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DSpace at MIT (104.280 recursos)

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Technology and Policy - Master's degree

Mostrando recursos 1 - 20 de 574

  1. Adapting a hazards-risk model to water scarcity in rural India : Aurangabad case study

    Midstokke, Paige K
    The objective of this project is to improve the responsiveness of District Planning to rural water scarcity in India. Through engagements with the Groundwater Survey Development Agency, and Maharashtra State Government Water Supply and Sanitation Department, we selected Aurangabad District to conduct field visits and develop a model that can spatially represent risk of villages to water scarcity. Within Aurangabad District, Vaijapur block was selected as a case study due to its drought effects and high water tanker usage in the past five years. This thesis develops a disaster risk metric for water scarcity, using an analysis of potential hazards,...

  2. Electricity security in a hydro-based electric power system : the particular case of Iceland

    Mehta, Shweta, S.M. Massachusetts Institute of Technology
    Introduction: A secure energy system can be defined as one that is "evolving over time with an adequate capacity to absorb adverse uncertain events, so that it is able to continue satisfying the energy service needs of its intended users with 'acceptable' changes in their amount and prices" (Lombardi & Toniolo, 2015). Access to a secure electricity supply is essential for a good standard of living in a modern society. Electricity outages can have severe impact on business, schools, homes, financial loss, telecommunications, as well as lead to public safety incidences. For example, the two day-long power outage starting on...

  3. Whose fault is it anyway? evaluating the energy efficiency gap in commercial buildings & measuring energy savings associated with fault detection and diagnostics

    Dahan, Danielle (Danielle S.)
    According to the International Energy Agency, energy efficiency programs make up 72% of global greenhouse gas abatement strategies. However, there is extensive literature that shows compelling evidence for an "energy efficiency gap" in which expected energy savings from energy efficiency programs are not realized. Due to the importance of energy efficiency in global climate mitigation, as well as the significant federal, state, and local budgets for energy efficiency, there is a clear need for further research in this domain to evaluate the energy efficiency gap and prioritize methods for reducing the gap. Further, there is significantly less research on the...

  4. The impacts and management of outdoor-sourced PM2.5 in New Delhi's buildings : a simulation approach

    Krishna, Chetan, S.M. Massachusetts Institute of Technology
    New Delhi (and India more broadly) is noted for extremely high levels of ambient PM2.5, caused by a pattern of rapid urbanization and economic growth. As a large proportion of Indian buildings employ natural- or mixed-mode ventilation, and citizens in New Delhi spend up to 80% of their time indoors, the response of buildings to outdoor-sourced PM2.5 is a major, but relatively under-investigated concern. While much past work in this area has focused on characterizing indoor-outdoor pollutant concentration ratios under different conditions and studying the important question of exposure to cooking related PM2.5 emissions, building dynamical behavior, the feasibility of...

  5. Applicability of the Inclusive Wealth Index as a measure of sustainable development for the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

    Turskaya, Anna A
    Following UNEP's global assessment of nations' sustainable development in 2012 and 2014, the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia's Inclusive Wealth Index (IWI) growth per capita has been negative. This study evaluates the extent to which the Inclusive Wealth Index is applicable to the nation. The study evaluates the method and makes new contributions for Saudi Arabia by adding components that had been omitted in the initial assessment, such as fisheries and minerals. The stocks for the fossil fuels had been changed to represent technically recoverable reserves, addressing the current paradox of increasing reserves. The global database sources are replaced with the...

  6. Biological conversion of organic municipal solid waste to lactic acid : a techno-economic performance assessment study for commercialization

    Shin, Jieun, S.M. Massachusetts Institute of Technology
    This thesis assesses the economic viability and commercial potential of a lab-scale microbial technology to produce lactic acid (LA), which was developed as a novel technology option for organic waste treatment. Among various available technologies for the separation and purification of LA, the method of esterification-hydrolysis with reactive distillation was selected for this assessment. The process from organic waste to high-purity LA was designed and modeled using Aspen Plus, from which material and energy balances, equipment costs, and utility costs were derived. An economic performance assessment model was developed to estimate capital and operating expenses as well as net present...

  7. The impact of distributed energy resources (DERs) in integrated gas-electricity energy systems

    Yee, Alexander Wing Lake
    Our gas and power energy systems are interconnected, which makes the decision to provide energy a non-trivial one for consumers and the system as a whole. The focus of this thesis is on the long-term planning of integrated electricity and natural gas infrastructures at the distribution (low voltage) level. This research explores the question on how pricing relates to the coupling of a gas-electricity system given an expected greater consumer participation at the residential level. I developed a long-term planning tool that is able to consider the interaction between the integrated natural gas-electric energy system. In the first component of...

  8. A scalable architecture for the interconnection of microgrids

    Fero, Allison
    Electrification is a global challenge that is especially acute in India, where about one fifth of the population has no access to electricity. Solar powered microgrid technology is a viable central grid alternative in the electrification of India, especially in remote areas where grid extension is cost prohibitive. However, the upfront costs of microgrid development, coupled with inadequate financing, have led to the implementation of small scale, stand alone systems. Thus, the costs of local generation and storage are a substantial barrier to acquisition of the technology. Furthermore, the issues of uncertainty, intermittency, and variability of renewable generation are daunting...

  9. Effects of intermittent generation on the economics and operation of prospective baseload power plants

    Kearns, Jordan Taylor
    The electricity system is transitioning from a system comprised primarily of dispatchable generators to a system increasingly reliant on wind and solar power-intermittent sources of electricity with output dependent on meteorological conditions, adding both variability and uncertainty to the system. Dispatchable generators with a high ratio of fixed to variable costs have historically relied on operating at maximum output as often as possible to spread these fixed costs over as much electricity generation as possible. Higher penetrations of intermittent capacity create market conditions that lead to lower capacity factors for these generators, presenting an economic challenge. Increasing penetrations of intermittent...

  10. Development of a decision support tool for planning municipal solid waste management systems in India

    Ravikumar, Dhivya
    Waste management is a significant challenge for India. The Indian waste landscape is changing rapidly as the population grows, the composition of the waste generated evolves, the extent of waste segmentation changes and the technologies available to collect and process waste improve. Many solutions have been proposed for dealing with the mixed waste but the most appropriate solution for a particular context is difficult to quantify. Thus, decisions are often made without considering the long-term economic, environmental or social consequences. The present work focuses on helping Indian cities improve collection, transportation and treatment of waste by developing a GIS-based decision...

  11. Impacts of environmental policy in China's Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region : a case study of the iron and steel industry

    Wilson, Danielle L. S.M. Massachusetts Institute of Technology
    This thesis focuses on the drivers of regional development and environmental control decisions in the iron and steel industry in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region of China. The analysis presented includes (1) a county-level econometric analysis of the geographic distribution of the iron and steel industry between 2004 and 2009 in Hebei province and (2) a firm-level case study that analyzes the value of a flexible space option for a hypothetical, relocated steel plant that faces uncertainty in the timing and stringency of future environmental policy. Results from the econometric analysis of industrial distribution show a significant negative relationship between the initial...

  12. Public health impacts of excess NOx̳ emissions from Volkswagen diesel passenger vehicles in Germany

    Chossière, Guillaume P. (Guillaume Pierre)
    In September 2015, the Volkswagen Group (VW) admitted the use of "defeat devices" designed to lower emissions measured during VW vehicle testing for regulatory purposes. Globally, 11 million cars sold between 2008 and 2015 are affected, including about 2.6 million in Germany. On-road emissions tests have yielded mean on-road NOx̳, emissions for these cars of 0.85 g.km-¹, over four times the applicable European limit of 0.18 g.km-1 . This thesis estimates the human health impacts and costs associated with excess emissions from VW cars driven in Germany. A distribution of on-road emissions factors is derived from existing measurements and combined...

  13. Mining the gap : pathways towards an integrated water, sanitation and health framework for outbreak control in rural India

    Ren, Xiaoyuan, S.M. (Xiaoyuan Charlene) Massachusetts Institute of Technology
    The scientific connection between sanitation, water quality and health is well established. However, in the present Indian scenario, monitoring and governance of the three sectors is handled separately. At present, the need to integrate sanitation, water quality, and health is felt during waterborne disease outbreaks such as large-scale diarrhea, typhoid or cholera. Despite the general interest shown for a cross-sector integrated framework in outbreak control, numerous administrative and technical gaps exist preventing the implementation of this framework. This study attempts to address these implementation barriers through the analysis of governing institutions and data integration of large public databases for the...

  14. Mining the gap : pathways towards an integrated water, sanitation and health framework for outbreak control in rural India

    Ren, Xiaoyuan, S.M. (Xiaoyuan Charlene) Massachusetts Institute of Technology
    The scientific connection between sanitation, water quality and health is well established. However, in the present Indian scenario, monitoring and governance of the three sectors is handled separately. At present, the need to integrate sanitation, water quality, and health is felt during waterborne disease outbreaks such as large-scale diarrhea, typhoid or cholera. Despite the general interest shown for a cross-sector integrated framework in outbreak control, numerous administrative and technical gaps exist preventing the implementation of this framework. This study attempts to address these implementation barriers through the analysis of governing institutions and data integration of large public databases for the...

  15. Modelling the prospects and impacts of methanol use in transportation in China at computable general equilibrium

    Nami, Mahsa
    The use of methanol as a transportation fuel is not a new phenomenon. However, factors such as price fluctuations, resistance to widespread introduction by special interest groups, and governmental policies have stood in the way of the widespread use of methanol in covering transportation demand. In this thesis, a computable general equilibrium energy-economy model of the world, the Economic Projection and Policy Analysis (EPPA) model, is used to evaluate the potential for methanol vehicle penetration in the private passenger vehicle market in China depending on the cost competitiveness of the technology combination compared to electric and conventional vehicles, the relative...

  16. Modelling the prospects and impacts of methanol use in transportation in China at computable general equilibrium

    Nami, Mahsa
    The use of methanol as a transportation fuel is not a new phenomenon. However, factors such as price fluctuations, resistance to widespread introduction by special interest groups, and governmental policies have stood in the way of the widespread use of methanol in covering transportation demand. In this thesis, a computable general equilibrium energy-economy model of the world, the Economic Projection and Policy Analysis (EPPA) model, is used to evaluate the potential for methanol vehicle penetration in the private passenger vehicle market in China depending on the cost competitiveness of the technology combination compared to electric and conventional vehicles, the relative...

  17. Modelling the prospects and impacts of methanol use in transportation in China at computable general equilibrium

    Nami, Mahsa
    The use of methanol as a transportation fuel is not a new phenomenon. However, factors such as price fluctuations, resistance to widespread introduction by special interest groups, and governmental policies have stood in the way of the widespread use of methanol in covering transportation demand. In this thesis, a computable general equilibrium energy-economy model of the world, the Economic Projection and Policy Analysis (EPPA) model, is used to evaluate the potential for methanol vehicle penetration in the private passenger vehicle market in China depending on the cost competitiveness of the technology combination compared to electric and conventional vehicles, the relative...

  18. Using "teacher moments" as an online practice space for parent-teacher conference simulation in preservice teacher education

    Owho-Ovuakporie, Kesiena
    The aim of this thesis is to investigate and improve the suitability of Teacher Moments as an online practice space for parent-teacher conference simulation in preservice teacher education. We evaluate Teacher Moments by means of a playtest conducted with students of a preservice education class for undergraduates in the Scheller Teacher Education Program (STEP) at MIT. We set out to answer 3 research questions. 1) How do users perceive the authenticity of parent-teacher conference simulations in Teacher Moments? 2) How do students' reflections relate to the learning objectives after completing a parent-teacher conference simulation in Teacher Moments? 3) How do...

  19. Using "teacher moments" as an online practice space for parent-teacher conference simulation in preservice teacher education

    Owho-Ovuakporie, Kesiena
    The aim of this thesis is to investigate and improve the suitability of Teacher Moments as an online practice space for parent-teacher conference simulation in preservice teacher education. We evaluate Teacher Moments by means of a playtest conducted with students of a preservice education class for undergraduates in the Scheller Teacher Education Program (STEP) at MIT. We set out to answer 3 research questions. 1) How do users perceive the authenticity of parent-teacher conference simulations in Teacher Moments? 2) How do students' reflections relate to the learning objectives after completing a parent-teacher conference simulation in Teacher Moments? 3) How do...

  20. New financing and business models to accelerate the development of novel therapeutics

    Kim, Esther S
    Many obstacles contribute to the uncertainty and risk associated with early drug development, leading to the "valley of death" in which promising drug candidates experience difficulties in reaching the market. These challenges have serious consequences for patient populations facing significant unmet medical needs. In this paper, we highlight three models that offer innovative financing mechanisms or new business models for early stage biopharmaceutical assets. Specifically, we evaluate and profile examples of venture philanthropy and academic-industry partnerships as sources of financial capital for early stage assets. In addition, we identify a "one-disease" business model in biotechnology that can mitigate risk and...

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