The Aquatic Commons is a thematic digital repository covering the natural marine, estuarine /brackish and fresh water environments . It includes all aspects of the science, technology, management and conservation of these environments, their organisms and resources, and the economic, sociological and legal aspects.
Subject = Agriculture
Mostrando recursos 1 - 20 de 136
Tonle Sap scoping report - Johnstone, G.; Puskur, R.; Fabrice, D.; Kosal, M.; Oeur, I.I.; Sithirith, M.; Bunna, P.; Sophat, S.; Chan, Sokheng; Sochanny, H.; Samnang, L.; Suon, Sokheng; Kimhor, P.; Sameth, R.
The scoping mission team was composed of 14 people representing research institutions (RUPP), government (FiA, IFReDI), NGOs (ANKO, ADIC) and CGIAR institutions (WorldFish and Bioversity). The scoping trip was carried out over a 7-day period from April 28 to May 4 within eight (8) communities in Kampong Thom, Siem Reap, Battambang, Pursat and Kampong Chhnang. In addition, panel discussions were held with local government, fishery, agriculture and water management institutions, NGOs, the private sector and communities, and were convened in Siem Reap, Battambang and Pursat. The AAS scoping team focused their enquiries on five themes, and the findings of this...
Solomon Islands Aquatic Agricultural Systems Program design document - Schwarz, A.M.; Boso, D.
WorldFish is leading the CGIAR Research Program on Aquatic Agricultural Systems together with two other CGIAR Centers; the International Water Management Institute (IWMI) and Bioversity. In 2012 and 2013 the AAS Program rolled out in Solomon Islands, Zambia, Bangladesh, Cambodia and the Philippines. Aquatic Agricultural Systems are places where farming and fishing in freshwater and/or coastal ecosystems contribute significantly to household income and food security. The program goal is to improve the well-being of AAS-dependent people. A hub is a geographic location that provides a focus for learning, innovation and impact through participatory action research. In Solomon Islands AAS works...
Scoping report: current status of index-based insurance in Bangladesh - Ahmed, T.
With current and anticipated increases in magnitude of extreme weather events and a declining consistency in weather patterns, particularly challenging for agriculture, there has been a growing interest in weather index-based insurance (IBI) schemes in Bangladesh. A number of weather index-based insurance products have already been tested and applied across Asia and Africa, with varying degrees of success, as a mechanism to improve livelihood security by enabling vulnerable populations to transfer risk associated with climate change, extreme weather events and other hazards. In the process, these efforts have generated important new knowledge on how these schemes can be designed and...
Learning from implementation of community selection in Zambia, Solomon Islands, and Bangladesh AAS hubs
The CGIAR Research Program on Aquatic Agricultural Systems (AAS) is a research in development program which aims to foster innovation to respond to community needs, and through networking and social learning to bring about development outcomes and impact at scale. It aims to reach the poorest and most vulnerable communities that are dependent upon aquatic agricultural systems. AAS uses monitoring and evaluation to track progress along identified impact pathways for accountability and learning. This report presents an evaluation of the recommended method for selecting communities during the participatory planning process, referred to as AAS “hub rollout,” in the first year...
Linking climate change, rice yield, and migration: the Philippine experience - Bordey, F.H.; Launio, C.C.; Quilang, E.J.P.; Tolentino, C.M.A.; Ogena, N.B.
This study tests the hypothesis that climate change, through its rice productivity impacts, induces out-migration in the Philippines. Results show that climate change effects such as increasing night time temperature and extreme rainfall pattern, by way of reduction in rice yield and farm revenues, significantly increases the number of Overseas Filipino Workers. Findings also show that overseas migration of female workers is more sensitive to climate and rice productivity changes compared to male overseas migration. However, unlike overseas migration, the reduction in yield and farm revenues act as a constraint to domestic migration.
2012 Annual report
The CGIAR Research Program on Aquatic Agricultural Systems is a multi-year research initiative launched in July 2011. It is designed to pursue community-based approaches to agricultural research and development that target the poorest and most vulnerable rural households in aquatic agricultural systems. Led by WorldFish, a member of the CGIAR Consortium, the program is partnering with diverse organizations working at local, national and global levels to help achieve impacts at scale.
Implications of using On-Farm Flood Flow Capture to recharge groundwater and mitigate flood risks along the Kings River, CA - Bachand, P.A.M.; Horwath, W.R.; Roy, S.; Choperena, J.; Cameron, D.
Two large hydrologic issues face the Kings Basin, severe and chronic overdraft of about 0.16M ac-ft annually, and flood risks along the Kings River and the downstream San Joaquin River. Since 1983, these floods have caused over $1B in damage in today’s dollars. Capturing flood flows of sufficient volume could help address these two pressing issues which are relevant to many regions of the Central Valley and will only be exacerbated with climate change. However, the Kings River has high variability associated with flow magnitudes which suggests that standard engineering approaches and acquisition of sufficient acreage through purchase and easements...
Solomon Islands: Malaita Hub scoping report - Schwarz, A.M.; Andrew, N.; Govan, H.; Harohau, D.; Oeta, J.
The CGIAR Research Program (CRP) Aquatic Agricultural Systems (AAS) will target five countries, including Solomon Islands. The proposed hubs for Solomon Islands were to cover most provinces, referencing the Western, Central and Eastern regions. Scoping of the initial ‘Central’ hub was undertaken in Guadalcanal, Malaita and Central Islands provinces and this report details findings from all three. As scoping progressed however, it was agreed that, based on the AAS context and priority needs of each province and the Program’s capacity for full implementation, the Central Hub would be restricted to Malaita Province only and renamed “Malaita Hub”. Consistent in each...
Solomon Islands: Essential aspects of governance for Aquatic Agricultural Systems in Malaita Hub - Govan, H.; Schwarz, A.M.; Harohau, D.; Oeta, J.; Orirana, G.; Ratner, B.D.
In late 2012, a governance assessment was carried out as part of the diagnosis phase of rollout of the CGIAR Aquatic Agricultural Systems Program in Malaita Hub in Solomon Islands. The purpose of the assessment was to identify and provide a basic understanding of essential aspects of governance related to Aquatic Agricultural Systems in general, and more specifically as a case study in natural resource management. The underlying principles of the approach we have taken are drawn from an approach known as “Collaborating for Resilience” (CORE), which is based on bringing all key stakeholders into a process to ensure that...
Research in development: the approach of AAS - Dugan, P.; Apgar, M.; Douthwaite, B.
The CGIAR Research Program on Aquatic Agricultural Systems (AAS) is pursuing a Research in Development approach that emphasizes the importance of embedding research in the development context. Reflecting this emphasis the six elements of this approach are a commitment to people and place, participatory action research, gender transformative research, learning and networking, partnerships, and capacity building. It is through the careful pursuit of these six elements that we believe that the program will achieve the development outcomes we aspire to, and do so at scale.
Using theory of change to achieve impact in AAS - Douthwaite, B.; Kamp, K.; Longley, C.; Kruijssen, F.; Puskur, R.; Chiuta, T.; Apgar, M.; Dugan, P.
The CGIAR Strategy and Results Framework sets out four system level outcomes (SLOs), namely: reducing rural poverty, improving food security, improving nutrition and health and sustainable management of natural resources. In pursuit of these objectives the CGIAR has developed a set of sixteen CGIAR Research Programs (CRPs), each of which is expected to make specific contributions to a range of intermediate development outcomes (IDOs) linked to the SLOs. As part of this work the CRPs are developing impact pathways and theories of change designed to explain how the programs will achieve IDOs. The purpose of the present paper is to...
Solomon Islands national situation analysis - Govan, H.; Schwarz, A.M.; Harohau, D.; Oeta, J.
The CGIAR Research Program on Aquatic Agricultural Systems (CRP AAS) was approved by the CGIAR Fund Council in July, 2011. Solomon Islands, one of five countries targeted by the program, began its rollout with a five month planning phase between August and December of 2011. Subsequent steps of the Program rollout include scoping, diagnosis and design. This report is the first to be produced during the scoping phase in Solomon Islands; it addresses the national setting and provides basic information on the context within which the AAS Program will operate. The macro level subjects of analysis provide initial baselines of...
Building coalitions, creating change: An agenda for gender transformative research in agricultural development
The CGIAR Research Program on Aquatic Agricultural Systems (AAS) has developed its Gender Research in Development Strategy centered on a transformative approach. Translating this strategy into actual research and development practice poses a considerable challenge, as not much (documented) experience exists in the agricultural sector to draw on, and significant innovation is required. A process of transformative change requires reflecting on multiple facets and dimensions simultaneously. This working paper is a collation of think pieces, structured around broad the mes and topics, reflecting on what works (and what does not) in the application of gender transformative approaches in agriculture and...
Collaborative governance assessment - Ratner, B.D.
This Guidance Note presents a simple approach to analyzing the governance context for development of aquatic agricultural systems; it is intended as an aid to action research, and a contribution to effective program planning and evaluation. It provides a brief introduction to the value of assessing governance collaboratively, summarizes an analytical framework, and offers practical guidance on three stages of the process: identifying obstacles and opportunities, debating strategies for influence, and planning collaborative actions.
Ex-ante assessment of integrated aquaculture-agriculture adoption and impact in Southern Malawi - Tran, N.; Crissman, C.; Chijere, A.; Hong, M.C.; Teoh, S.J.; Valdivia, R.O.
There are increasing requirements for impact assessment by development partners in order to increase the accountability and effectiveness of research and development projects. Impact assessment research has been dominated by conventional economic methods. This context challenges agricultural research organizations to develop and apply alternative impact assessment methods incorporating economic, social, and environmental impact components. In this study, we use the Tradeoff Analysis for Multi-Dimensional Impact Assessment (TOA-MD) model to evaluate the impact of integrated aquaculture-agriculture (IAA) adoption in Malawi. The study demonstrated that with a minimal data set, the TOA-MD model can be applied to predict and assess the adoption...
Economic and social impacts of Integrated Aquaculture-Agriculture technologies in Bangladesh - Murshed-E-Jahan, K.; Crissman, C.; Antle, J.
This study estimated the adoption rate of integrated aquaculture-agriculture (IAA) technologies in Bangladesh and their impact on poverty and fish and food consumption in adopting households. We used a novel, simulation-based approach to impact assessment called Tradeoff Analysis for Multi-Dimensional Impact Assessment (TOA-MD). We used the TOA-MD model to demonstrate how it is possible to use available data to estimate adoption rates in relevant populations, and to quantify impacts on distributional outcomes such as poverty and food security, thus demonstrating ex ante the potential for further investment in technology dissemination. The analysis used baseline and end-of-project survey data from WorldFish-implemented...
The review of recent advances in fish genetics and biotechnology - Mgbabu , Christopher Nwokwa
Great advances have been, and are being made in our knowledge of the genetics and molecular biology (including genomics, proteomics and structural biology). Global molecular profiling technologies such as microassays using DNA or oligonucleotide chip, and protein and lipid chips are being developed. The application of such biotechnological advances are inevitable in aquaculture in the areas of improvement of aquaculture stocks where many molecular markers such as RFLPs, AFLDs and RAPD are now available for genome analysis, finger printing and genetic linkage mapping. Transgenic technology has been developed in a number of fish species and research is being pursed to...
Technical efficiency in artisanal fisheries (AF) in Badagry local government area of Lagos State, Nigeria - Ogunniyi, L.T.; Ajao, , A.O.; Sanusi , W.A.
This study examined the technical efficiency in artisanal fisheries in Lagos State of Nigeria. The study employed a two stage random sampling procedure for the selection of 120 respondents. The analytical techniques involved descriptive statistics and estimation of technical efficiency following maximum likelihood estimation (MLE) procedure available in FRONTIER 4.1. The MLE result of the stochastic frontier production function showed that hired labour, cost of repair and capital items are critical factors that influences productivity of artisanal fishermen with the coefficient of hired labour being highly elastic. This implies that employing more labour will significantly increase the catch in the...
Participatory action research on climate risk management, Bangladesh - Braun, M.; Saroar, M.
The rural populations of southern Bangladesh are some of the most vulnerable communities in the world to the future impacts of climate change. They are particularly at risk from floods, waterlogged soils, and increasing salinity of both land and water. The objective of this project was to analyze the vulnerability of people in four villages that are experiencing different levels of soil salinity. The study evaluated the strengths and weaknesses of current coping strategies and assessed the potential of an index-based insurance scheme, designed diversification and better information products to improve adaptive capacity.