The level of Lake Victoria has, since 1961, reached a height which caused serious flood damage. Already the financial implications are considerable for Kenya, Tanzania and Uganda. If further rises can be anticipated, expenditure on flood control measures to the tune of several million pounds sterling must be envisaged. If such rises should lead to uncontrolled discharge at the Owen Falls Dam site because of overshooting, downstream districts of Uganda and the Sudan may be seriously flooded. All this merits a thorough study, and any indication of the future behaviour of lake levels, even when associated with a low probability,...
Ogwang, J.A.; Wanda, F.M.
Reports of hydrilla (Hydrilla verticilata) infestation lakes Bisina and Opeta were verbally communicated by some members of FIRRI who undertook surveys during the LVEMP 1 phase (1997 to 2004) to assess the diversity and stocks of fishes in the Kyoga basin satellite lakes. This issue was taken up by FIRRI and NAARI staff who work on aquatic weeds management to ascertain and quantify the presence of H. verticilata and other aquatic weeds, with the sole aim of finding ways and means of controlling one of the world's worst aquatic weeds, H. verticilata.The survey on Lake Opeta indicated that this weed...
Jayakumar, P.; Jothivel, N.; Thimmappa, A.; Paul, V.I.
The biotic potential of the benthic filter feeding freshwater bivalve mollusc Lamellidens marginalis (Lamarck) influencing the nutrient dynamics of the bottom sediments of the lake by means of biodeposition and bioturbation activities were analysed using a lake mesocosm experiment. Five control as well as experimental mesocosms was maintained up to 60 days (d). The factors studied included the percentage of water content of the sediment, percentage of total nitrogen, percentage of organic matter along with the total phosphorus and humic acid content. While total phosphorus and humic acid content of the experimental mesocosoms showed gradual and significant increases from 30d...
Wadda, E.; Rukunya, E.
Physical control of water hyacinth consists of removing the plants from the water by hand or machines. It is considered over effetive because it involves removing the whole plants from water. The first attempt on physical control
was in 1992 when weed infestation was causing serious problems to the fishing communities in Lake Kyoga. The fishermen had problems of accessing the lake as huge masses of mobile weed blocked landing sites. Furthermore,
the fishers lost their nets, which were swept away by mobile water hyacinth. As a result, an integrated control strategy involving physical control (manual and mechanical removal) was put in...
This study was carried out in the interface zone of Lake Nabugabo, which is situated to the west of Lake Victoria. Four study sites were chosen from the south-western to the eastern ends of the euhydrophyte-dominated interface zone, which was about 10 km long, 10 to 50 m wide, 2 m deep and characterized by a thick layer of peat at the bottom. Nymphaea caerulea was the most dominant and widespread euhydrophyte species except in the eastern tip of the lake where it was replaced by Nymphaea lotus. Interspersed among these lilies was Ceratophyllum demersum in certain bays which were...
It is located in eastern Uganda, the wetland system is characterized by open water that is clear
with some emergent vegetation mainly of sedges and floating vegetation dominated by the day water lily Nymphaea sp and submerged water weeds. Some patches of Cyperus papyrus exist in areas with minimal agricultural encroachment. The main inflow into the Opeta system is through River Sironko.
Ochieng, H.; Balirwa, J.S.; Ocaya, H.
The purpose of this study conducted from January 2007 to April 2008, by NaFIRRI, was to investigate specifically the status of heavy metal (copper, Cu; Zinc, Zn and Lead, Pb) concentrations in bottom sediments of Lake Albert and relate the information to the safety of Lake environment and its entire fisheries.
Bugenyi, F.W.B; Magumba, K.M.
In this paper, we try to briefly review the current physico-chemical data pertaining to Northern Lake Victoria which could eventually be used to explain the following:-
(a) whether there bas been a change of the dissolved organic nutrient cencentrations when compared with the pre-perch period, (b) the specific point sources of the influent nutrients and other chemicals and how they correlate with changes in algal productivity, and (c) whether the data can contribute to the validation of the Lake Victoria ecological model developed by Jorgensen at al. (1982).
Sekiranda, S.K.; Okot-Okumu, J.; Bugenyi, F.W.B.; Ndawula, L.M.; Gandhi, P.
Knowledge of how biota can be used to monitor ecosystem health and assess impacts by human alterations such as land use and management measures taken at different spatial scales is critical for improving the ecological quality of aquatic ecosystems. This knowledge in Uganda is very limited or unavailable yet it is needed to better understand the relationship between environmental factors at different spatial scales, assemblage structure and taxon richness of aquatic ecosystems. In this study, benthic invertebrate community patterns were sampled between June 2001 and April 2002 and analysed in relation to water quality and catchment land use patterns from...
The limnological investigations in Uganda freshwaters which were started in the 1920s looked into: the origins, the changing geological and climatic factors which gave
rise to the characteristic inland waters; the primary production; the constituent small aquatic
organisms and their ecology; and their bordering swamps. Most of them were formed immediately after the formation of the great Western rift valley.
Almost all the inland waters in Uganda are typical tropical freshwaters which, because of their relative shallowness, experience rather frequent wind stirrings and therefore nutrient circulation which would make them relatively productive. Many physical, biological and chemical factors come into play to finally...
Mwamburi, J.; Oloo, F.N.
The water and bottom sediments of Lake Victoria (Kenya) were analysed for A1, Fe, Mn, Zn, Pb, Cu, Cr and Cd. The total metal concentrations were determined and their mean variations and distributions discussed. The bottom lake waters showed higher concentration levels than the surface waters. The range of values (in mg/l) in the bottom and surface lake waters were as follows:
Surface Waters: A1(0.08 - 3.98), Fe(0.09 - 4.01), Mn(0.02 - 0.10). Zn(0.01 -0.07),
Pb(0.001- 0.007), Cu(not detected - 0.006), Cr(not detected - 0.004).
Bottom Waters: A1(0.1 0 - 6.59), Fe(0.23 - 9.64), Mn(0.04 - 0.39),
Zn(0.01- 0.08), Pb(0.002 - 0.009), Cu(not detected...
Twongo, T.; Bugenyi, F.W.B; Wanda, F.
Shore environments of Lakes Victoria and Kyoga with potential for the establishment and proliferation of water hyacinth were identified. They are characterised by: (i) shelter from violent off-shore and along-the-shore wind and wave action (ii) flat or gentle slope under relatively shallow water, and (iii) a muddy bottom rich in organic matter. Such environments are strongly associated with emergent macrophytes of papyrus, Vossia sp and, at times Typha sp where Pistia stratiotes, species of ceratophyllum, myriophylum and nymphaea also occur. In Lake Kyoga association with Vossia sp facilitated establishment of water hyacinth even along wind-swept shores and promoted extension of...
Makanga, B.; Monkiedge, A.; Obbo, C.J.
Seven varieties of indigenous Phytolacca dodecwulra L'Herrit (Phytolaccaceae) were field-tried for molluscicidal potency.
Varieties (U96) and (U95) collected from Kabarole and Kabale respectively were the most potent with LD90 equal to 2.54 and 6.46 mg.t-· respectively. Water bodies ranging between 4,770 and 347,510 Iitres in Kibimba rice fields were treated with up to 50mg.t-· Snails kills were monitored every three months and 92 - 100% mortality rates were realized.
HPLC fingerprints revealed the two P. dodecandra varieties to contain highest concentration of the active principle,
oleanoglycotoxin- A or lemmatoxin - A.
The present paper deals with the limnology of Nyumba Ya Mungu, a man-made lake in Tanzania (Kilimanjaro Region), during the 7th and 8th years after the elosure of the Ruvu dam. The area investigated included the River, which is one of the two rivers entering the lake.
Melack, J.M.; Kilham, P.
In May, 1971, Lake Mahega had pronounced mesothermy (40.W C at one metre). Solar heating of a bloom of baeteria and the blue-green alga, Synechococcus bacillaris Butch., probably caused the high temperature. A total ionic concentration gradient increasing from 192,600 mg 1itre-1 at the surface to 415,200 mg•litre- 1 at three metres stabilized the thermally inverted water. Nearly equal amounts of chloride and sulphate accounted for about 90% of the anionic composition. Sodium was the major cation.
Crystals or the triple salt, northupite (Na2 CO3. MgCO3. NaCl) and of thenardite (Na2SO4) were mixed with the surface sediment. We believe it is...
The paper reviews the distribution of organic compounds in freshwater lakes and rivers. The study of dissolved organic matter in natural lakes and rivers is of importance for a variety of reasons. The organic matter may serve in part or whole as an energy source for organisms living in the aquatic environment, or it may supply them with materials essential for their nutrition.
The vertical temperature profile is a poor indicator of sratification in most tropical lake. Data from Lake Bunyonyi, Uganda, showed, however, that the density profile highlighted discontinuity layers whieh were not obvious from the temperature profile, It is suggested that the vertical
density profile and the region of maximum discontinuity, the pycnocline, could be adopted as a useful index of stratification especially in tropical lakes.
Imevbore, A.M.A.; Bakare, O.
This paper gives an account of the wet season swamps in the River Niger valley within tbe area now submerged by the Kainji Lake. Their ecology was studied with respect to the soils, plant cover, water chemistry and plankton concentrations. Their value to the fishery in the river basin was discussed.
Thirty-three groups of geochemically related natural lake and river waters collected from 368 sites scattered over East and West Africa, were investigated to determine correlations between their various ions and the patterns of change in their ionic composition across the African continent.
The following nine significant correlations were found to exist in the entire area or in a major part of it: sodium and potassium; sodium and chloride; sodium and sulphate; potassium and ammonium; potassium and chloride; ammonium and nitrate; calcium and magnesium; magnesium and chloride; sulphate and chloride. When compared with the world average composition. The concentration of potassium in...
Lake Chilwa and its environs present a unique challenge to science for two reasons:
1. The welfare of its people and the fish and crops on which they depend on incomes as well as subsistence are dominated by the vagaries of the periodic rise and fall of the lake. Inyears of high level the lake provides a relatively good living for the people of the plain and the fish is a major source of dietary protein for the densely populated Shire Highlands. Fish catches and fish consumption
decline in years of low lake level. Could knowledge of the biology of the lake...