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DSpace at MIT (104.280 recursos)

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Architecture - Ph.D. / Sc.D.

Mostrando recursos 1 - 20 de 259

  1. International comparative analysis of urban water systems

    Noiva, Karen Marie
    This dissertation presents a new approach to structuring global diversity for a large number of urban water systems, so that trends observed in a small number of cases can contribute to a more general understanding of the spectrum of contemporary sustainability challenges faced by cities around the world. The two-part approach first uses a large number of cities (large-n, i.e. n = 142) to identify a typology which is used to guide the choice of two cases (small-n, i.e. n = 2) for further analysis. In the first part of the approach, I compare a large number (large-n) of urban...

  2. Architecture incorporated : authorship, anonymity, and collaboration in postwar modernism

    Kubo, Michael
    A broad transformation occurred in the scale and scope of professional architectural practice in the United States in the decades after World War II. My dissertation explores this shift, in particular the rise of the body of collaborative and team-based methods of production that would come to be labeled as corporate architectural practice. An exploration of these practices reveals a climate of speculation in the postwar period on the corporation as a social and institutional form, and a widespread interest in the potentials of anonymous and collective methods to reshape the nature and objects of architectural production. Tracing the history...

  3. Data mining, inference, and predictive analytics for the built environment with images, text, and WiFi data

    Villalon, Rachelle B. (Rachelle Bentajado)
    What can campus WiFi data tell us about life at MIT? What can thousands of images tell us about the way people see and occupy buildings in real-time? What can we learn about the buildings that millions of people snap pictures of and text about over time? Crowdsourcing has triggered a dramatic shift in the traditional forms of producing content. The increasing number of people contributing to the Internet has created big data that has the potential to 1) enhance the traditional forms of spatial information that the design and engineering fields are typically accustomed to; 2) yield further insights...

  4. Terroir after the terror : landscape and representation in nineteenth-century France

    Presutti, Kelly M. (Kelly Marie)
    In the decades following the French Revolution, landscape paintings appeared at exhibitions in greater numbers than ever before and with more critical approval; at the same time, France's actual landscapes were being reconfigured, in both physical and symbolic ways. This dissertation investigates the relationship between land reform and landscape representation following the French Revolution through to the early Third Republic (1790-circa 1880), combining object study with environmental history to draw out the political stakes of seemingly picturesque scenes. Looking beyond painting to include an analysis of decorative arts and visual culture, this study challenges established hierarchies of fine and decorative...

  5. Softbuilt : computational textiles and augmenting space through emotion

    Davis, Felecia
    When we inhabit, wear, and make textiles we are in conversation with our pre-historical and historical past and in a sense already connected to what is to come by the structure of fabric that operates as a mode of understanding the world. Textiles bind us together as a species in every culture on the planet, though we humans may use and make this material in different ways. In architecture, textiles made of animal skins or plant fibres were probably used to make the first shelters, as both protective clothing and enclosing space. As a liminal space between the body and...

  6. Guided growth : design and computation of biologically active materials

    Zolotovsky, Katia
    In this dissertation, I propose ways for designers and architects to engage with the material units of biological computation and fabrication, namely the living cells. Microscopic cells, the basic units of life, are bits of material with embedded computation, fabrication, and regulation mechanisms. Their genetic code in the DNA performs complex computations, allowing cells to grow, interact with their environment through exchange of matter and energy, and even produce structural materials such as cellulose. These materials are renewable, self-assembling, self-healing, and biologically active. Our rapidly growing ability to re-program living cells to produce materials they would not produce in their...

  7. Graphing theory : new mathematics, design, and the participatory turn

    Vardouli, Theodora
    In the 1960s mathematically inclined architects involved with academic research advocated for a shift from the points and lines of geometric shapes to points and lines of another kind - ones representing abstract objects and their relationships. A story of propinquities between architecture and mathematics, this dissertation investigates this shift through the lens of the mathematical concept that catalyzed it: the graph. I take the graph as an entity with fluctuating symbolic and operational properties and "follow" it across institutional and disciplinary boundaries to reveal historical connections hitherto unseen. I begin by locating the graph's entry into architectural theory at...

  8. From global war to global cities : planning, art, and Post-WWII urban history in New York, Berlin, and Tokyo

    Schmidt, Sebastian, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology
    Thinking about cities became increasingly global during and after WWII. 'Global' here refers to how, in the context of the war, the roles and meanings of cities in the world were beginning to be understood differently. This dissertation investigates urban histories since the 1940s in their connection to changing imaginaries of the world that were shaped by the experience of war, and that have received little attention in historical literature. The dominant narratives of postwar urban history are focused on issues such as destruction and reconstruction, and the ideological divides between East and West. Global history is here employed as...

  9. Low carbon pathways for structural design : embodied life cycle impacts of building structures

    De Wolf, Catherine (Catherine Elvire Lieve)
    Whole life cycle emissions of buildings include not only operational carbon due to their use phase, but also embodied carbon due to the rest of their life cycle: material extraction, transport to the site, construction, and demolition. With ongoing population growth and increasing urbanization, decreasing immediate and irreversible embodied carbon emissions is imperative. With feedback from a wide range of stakeholders - architects, structural engineers, policy makers, rating-scheme developers, this research presents an integrated assessment approach to compare embodied life cycle impacts of building structures. Existing literature indicates that there is an urgent need for benchmarking the embodied carbon of...

  10. Low carbon pathways for structural design : embodied life cycle impacts of building structures

    De Wolf, Catherine (Catherine Elvire Lieve)
    Whole life cycle emissions of buildings include not only operational carbon due to their use phase, but also embodied carbon due to the rest of their life cycle: material extraction, transport to the site, construction, and demolition. With ongoing population growth and increasing urbanization, decreasing immediate and irreversible embodied carbon emissions is imperative. With feedback from a wide range of stakeholders - architects, structural engineers, policy makers, rating-scheme developers, this research presents an integrated assessment approach to compare embodied life cycle impacts of building structures. Existing literature indicates that there is an urgent need for benchmarking the embodied carbon of...

  11. Building archetype calibration for effective urban building energy modeling

    Cerezo Davila, Carlos
    In response to the current environmental challenges, city governments worldwide are developing action plans to both reduce GHG emissions and increase the resilience of their built environment. Given the relevance of energy use in buildings, such plans introduce a variety of efficiency and supply planning strategies ranging from the scale of buildings, to full districts. Their implementation requires information about current building energy demands, and how these demands, and the city's energy ecosystem at large, may change as a result of a specific urban intervention. Unfortunately, metered data is not available at a sufficient level of detail, and cities face...

  12. Validated interactive daylighting analysis for architectural design

    Jones, Nathaniel Louis
    The conventional approach to predicting interior illumination and visual discomfort in buildings is to run a ray tracing simulation with high accuracy settings, wait while the simulation processes, and repeat as necessary with modifications to the scene and settings. This workflow lacks interactivity and usually occurs late in the design process to validate a completed design, if at all. For architecture to benefit from daylight as a practical, glare-free alternative to electric lighting, daylighting simulation and visual discomfort predictions must be available in real time during design. This thesis describes three innovations towards this goal: development of a parallel ray-tracing...

  13. Validated interactive daylighting analysis for architectural design

    Jones, Nathaniel Louis
    The conventional approach to predicting interior illumination and visual discomfort in buildings is to run a ray tracing simulation with high accuracy settings, wait while the simulation processes, and repeat as necessary with modifications to the scene and settings. This workflow lacks interactivity and usually occurs late in the design process to validate a completed design, if at all. For architecture to benefit from daylight as a practical, glare-free alternative to electric lighting, daylighting simulation and visual discomfort predictions must be available in real time during design. This thesis describes three innovations towards this goal: development of a parallel ray-tracing...

  14. Addressing the people : Architecture as a medium of the fascist narrative of national identity, Case del Fascio, 1922-1943

    Bentel, Carol Rusche
    This dissertation examines a building program for Fascist headquarters, or Case del Fascio, established by the Partito Nazionale Fascista (PNF) during the years of Italian Fascism, from 1922 to 1943. The PNF planned over 11,000 buildings by 1943 on the Italian mainland and in their colonial territories. This examination is a chronological study of these buildings demonstrating that the PNF expressed its political messages in built-form. Between 1919 and 1943, the PNF developed its political ideology, documented in the Statute of 1921, and its modifications in 1926, 1929, 1932, and 1938. The PNF building program mirrored their constantly modified political...

  15. The architecture of bibliophilia : eighteenth-century Ottoman libraries

    Sezer, Yavuz
    Libraries were a new building type of Ottoman architecture by the beginning of the eighteenth century. However, they quickly gained a considerable place among the endowments of Ottoman elites and remained one of the most carefully approached architectural questions throughout the century. More than twenty purpose-designed libraries were built in Istanbul until the early nineteenth century. This dissertation investigates the social and cultural conditions that paved the way for this library movement, the dynamics that affected the variety of architectural formulas developed for these buildings, and the receptions of the trend in the elite circles. The Ottomans designed some of...

  16. Seeing as aesthetic experience and creative action : visual practices with shape grammars in design education

    Arpak, Asli
    In the discussion of what makes a "creative" or "imaginative" design, rational concerns have come to override what we might call the "aesthetic experience" - that is, an experience in which all the senses are highly engaged, not only the mind. It has become unpopular and perhaps even politically incorrect to talk about what we feel, like, or respond to viscerally - discussions of emotion, pleasure, or delight are often seen as too subjective, qualitative or illogical, influenced by personal preference and cultural bias. This stems mainly from the age-old arguments positing a mind-body split that gives value to what...

  17. Physical design cognition : an analytical study of exploratory model making to inform creative robotic interaction

    Smithwick, Daniel J., II (Daniel John)
    In current practices of digital design fabrication, model making is bifurcated into screen based visualization (CAD) and machine based production (CAM), which limits the body's capability of generating creative thought through material interaction. If theories from the field of cognitive science about embodied cognition are true, then there is opportunity to rethink how CAD-CAM technologies can better harness the bodily based thinking involved in physical model making. To study how designers explore ideas when making models an experiment was run in which experienced architects and novice students were asked to construct their dream house out of blocks. The hypothesis was...

  18. Improving the use of commercial building HVAC systems for electric grid ancillary services

    Blum, David H. (David Henry)
    Increasing renewable and distributed electricity generation increases the requirement of grid-scale flexibility, often provided through ancillary services. Buildings can play a significant role in meeting this challenge by providing ancillary services with their HVAC systems. However, use of commercial HVAC systems in this way comes with significant challenges, which relate to interactions between the HVAC system and building operation, electricity markets, and electric grid operators. This thesis addresses these challenges through the use of dynamic modeling, model predictive control, and energy storage scaling techniques. First, a model of a representative VAV system is built using Modelica and simulated to characterize...

  19. A place for computing visual meaning : the broadened drawing-scape

    Gün, Onur Yüce
    Meaning is the essence. It is the primary reason for us to keep doing things. Meaning is both significance and the endless unfolding of significance. Visual Meaning is fundamental for visual arts and design processes. One draws, paints, sculpts, throws sponges on the wall, dips one's own body into paint and crawls on the ground or codes to create lines, spots or fields (Knight), all of which are then looked into, perceived and iterated. Vision is so important that Alberti's eye becomes a godly creature with wings that flies among thunderstorms, Kepler's eye becomes a perfect machine through which stars...

  20. Utilité publique : architecture, urbanism, and aesthetic reform in turn of the century France

    Tuerk, Stephanie Marie
    This dissertation documents how the aesthetic dimension of architecture came to be seen as an object of public utility in late nineteenth and early twentieth century France. It examines the work of a network of architects, artists, political representatives, art critics, poets, archaeologists, pedagogues, and other intellectual elites, who argued, through journals, pamphlets and books, and various legislative debates, that architecture's aesthetic capacity could both remedy public problems and reform the public itself. The study casts these "aesthetic reformers" as motivated not only by a wish to serve the public, but moreso by a desire to serve architecture itself, rehabilitating...

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