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Media Arts and Sciences - Ph.D. / Sc.D.

Mostrando recursos 1 - 20 de 274

  1. Computational light transport using space, time, and polarization

    Kadambi, Achuta
    Understanding how light travels through macroscopic scenes can transform autonomous driving, medical imaging and consumer photography. Unfortunately, this understanding is difficult to achieve: trillions of light paths are measured by millions of pixels. The framework of computational light transport was introduced to model this complex interaction between light and matter in a tractable space. In this thesis, we study new methods to invoke space, time, and polarization into a computational light transport framework. First, we study how probing the time dimension enables cameras to separate bounces from multiple light paths. Our solutions are inspired by prior work on multipath in...

  2. Towards swarm-based design : distributed and materially-tunable digital fabrication across scales

    Kayser, Markus (Markus A.)
    Submitted to the Program in Media Arts and Sciences, School of Architecture and Planning, on December 8, 2017 in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy in Media, Arts and Sciences at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology Throughout history, Nature has always been part of the discourse in Design theory and practice. The Digital Age in Design brings about new computational tools, redefining the role of Nature in Design. In this thesis, I aim to expand the role of Nature in Design and digital fabrication by investigating distributed fabrication strategies for the production of constructs...

  3. The equipped explorer : virtual reality as a medium for learning

    Greenwald, Scott Wilkins
    What opportunities does virtual reality offer to improve the way we learn? In this thesis, I investigate the ways that constructivist approaches, in particular exploratory and experiential learning, can be uniquely supported by immersive virtual worlds. Against the background of these learning theories, I introduce a design framework that centers around defining a medium of virtuality that is fundamentally social, and uses capture of movement and interaction as a key means for creating interactive scenarios and narrative. Within the world conjured by this medium, the Equipped Explorer learns, reviews, creates and communicates using tools that I propose and classify according...

  4. Networked Playscapes : redefining the playground

    Navarro, Edwina Portocarrero
    In recent years the world became mostly urban, communication untethered and objects surpassed humans connected to the Internet. We are being shaped by the intersection of urbanization and ubiquitous computing. "Smart Cities" offer an efficiency-driven solution by "programming" the city, but this centralized approach forgets that it is the people that make the city and that playing is central to being human. Digital or physical, play is an act of creation and appropriation, a respite in a world geared towards consumption, efficiency and technological determinism. Simultaneously, playgrounds are suffering abandonment. Poorly designed, they are deemed childish and boring, the streets...

  5. Rapid development, real-world deployment, and evaluation of projected augmented reality applications

    Linder, Natan
    Current interactive projected augmented reality systems are not designed to support rapid development and deployment of applications beyond the confines of research labs. I developed a series of self-contained interactive projector-sensor systems (collectively LuminAR devices) and a web-based software development framework. The design goal of this research work was to advance the state of the art of projected AR interfaces and to explore how they can manifest in day-to-day objects. This novel, tightly integrated approach allows developers who are not versed in computer graphics, vision algorithms, and augmented reality techniques to implement projected AR applications rapidly. In this work, I...

  6. Dynamic drawing : broadening practice and participation in procedural art

    Jacobs, Jennifer (Jennifer Mary)
    Computation is a powerful medium for art creation. Procedural art, or artwork defined by a computationally represented system of rules, relationships, and behaviors, enables creation of works that are flexible, adaptable, and capable of systematic revision. Yet the medium for creating procedural art, computer programming, can pose significant barriers for manual artists. Programming can be challenging to learn, and programming tools can restrict the concrete practices of manual art. An analysis of the creative opportunities of procedural art and the conflicts programming poses for manual artists raises these questions: (1) How can we create procedural art systems that are accessible...

  7. The reality editor : an open and universal tool for understanding and controlling the physical world

    Heun, Valentin Markus Josef
    In a future where every physical object has the ability to compute and connect with other physical things, we have to rethink our present user interfaces and interaction metaphors. The desktop metaphor used in personal computers and smartphones was invented for data organization and is not well suited for interaction with things in the physical world. As a result, the growing number of interconnected things (or Internet of Things devices) surrounding us are becoming hard to operate. Each IoT device requires a different app to control it and forces the user to memorize a unique connection and interface. In addition,...

  8. Mediated atmospheres : context-aware adaptive lighting and multimodal media environments

    Zhao, Nan, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology
    This dissertation introduces a controller for a context-aware office space that seamlessly and continuously transforms itself to support the activities of its occupants. Properties of the workspace, such as light, sound, textures and objects, have a remarkable influence on the human body, with measurable effects on physiology, cognition, and emotion. New control capabilities, e.g. wireless-controlled lighting and digital media displays, offer an opportunity to dynamically enhance the workspace for recreation, creativity, and productivity, in unison with the occupant's activities. Besides benefits for work engagement, personalized control could optimize for energy efficiency and foster Loose Fit planning to maximize flexible use...

  9. A Bayesian theory of mind approach to nonverbal communication for human-robot interactions : a computational formulation of intentional inference and belief manipulation

    Lee, Jin Joo, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology
    Much of human social communication is channeled through our facial expressions, body language, gaze directions, and many other nonverbal behaviors. A robot's ability to express and recognize the emotional states of people through these nonverbal channels is at the core of artificial social intelligence. The purpose of this thesis is to define a computational framework to nonverbal communication for human-robot interactions. We address both sides to nonverbal communication, the decoding and encoding of social-emotional states through nonverbal behaviors, and also demonstrate their shared underlying representation. We use our computational framework to model engagement/attention in storytelling interactions. Storytelling is an interaction...

  10. A Bayesian theory of mind approach to nonverbal communication for human-robot interactions : a computational formulation of intentional inference and belief manipulation

    Lee, Jin Joo, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology
    Much of human social communication is channeled through our facial expressions, body language, gaze directions, and many other nonverbal behaviors. A robot's ability to express and recognize the emotional states of people through these nonverbal channels is at the core of artificial social intelligence. The purpose of this thesis is to define a computational framework to nonverbal communication for human-robot interactions. We address both sides to nonverbal communication, the decoding and encoding of social-emotional states through nonverbal behaviors, and also demonstrate their shared underlying representation. We use our computational framework to model engagement/attention in storytelling interactions. Storytelling is an interaction...

  11. Collaborative scientific publishing : a new research ecosystem

    Rich, Travis (Travis Sebastian)
    This thesis introduces PubPub, a complete publishing system that is consonant with the way software and research ideas are developed. It is author-driven, continuous, collaborative, and allows for data and code to be directly integrated into the document. PubPub is optimized for collaboration and iterative document creation; taking inspiration from the software development cycle it allows for more participatory forms of review. We hypothesize that by changing the scientific review process from one of static critique to one of interactive collaboration we can increase the error-detection rate of scientific review. We present an experiment to test this hypothesis by measuring...

  12. Governing human and machine behavior in an experimenting society

    Matias, J. Nathan (Jorge Nathan)
    We live in a culture that depends on technologies to record our behavior and coordinate our actions with billions of other connected people. In this computational culture, humans and machines continue to perpetuate deep-seated injustices. Our abilities to observe and intervene in other people's lives also allow us to govern, forcing us to ask how to govern wisely and who should be responsible. In this dissertation, I argue that to govern wisely, we need to remake large-scale social experiments to follow values of democracy. Using qualitative and quantitative methods, I spent time with hundreds of communities on the social news...

  13. Lensing Machines : representing perspective in machine learning

    Dinakar, Karthik
    Generative models are venerated as full probabilistic models that randomly generate observable data given a set of latent variables that cannot be directly observed. They can be used to simulate values for variables in the model, allowing analysis by synthesis or model criticism, towards an iterative cycle of model specification, estimation, and critique. However, many datasets represent a combination of several viewpoints - different ways of looking at the same data that leads to various generalizations. For example, a corpus that has data generated by multiple people may be mixtures of several perspectives and can be viewed with different opinions...

  14. Bidirectional gaze guiding and indexing in human-robot interaction through a situated architecture

    DePalma, Nicholas Brian
    In this body of work, I present a situated and interactive agent perception system that can index into its world and, through a bidirectional exchange of referential gesture, direct its internal indexing system toward both well-known objects as well as simple visuo-spatial indexing in the world. The architecture presented incorporates a novel method for synthetic human-robot joint attention, an internal and automatic crowdsourcing system that provides opportunistic and lifelong robotic socio-visual learning, supports the bidirectional process of following referential behavior; and generates referential behavior useful for directing the gaze of human peers. This document critically probes questions in human-robot interaction...

  15. Shape changing composite material design for interactions

    Yao, Lining
    This thesis is about designing shape change composite material for interactions. Interaction has gone beyond computer screens and electronics to enter the realm of physical materials. Shape changes at the micro level will cause shape changes and other physical property changes at the macro level. A design strategy for bioinspired shape-changing composite materials includes two development steps: a shape-changing material unit (SCMUnit), followed by a shape-changing matrix composite (SCMC). SCMC contains the matrix phase and the dispersion phase, one of which is composed of SCMUnits. In addition, SCMC can be hierarchical, while SCMC and SCMUnits have a relationship of recursive...

  16. Visual urban sensing : understanding cities through computer vision

    Naik, Nikhil (Nikhil Deepak)
    This thesis introduces computer vision algorithms that harness street-level imagery to conduct automated surveys of the built environment and populations at an unprecedented resolution and scale. We introduce new tools for computing quantitative measures of urban appearance and urban change. First, we describe Streetscore, an algorithm that quantifies how safe a street block looks to a human observer, using computer vision and crowdsourcing. We extend this work with an efficient convolutional neural network-based method that is capable of computing several perceptual attributes of the built environment from thousands of cities from all six inhabited continents. Second, we introduce a computer...

  17. Ground truth in ultra-dense neural recording

    Allen, Brian D. (Brian Douglas)
    While biologists routinely record neural activity with multi-electrodes, spike sorting-- the process of attributing spikes to particular neurons-- remains a challenge that typically requires human curation. Due to technical limitations, there have been very few multi-electrode recordings done in concert with techniques such as patch clamp, which report the "ground truth" voltage state of a single neuron in a population. Such recordings would allow for the direct evaluation of spike sorting, which in turn could lead to further development and refinement of spike sorting methods. We developed a technique to establish a whole-cell or cell-attached patch recording in a cortical...

  18. Paper electronics : circuits on paper for learning and self-expression

    Qi, Jie, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology
    In this dissertation, I explore the theme of wonder in technology, learning and self-expression through the lens of paper electronics, which is circuit building on paper using conductive tapes and circuit components as electronic craft materials. This new medium blends the interactive functionality of electronics with the expressive flexibility of the paper medium. I present an overview of the paper electronics medium as well as its extension in the form of electrified books, books with circuitry integrated with its pages and spine. I then described the design of a paper electronics toolkit called circuit stickers and how this toolkit was...

  19. Development of extracellular electrophysiology methods for scalable neural recording

    Bernstein, Jacob (Jacob Gold)
    In order to map the dynamics of neural circuits in mammalian brains, there is a need for tools that can record activity over large volumes of tissue and correctly attribute the recorded signals to the individual neurons that generated them. High-resolution neural activity maps will be critical for the discovery of new principles of neural coding and neural computation, and to test computational models of neural circuits. Extracellular electrophysiology is a neural recording method that has been developed to record from large populations of neurons, but well-known problems with signal attribution pose an existential threat to the viability of further...

  20. Children as data scientists : explorations in creating, thinking, and learning with data

    Dasgupta, Sayamindu
    Data is a powerful lens for learning about the world. Driven by advances in computational technologies and methods that make it easier to collect, store, and analyze vast amounts of data about our world, data science has emerged as a new discipline with immense possibilities for discovery and learning. However, these possibilities are primarily accessible for adult experts - in this thesis, I examine pathways to support children as data scientists. In the first part of this thesis, I study children's use of variables and lists in the Scratch programming environment. I quantitatively study the ways in which children use...

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