Recursos de colección

DSpace at MIT (104.280 recursos)

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Engineering Systems - Master's degree

Mostrando recursos 1 - 20 de 1.564

  1. Adapting a hazards-risk model to water scarcity in rural India : Aurangabad case study

    Midstokke, Paige K
    The objective of this project is to improve the responsiveness of District Planning to rural water scarcity in India. Through engagements with the Groundwater Survey Development Agency, and Maharashtra State Government Water Supply and Sanitation Department, we selected Aurangabad District to conduct field visits and develop a model that can spatially represent risk of villages to water scarcity. Within Aurangabad District, Vaijapur block was selected as a case study due to its drought effects and high water tanker usage in the past five years. This thesis develops a disaster risk metric for water scarcity, using an analysis of potential hazards,...

  2. Electricity security in a hydro-based electric power system : the particular case of Iceland

    Mehta, Shweta, S.M. Massachusetts Institute of Technology
    Introduction: A secure energy system can be defined as one that is "evolving over time with an adequate capacity to absorb adverse uncertain events, so that it is able to continue satisfying the energy service needs of its intended users with 'acceptable' changes in their amount and prices" (Lombardi & Toniolo, 2015). Access to a secure electricity supply is essential for a good standard of living in a modern society. Electricity outages can have severe impact on business, schools, homes, financial loss, telecommunications, as well as lead to public safety incidences. For example, the two day-long power outage starting on...

  3. Whose fault is it anyway? evaluating the energy efficiency gap in commercial buildings & measuring energy savings associated with fault detection and diagnostics

    Dahan, Danielle (Danielle S.)
    According to the International Energy Agency, energy efficiency programs make up 72% of global greenhouse gas abatement strategies. However, there is extensive literature that shows compelling evidence for an "energy efficiency gap" in which expected energy savings from energy efficiency programs are not realized. Due to the importance of energy efficiency in global climate mitigation, as well as the significant federal, state, and local budgets for energy efficiency, there is a clear need for further research in this domain to evaluate the energy efficiency gap and prioritize methods for reducing the gap. Further, there is significantly less research on the...

  4. The impacts and management of outdoor-sourced PM2.5 in New Delhi's buildings : a simulation approach

    Krishna, Chetan, S.M. Massachusetts Institute of Technology
    New Delhi (and India more broadly) is noted for extremely high levels of ambient PM2.5, caused by a pattern of rapid urbanization and economic growth. As a large proportion of Indian buildings employ natural- or mixed-mode ventilation, and citizens in New Delhi spend up to 80% of their time indoors, the response of buildings to outdoor-sourced PM2.5 is a major, but relatively under-investigated concern. While much past work in this area has focused on characterizing indoor-outdoor pollutant concentration ratios under different conditions and studying the important question of exposure to cooking related PM2.5 emissions, building dynamical behavior, the feasibility of...

  5. Applicability of the Inclusive Wealth Index as a measure of sustainable development for the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

    Turskaya, Anna A
    Following UNEP's global assessment of nations' sustainable development in 2012 and 2014, the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia's Inclusive Wealth Index (IWI) growth per capita has been negative. This study evaluates the extent to which the Inclusive Wealth Index is applicable to the nation. The study evaluates the method and makes new contributions for Saudi Arabia by adding components that had been omitted in the initial assessment, such as fisheries and minerals. The stocks for the fossil fuels had been changed to represent technically recoverable reserves, addressing the current paradox of increasing reserves. The global database sources are replaced with the...

  6. Biological conversion of organic municipal solid waste to lactic acid : a techno-economic performance assessment study for commercialization

    Shin, Jieun, S.M. Massachusetts Institute of Technology
    This thesis assesses the economic viability and commercial potential of a lab-scale microbial technology to produce lactic acid (LA), which was developed as a novel technology option for organic waste treatment. Among various available technologies for the separation and purification of LA, the method of esterification-hydrolysis with reactive distillation was selected for this assessment. The process from organic waste to high-purity LA was designed and modeled using Aspen Plus, from which material and energy balances, equipment costs, and utility costs were derived. An economic performance assessment model was developed to estimate capital and operating expenses as well as net present...

  7. The impact of distributed energy resources (DERs) in integrated gas-electricity energy systems

    Yee, Alexander Wing Lake
    Our gas and power energy systems are interconnected, which makes the decision to provide energy a non-trivial one for consumers and the system as a whole. The focus of this thesis is on the long-term planning of integrated electricity and natural gas infrastructures at the distribution (low voltage) level. This research explores the question on how pricing relates to the coupling of a gas-electricity system given an expected greater consumer participation at the residential level. I developed a long-term planning tool that is able to consider the interaction between the integrated natural gas-electric energy system. In the first component of...

  8. A scalable architecture for the interconnection of microgrids

    Fero, Allison
    Electrification is a global challenge that is especially acute in India, where about one fifth of the population has no access to electricity. Solar powered microgrid technology is a viable central grid alternative in the electrification of India, especially in remote areas where grid extension is cost prohibitive. However, the upfront costs of microgrid development, coupled with inadequate financing, have led to the implementation of small scale, stand alone systems. Thus, the costs of local generation and storage are a substantial barrier to acquisition of the technology. Furthermore, the issues of uncertainty, intermittency, and variability of renewable generation are daunting...

  9. Effects of intermittent generation on the economics and operation of prospective baseload power plants

    Kearns, Jordan Taylor
    The electricity system is transitioning from a system comprised primarily of dispatchable generators to a system increasingly reliant on wind and solar power-intermittent sources of electricity with output dependent on meteorological conditions, adding both variability and uncertainty to the system. Dispatchable generators with a high ratio of fixed to variable costs have historically relied on operating at maximum output as often as possible to spread these fixed costs over as much electricity generation as possible. Higher penetrations of intermittent capacity create market conditions that lead to lower capacity factors for these generators, presenting an economic challenge. Increasing penetrations of intermittent...

  10. Development of a decision support tool for planning municipal solid waste management systems in India

    Ravikumar, Dhivya
    Waste management is a significant challenge for India. The Indian waste landscape is changing rapidly as the population grows, the composition of the waste generated evolves, the extent of waste segmentation changes and the technologies available to collect and process waste improve. Many solutions have been proposed for dealing with the mixed waste but the most appropriate solution for a particular context is difficult to quantify. Thus, decisions are often made without considering the long-term economic, environmental or social consequences. The present work focuses on helping Indian cities improve collection, transportation and treatment of waste by developing a GIS-based decision...

  11. Impacts of environmental policy in China's Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region : a case study of the iron and steel industry

    Wilson, Danielle L. S.M. Massachusetts Institute of Technology
    This thesis focuses on the drivers of regional development and environmental control decisions in the iron and steel industry in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region of China. The analysis presented includes (1) a county-level econometric analysis of the geographic distribution of the iron and steel industry between 2004 and 2009 in Hebei province and (2) a firm-level case study that analyzes the value of a flexible space option for a hypothetical, relocated steel plant that faces uncertainty in the timing and stringency of future environmental policy. Results from the econometric analysis of industrial distribution show a significant negative relationship between the initial...

  12. Public health impacts of excess NOx̳ emissions from Volkswagen diesel passenger vehicles in Germany

    Chossière, Guillaume P. (Guillaume Pierre)
    In September 2015, the Volkswagen Group (VW) admitted the use of "defeat devices" designed to lower emissions measured during VW vehicle testing for regulatory purposes. Globally, 11 million cars sold between 2008 and 2015 are affected, including about 2.6 million in Germany. On-road emissions tests have yielded mean on-road NOx̳, emissions for these cars of 0.85 g.km-¹, over four times the applicable European limit of 0.18 g.km-1 . This thesis estimates the human health impacts and costs associated with excess emissions from VW cars driven in Germany. A distribution of on-road emissions factors is derived from existing measurements and combined...

  13. Optimizing emergency response crew allocation during earthquakes to improve restoration time

    Kurdi, Mohamed (Mohamed Reda)
    Northern California and specially the San Francisco Bay Area where PG&E operates is very susceptible to earthquakes. United States Geological Survey (USGS) estimates a 63 percent chance that a magnitude-6.7 or larger earthquake will hit the Bay Area by the year 2036. The chances for a 7.0-magnitude or above are about 50 percent. In this thesis, we first present the methodology PG&E uses to generate predicted damages. Then, we will discuss what data will be available to us and outline how this data is transformed into predicted damages for pipes. Then, the thesis go over the method we used to...

  14. Developing a long term strategy for a warehouse network

    Johnson, Patrick (Patrick Allen)
    This thesis addresses the question of how to create a pro-active, long term, network centric warehouse strategy. This thesis will present an inventory model built to understand the capacity needs of Amgen's warehouses over the time period of 2017-2023 to support this mission, along with recommendations based on scenario analysis from this model to analyze and quantify the impacts of multiple scenarios in support of an efficient, effective, nimble supply chain. With worldwide operations supporting a global customer base, Amgen's operational philosophy is to ensure serving "every patient, every time". Amgen's warehouses play a vital role with this mission, storing...

  15. Gamification as a means of improving performance in human operator processes

    Small, Aaron Alexander
    The Amazon fulfillment center network is the backbone of Amazon's e-commerce business. To achieve higher efficiency and lower cost, Amazon invests heavily in robotic technology. In some buildings, robots automatically store and retrieve shelving units, delivering them to operators who can interact with product at fixed stations. This has greatly increased throughput in buildings with the technology, while adding new constraints. During periods of peak demand, throughput is limited by the number of stations available and the average operator rate at those stations. This thesis examines how this constraint can be relieved by increasing average operator rate. Time-in-motion studies, video...

  16. Patient flow optimization in the Department of Medicine at MGH

    Ugarph, Elizabeth
    In 2015, there were approximately 17,000 General Medicine admissions in the Department of Medicine (DOM) at MGH. General Medicine patients regularly experience significant non-clinical delays caused by bed and care team unavailability, with approximately 25% of patients waiting ten hours or more for a bed. Delays in bed and care team assignments result in decreased patient satisfaction, congestion in the ED and ICUs, and increased overall hospital length-of-stay. This project studies General Medicine patient flow, develops and evaluates interventions to improve this flow, and provides recommendations to hospital leadership. To this end, we construct a discrete-event simulation based on historical...

  17. Patient flow optimization in the Department of Medicine at MGH

    Ugarph, Elizabeth
    In 2015, there were approximately 17,000 General Medicine admissions in the Department of Medicine (DOM) at MGH. General Medicine patients regularly experience significant non-clinical delays caused by bed and care team unavailability, with approximately 25% of patients waiting ten hours or more for a bed. Delays in bed and care team assignments result in decreased patient satisfaction, congestion in the ED and ICUs, and increased overall hospital length-of-stay. This project studies General Medicine patient flow, develops and evaluates interventions to improve this flow, and provides recommendations to hospital leadership. To this end, we construct a discrete-event simulation based on historical...

  18. Implementing postponement into low-volume/high-variability manufacturing

    Myers, Julius (Julius Scott)
    Aircraft Company X (AX) manufactures and assembles an immense variety of parts utilized as drive systems and rotor components across its multiple aircraft. The company's value proposition is maintaining the ability to build and service all legacy parts and as a result there is a great deal of variety found in its manufacturing processes. This variety stems from upgrades to manufacturing technology, improvements in material science, design variations, and individual part engineering modifications. In order to be responsive to fluctuating demand while minimizing costs, AX must broadly implement postponement into numerous applications as a way to extract the most value...

  19. Implementing postponement into low-volume/high-variability manufacturing

    Myers, Julius (Julius Scott)
    Aircraft Company X (AX) manufactures and assembles an immense variety of parts utilized as drive systems and rotor components across its multiple aircraft. The company's value proposition is maintaining the ability to build and service all legacy parts and as a result there is a great deal of variety found in its manufacturing processes. This variety stems from upgrades to manufacturing technology, improvements in material science, design variations, and individual part engineering modifications. In order to be responsive to fluctuating demand while minimizing costs, AX must broadly implement postponement into numerous applications as a way to extract the most value...

  20. Cross-channel predictive analytics for retail distribution decisions

    Coles, James B
    Distribution demand forecasting at Zara currently considers historical sales of products modified by expert knowledge inputs in an algorithm developed to calculate the shipment required to meet demand for the next sales period. In 2010, the introduction of Zara.com provided customers an additional channel to complete purchases and interact with the brand while providing Zara significant insight into changing customer preferences to supplement the expert knowledge of the Zara team. This thesis investigates the utility of the data collected in the online sales channel for increasing the accuracy of the distribution demand forecasts. Two forecast types are considered: Initial Shipments...

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