scale spatiotemporal pedestrian activity records collected from the users of a mobile phone application in Greater Boston, Massachusetts and the San Francisco Bay Area, California. The dataset contains the locative traces of recreational and utilitarian pedestrian walking activities which include the GPS and temporal records of individuals. In sum, this dissertation considered...

  10. To and fro : digital data-driven analyses of pedestrian mobility in urban spaces

    Vanky, Anthony P. (Anthony Phong)
    Understanding how environmental attributes can influence the behavior of pedestrians is of concern for public health officials, transportation engineers, and urban planners. To what degree, if any, do these various environmental characteristics influence how much and for how long people walk? To answer these questions, this thesis analyzes large-scale spatiotemporal pedestrian activity records collected from the users of a mobile phone application in Greater Boston, Massachusetts and the San Francisco Bay Area, California. The dataset contains the locative traces of recreational and utilitarian pedestrian walking activities which include the GPS and temporal records of individuals. In sum, this dissertation considered...

  11. A new climate for regionalism : metropolitan experiments in climate change adaptation

    Shi, Linda, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology
    Climate change threatens the function and even existence of coastal cities, requiring them to adapt by preparing for near-term risks and reorienting long-term development. Most policy and academic interest in the governance of climate adaptation has focused on global, national, and local scales. Their efforts increasingly revealed the need to plan for adaptation at the scale of metropolitan regions. This dissertation is the first academic comparative analysis of U.S. regional adaptation initiatives. Drawing on multi-method qualitative research of five coastal regions, I ask: are collaboratives to coordinate adaptation at the regional scale a new form of regionalism? What roles do...

  12. A new climate for regionalism : metropolitan experiments in climate change adaptation

    Shi, Linda, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology
    Climate change threatens the function and even existence of coastal cities, requiring them to adapt by preparing for near-term risks and reorienting long-term development. Most policy and academic interest in the governance of climate adaptation has focused on global, national, and local scales. Their efforts increasingly revealed the need to plan for adaptation at the scale of metropolitan regions. This dissertation is the first academic comparative analysis of U.S. regional adaptation initiatives. Drawing on multi-method qualitative research of five coastal regions, I ask: are collaboratives to coordinate adaptation at the regional scale a new form of regionalism? What roles do...

  13. Urban spatial structure, housing markets, and resilience to natural hazards

    Kim, Chun Il
    This dissertation consists of three essays on urban structure, housing, and environment. The first paper contributes to the existing debate on the co-location hypothesis by devising a proximity measure and controlling for a set of other urban form measures. Multiple regression analysis revealed that job-worker proximity leads to shorter commuting time. In addition, results from subareas suggested that the impact of job-worker imbalance and the impact of job-worker mismatch on the commuting time are both greater in the suburb in comparison with the city center. The second paper examines the impact of the LIHTC construction on nearby housing prices in...

  14. Wasteways : regimes and resistance on the path to sustainable urban infrastructure

    Pollans, Lily Baum
    For many people, recycling is a habitual environmental action. In recent years, however, critics have shown that municipal recycling programs are not always environmentally beneficial. Municipal waste management programs are, nevertheless, a key lever through which cities can influence material consumption, which is a driver of ecological overshoot and greenhouse gas emissions. Through transformation of municipal waste management, including and beyond the adoption of expanded recycling programs, cities can potentially reduce their environmental footprints. In the U.S., some cities seem to have been able to do this, and while most have not. This dissertation asks why. Specifically, I ask if...

  15. Urbanization process models, internal rural-urban migration, and the role of institutions in China : three essays on urbanization and migration

    Xu, Liyan, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology
    This dissertation is a collection of three essays on urbanization and migration. The first essay is a treatment on the urbanization theory. I discuss the ambiguity in the urban concept, and propose a comprehensive urban concept which includes the demographic, physical, economic, social, and cultural dimensions of urban characteristics. Based on the concept, and through analyses of the countries' preference over specific urban definition methods, I propose the Kuznets Curve for urban definition complexity, and the Hypothesis of the Unbalanced Urbanization Process. I test the hypothesis with a case study of five countries: the United States, Mexico, China, India, and...

  16. Urbanization process models, internal rural-urban migration, and the role of institutions in China : three essays on urbanization and migration

    Xu, Liyan, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology
    This dissertation is a collection of three essays on urbanization and migration. The first essay is a treatment on the urbanization theory. I discuss the ambiguity in the urban concept, and propose a comprehensive urban concept which includes the demographic, physical, economic, social, and cultural dimensions of urban characteristics. Based on the concept, and through analyses of the countries' preference over specific urban definition methods, I propose the Kuznets Curve for urban definition complexity, and the Hypothesis of the Unbalanced Urbanization Process. I test the hypothesis with a case study of five countries: the United States, Mexico, China, India, and...

  17. Alone at home: post-9/11 military veterans and American housing and homelessness policy by Kerry Anna Spitzer.

    Spitzer, Kerry Anna
    The social safety net available to veterans is far more robust than for civilians in the United States, however, veterans are still more likely to experience homelessness than their peers. As the number of veterans from the wars in Afghanistan and Iraq continues to increase, it is essential that planners consider whether the housing and homelessness policies designed for past generations meet the needs of today's veterans. This is especially true as today's veterans are more likely to be women, are experiencing more deployments, and are frequently coming from communities and families with limited resources. Historically, policy-makers have provided veterans...

  18. Alone at home: post-9/11 military veterans and American housing and homelessness policy by Kerry Anna Spitzer.

    Spitzer, Kerry Anna
    The social safety net available to veterans is far more robust than for civilians in the United States, however, veterans are still more likely to experience homelessness than their peers. As the number of veterans from the wars in Afghanistan and Iraq continues to increase, it is essential that planners consider whether the housing and homelessness policies designed for past generations meet the needs of today's veterans. This is especially true as today's veterans are more likely to be women, are experiencing more deployments, and are frequently coming from communities and families with limited resources. Historically, policy-makers have provided veterans...

  19. Socio-spatial entanglement theory, the I2S2A method, and civil legal service realized accessibility

    Schultheis, Eric (Eric Waibel)
    Most spatial and social service accessibility studies are unidimensional; they examine one dimension of service accessibility in isolation. These unidimensional studies are not responsive to the realities of service usage. This is because unidimensional service accessibility studies implicitly assume that spatial and social service accessibility factors are not entangled with one another. Everyday experience and common sense conflict with a unidimensional conceptualization of service accessibility. For instance, the ease of traveling twenty five miles to receive a service is different for the single dad receiving public assistance with no car and the single adult who has stable employment and a...

  20. Seeing the city for the trees : public space, climate adaptation, and environmental justice in LA and New York's "Million Trees" campaigns

    Debats, Jessica (Jessica Erin)
    Urban heat waves are becoming more frequent and severe as climate change magnifies the "urban heat island" effect. While trees significantly reduce ambient temperatures through shading and evapotranspiration, their effect is highly localized. Consequently, more people die from heat waves in neighborhoods with fewer trees. Moreover, low-income minority neighborhoods typically lack tree cover. Expanding the urban forest is therefore a critical climate adaptation measure, as well as an issue of environmental justice. To address these disparities, the City of Los Angeles and New York City each formed a public-private partnership to plant a million trees. Previous research has demonstrated that...

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