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Management - Ph.D. / Sc.D.

Mostrando recursos 1 - 20 de 690

  1. Essays on Information Technologies, Social Networks and Individual Economic Outcomes

    Saint-Jacques, Guillaume B
    This four-part thesis focuses on the effect of Information Technologies and individual economic outcomes. The first two papers investigate the relationship between technology and individual pay. The last two focus on connectivity through social and communication networks and labor market outcomes. The first paper offers a simple model of how technology may be reshaping the distribution of individual income in the US between 1960 and 2008. First, is shows fractal patterns of the income distribution, which indicate the presence of an increasingly unequal power law distribution at the top. Then, using IRS individual tax data, it shows two main trends:...

  2. Data-driven methods for personalized product recommendation systems

    Papush, Anna
    The online market has expanded tremendously over the past two decades across all industries ranging from retail to travel. This trend has resulted in the growing availability of information regarding consumer preferences and purchase behavior, sparking the development of increasingly more sophisticated product recommendation systems. Thus, a competitive edge in this rapidly growing sector could be worth up to millions of dollars in revenue for an online seller. Motivated by this increasingly prevalent problem, we propose an innovative model that selects, prices and recommends a personalized bundle of products to an online consumer. This model captures the trade-off between myopic...

  3. Optimization models and methods for storage yard operations in maritime container terminals

    Galle, Virgile
    Container terminals, where containers are transferred between different modes of transportation both on the seaside and landside, are crucial links in intercontinental supply chains. The rapid growth of container shipping and the increasing competitive pressure to lower rates result in demand for higher productivity. In this thesis, we design new models and methods for the combinatorial optimization problems representing storage yard operations in maritime container terminals. The goal is to increase the efficiency of yard cranes by decreasing unproductive container moves (also called relocations). We consider three problems with applicability to real-time operations. First, we study the container relocation problem...

  4. The more the merrier? : understanding the effect of group size on collective intelligence

    Hashmi, Nada
    This dissertation explores how group size affects collective intelligence. It is composed of three quantitative studies. The first study explores how time pressure in small groups (size 4) and large groups (size 20) affected collective intelligence. The results showed that the large groups significantly and consistently outperformed the small groups in different time pressure conditions. This led to the second study which explored whether the collaboration tool used in the first study might have provided unexpected benefits for large groups that counteracted any process loss in the large groups. While the results from the second study confirmed that the collaboration...

  5. Operating in the shadows : the productive deviance needed to make robotic surgery work

    Beane, Matthew I. (Matthew Ian)
    Though a 2.5-year mixed-method study comparing robotic surgical practice to traditional surgical practice, I explore how crucial outcomes require productive deviance: norm- and policy-challenging practices that are tolerated because they produce superior outcomes in the work processes governed by those norms and policies. My empirical focus was fortunate - I show that productive deviance is likely especially important in the first ten to twenty years of significant technical reconfiguration of surgical work. I open my dissertation through a comparative empirical introduction to my context and a review of the literature on deviance in organizations. The second chapter of my thesis...

  6. Supply chain transparency and social responsibility : investigating consumer and firm perspectives

    Valdés, León (León Matias Valdés Saavedra)
    Consumers increasingly expect companies to ensure that their products are made in a socially responsible manner. However, most companies do not have good visibility into their supply chains. According to a recent study, 81% of the 1,700 companies surveyed lacked full visibility into the social responsibility practices of their suppliers. Using incentivized laboratory experiments and a game-theoretic model, in this thesis we study how improved transparency about social responsibility practices in the supply chain can positively impact companies' interactions with both consumers and suppliers. In the first part of this thesis, we design an incentivized laboratory experiment to study two...

  7. Assortment and inventory optimization : from predictive choice models to near-optimal algorithms

    Aouad, Ali (Mohammed Ali)
    Finding optimal product offerings is a fundamental operational issue in modern retailing, exemplified by the development of recommendation systems and decision support tools. The challenge is that designing an accurate predictive choice model generally comes at the detriment of efficient algorithms, which can prescribe near-optimal decisions. This thesis attempts to resolve this disconnect in the context of assortment and inventory optimization, through theoretical and empirical investigation. First, we tightly characterize the complexity of general nonparametric assortment optimization problems. We reveal connections to maximum independent set and combinatorial pricing problems, allowing to derive strong inapproximability bounds. We devise simple algorithms that...

  8. Airline scheduling and air traffic control : incorporating uncertainty and passenger and airline preferences

    Yan, Chiwei
    The global airline industry is a multi-stakeholder stochastic system whose performance is the outcome of complex interactions between its multiple decisions-makers under a high degree of uncertainty. Inadequate understanding of uncertainty and stakeholder preferences leads to adverse effects including airline losses, delays and disruptions. This thesis studies a set of topics in airline scheduling and air traffic control to mitigate some of these issues. The first part of the thesis focuses on building aircraft schedules that are robust against delays. We develop a robust optimization approach for building aircraft routes. The goal is to mitigate propagated delays, which are defined...

  9. Mixed-integer convex optimization : outer approximation algorithms and modeling power

    Lubin, Miles (Miles C.)
    In this thesis, we study mixed-integer convex optimization, or mixed-integer convex programming (MICP), the class of optimization problems where one seeks to minimize a convex objective function subject to convex constraints and integrality restrictions on a subset of the variables. We focus on two broad and complementary questions on MICP. The first question we address is, "what are efficient methods for solving MICP problems?" The methodology we develop is based on outer approximation, which allows us, for example, to reduce MICP to a sequence of mixed-integer linear programming (MILP) problems. By viewing MICP from the conic perspective of modern convex...

  10. Heuristic sequencing of single and multiple component jobs.

    Carroll, Donald C
    Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Dept. of Industrial Management. Thesis. 1965. Ph.D.

  11. An analytics approach to problems in health care

    Kung, Jerry Lai
    Health care expenditures in the United States have been increasing at unsustainable rates for more than thirty years with no signs of abating. Decisions to accept or reject deceased-donor kidneys offered to patients on the kidney transplantation wait-list currently rely on physician experience and intuition. Scoring rules to determine which end-stage liver disease patients are in most dire need of immediate transplantation have been haphazardly designed and reactively modified in an attempt to decrease waitlist mortality and increase fairness for cancer patients. For each of the above problem settings, we propose a framework that takes real-world data as input and...

  12. New applications in Revenue Management

    Thraves Cortés-Monroy, Charles Mark
    Revenue Management (RM) is an area with important advances in theory and practice in the last thirty years. This thesis presents three different new applications in RM with a focus on: the firms' perspective, the government's perspective as a policy maker, and the consumers' perspective (in terms of welfare). In this thesis, we first present a two-part tariff pricing problem faced by a satellite data provider. We estimate unobserved data with parametric density functions in order to generate instances of the problem. We propose a mixed integer programming formulation for pricing. As the problem is hard to solve, we propose...

  13. Essays on job search, unemployment, and regulatory compliance

    Başbuğ, Gökçe
    This dissertation is composed of four essays, each studying limits to the means that are famously known to be effective. In the first essay, I investigate the effect of using social ties on the quality of opportunities pursued in job search. Using fixed effects models, I show that when the job seeker uses contacts, she pursues jobs that pay less than the jobs she pursues through formal methods. In addition, the analysis show that networks limit the geographical and occupational diversity of jobs pursued. In the second essay, using a mixed methods approach I examine how the negative emotional toll...

  14. Essays on knowledge sharing and an opt-in evaluation process among investment professionals v/

    Botelho, Tristan Lee
    This dissertation contributes to our understanding of recently popularized opt-in evaluation processes. These processes have been democratized such that ratings are provided no longer solely by experts, but commonly by any audience member who has experienced an offering (i.e., good, candidate, or service) and chooses to rate its quality. The goal of these democratic evaluation processes is to collect independent ratings from evaluators in order to triangulate on a representative and unbiased signal of quality. Across the three chapters of this dissertation, I study various aspects of an opt-in evaluation process to uncover the mechanisms that affect evaluative outcomes. To...

  15. Timing, mindset, and the link between stress and performance : evidence from experience sampling data

    Grunberg, Rebecca L
    This dissertation examines external stressors, perceived stress, and performance, using daily experience sampling data from undergraduate students during their final exam week. First, I investigate external stressors and the timing of perceived stress. Consistent with prior literature, I find that overall perceived stress negatively predicts semester GPA. However, looking more closely at perceived stress over time, I find that perceived stress on exam days did not predict semester grade point average (GPA), while perceived stress on non-exam days significantly negatively predicted semester GPA. Those individuals who experience high perceived stress even outside the temporal bounds of external stressors never have...

  16. Essays on learning and strategy in research and development

    Krieger, Joshua Lev
    This dissertation investigates how research organizations learn from and adapt to new knowledge. In particular, I examine how news about scandals, stigmas and failures influences the direction of research and development efforts. These negative information shocks force research organizations to pause, interpret external signals, and apply any lessons to their own project portfolios. I investigate how these negative information events impact decisions in the settings of scientific publishing and drug development. In the first essay, I study the impact of scientific retractions on citation patterns and funding in the retracted paper's intellectual field. I investigate how the retraction disclosure and...

  17. Locked-in : the effect of CEOs' capital gains taxes on corporate risk-taking

    Yost, Benjamin Peter
    I study the effects of CEOs' unrealized capital gains tax liabilities (tax burdens) on corporate risk-taking. Recent work suggests that high tax burdens discourage CEOs from selling stock. I hypothesize that this causes the executives to become overexposed to firm-specific risk thereby reducing their willingness to make risky corporate decisions. In a series of tests, I find that corporate risk-taking decreases as CEOs' personal tax burdens increase. Further, firms with CEOs who are more locked-in to their stock positions (i.e., CEOs with higher tax burdens) experience larger increases in risk-taking following federal and state tax cuts. When I investigate the...

  18. Adaptive optimization problems under uncertainty with limited feedback

    Flajolet, Arthur
    This thesis is concerned with the design and analysis of new algorithms for sequential optimization problems with limited feedback on the outcomes of alternatives when the environment is not perfectly known in advance and may react to past decisions. Depending on the setting, we take either a worst-case approach, which protects against a fully adversarial environment, or a hindsight approach, which adapts to the level of adversariality by measuring performance in terms of a quantity known as regret. First, we study stochastic shortest path problems with a deadline imposed at the destination when the objective is to minimize a risk...

  19. Combinatorial structures in online and convex optimization

    Gupta, Swati, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology
    Motivated by bottlenecks in algorithms across online and convex optimization, we consider three fundamental questions over combinatorial polytopes. First, we study the minimization of separable strictly convex functions over polyhedra. This problem is motivated by first-order optimization methods whose bottleneck relies on the minimization of a (often) separable, convex metric, known as the Bregman divergence. We provide a conceptually simple algorithm, Inc-Fix, in the case of submodular base polyhedra. For cardinality-based submodular polytopes, we show that Inc-Fix can be speeded up to be the state-of-the-art method for minimizing uniform divergences. We show that the running time of Inc-Fix is independent...

  20. A robust optimization approach to online problems

    Korolko, Nikita (Nikita E.)
    In this thesis, we consider online optimization problems that are characterized by incrementally revealed input data and sequential irrevocable decisions that must be made without complete knowledge of the future. We employ a combination of mixed integer optimization (MIO) and robust optimization (RO) methodologies in order to design new efficient online algorithms that outperform state-of-the-art methods for many important practical applications. We empirically demonstrate that RO-based algorithms are computationally tractable for instances of practical size, generate more cost-effective decisions and can simultaneously model a large class of similar online problems due to exceptional modeling power of MIO. In Part I,...

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