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Aquatic Commons (27.577 recursos)
The Aquatic Commons is a thematic digital repository covering the natural marine, estuarine /brackish and fresh water environments . It includes all aspects of the science, technology, management and conservation of these environments, their organisms and resources, and the economic, sociological and legal aspects.

Subject = Fisheries

Mostrando recursos 1 - 20 de 10.211

1. Three decades of U.S. Gulf of Mexico white shrimp, Litopenaeus setiferus, commercial catch statistics - Hart , Rick A.; Nance, James M.
Gulf of Mexico, white shrimp, Litopenaeus setiferus, catch statistics have been collected by NOAA’s National Marine Fisheries Service for over 50 years. Recent occurrences such as natural and manmade disasters have raised awareness for the need to publish these types of data. Here we report shrimp data collected from 1984 to 2011. These 28 years of catch history are the time series used in the most recent Gulf of Mexico white shrimp stock assessment. Fishing effort for this stock has fluctuated over the period reported, ranging from 54,675 to 162,952 days fished. Catch averaged 55.7 million pounds per year, increasing...

2. Comparing autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV) and vessel-based tracking performance for locating acoustically tagged fish - Eiler, John H.; Grothues, Thomas M.; Dobarro, Joseph A.; Masuda, Michele M.
Autonomous underwater vehicles (AUV’s) are increasingly used to collect physical, chemical, and biological information in the marine environment. Recent efforts include merging AUV technology with acoustic telemetry to provide information on the distribution and movements of marine fish. We compared surface vessel and AUV tracking capabilities under rigorous conditions in coastal waters near Juneau, Alaska. Tracking surveys were conducted with a REMUS 100 AUV equipped with an integrated acoustic receiver and hydrophone. The AUV was programmed to navigate along predetermined routes to detect both reference transmitters at 20–500 m depths and tagged fish and crabs in situ. Comparable boat surveys...

3. Historical knowledge of sharks: ancient science, earliest American encounters, and American science, fisheries, and utilization - Castro, Jose I.
In western civilization, the knowledge of the elasmobranch or selachian fishes (sharks and rays) begins with Aristotle (384–322 B.C.). Two of his extant works, the “Historia Animalium” and the “Generation of Animals,” both written about 330 B.C., demonstrate knowledge of elasmobranch fishes acquired by observation. Roman writers of works on natural history, such as Aelian and Pliny, who followed Aristotle, were compilers of available information. Their contribution was that they prevented the Greek knowledge from being lost, but they added few original observations. The fall of Rome, around 476 A.D., brought a period of economic regression and political chaos. These...

4. Determinants of small-scale fishermen's income on Oman's Batinah Coast - Al Jabri, Omar; Collins, Ray; Sun, Ximing; Omezzine, Abdallah; Belwal, Rakesh
The small-scale fishing industry of Oman is responsible for almost 90 percent of the total marine fishery production. It is also the main supplier of fish for Omani households. This study analyzes the factors that determine small-scale fishermen’s income on Oman’s Batinah Coast, which has almost 30 percent of Oman’s population and more than one-third of the small-scale fishermen. We find that fishermen’s income here can be explained broadly under four major blocks of variables: geographical region, fishing inputs and catch, socioeconomic and demographic characteristics, and the nature of the relationship with fisheries extension services. In general, the Wilayat (local administrative...

5. Gear modifications for fishing octopus, Octopus vulgaris, on live-bottom and adjacent flat bottom habitats in coastal waters off North Carolina - Rudershausen, Paul J.
The Common Octopus, Octopus vulgaris, is an r-selected mollusk found off the coast of North Carolina that interests commercial fishermen because of its market value and the cost-effectiveness of unbaited pots that can catch it. This study sought to: 1) determine those gear and environmental factors that influenced catch rates of octopi, and 2) evaluate the feasibility of small-scale commercial operations for this species. Pots were fished from August 2010 through September 2011 set in strings over hard and sandy bottom in waters from 18 to 30 m deep in Onslow Bay, N.C. Three pot types were fished in each...

6. Sea turtles in Florida's Atlantic waters - Bovery, Caitlin M.; Wyneken, Jeanette
Management of marine turtles presents various challenges due to their highly migratory nature, which includes major ontogenetic habitat shifts, seasonal movements between feeding grounds, and migrations to and from breeding grounds. Further, sea turtle spatial distributions often differ in species-specific ways during similar temporal periods. Various approaches combine to give valuable insights into spatial and temporal distributions of sea turtles and provide critical knowledge for understanding and protecting these imperiled species. Here we summarize and synthesize available data that document sea turtle occurrences in waters from the Florida Straits (lat. 24°28´N) north to the latitude of Jacksonville, Fla. (lat. 30°20´...

7. Holistic fisheries management: combining macroecology, ecology, and evolutionary biology - Fowler, Charles W.; Belgrano, Andrea; Casini, Michele
Ecosystem-based management is one of many indispensable components of objective, holistic management of human impacts on nonhuman systems. By itself, however, ecosystem-based management carries the same risks we face with other forms of current management; holism requires more. Combining single-species and ecosystem approaches represents progress. However, it is now recognized that management also needs to be evosystem-based. In other words, management needs to account for all coevolutionary and evolutionary interactions among all species; otherwise we fall far short of holism. Fully holistic practices are quite distinct from the approaches to the management of fisheries that are applied today. In this...

8. Seafood consumption and supply sources in Hawaii, 2000-2009 - Loke, Matthew K.; Geslani, Cheryl; Takenaka, Brooks; Leung, Pingsun
Measures of consumption and supply sources of seafood can provide valuable input to research and policy planning of a viable food system. This article fills a gap in the existing literature by mapping the existing seafood supply flows from various sources (local, domestic U.S., and foreign) in Hawaii. The authors trace the seafood transshipment of foreign origin via the continental United States to Hawaii and update total and per capita consumption of seafood more accurately by including noncommercial catches into the analysis. Per capita seafood consumption in Hawaii from all commercial sources is estimated at an annual average of 29...

9. Biscayne Bay commercial pink shrimp, Farfantepenaeus duorarum, fisheries, 1986-2005 - Johnson, Darlene R.; Browder, Joan A.; Brown-Eyo, Pamela; Robblee, Michael B.
The Biscayne Bay bait (1986–2005) and food (1989–2005) fisheries for pink shrimp were examined using dealer-reported individual vessel-trip landings data, separated by waterbody code to represent only catches from Biscayne Bay. Annual landings varied little during the 1980’s and early 1990’s, and landings of the bait shrimp fishery exceeded those of the food shrimp fishery. The number of trips and landings in both fisheries increased from the late 1990’s through 2002 and food shrimp landings exceeded landings of bait shrimp; landings in both fisheries decreased sharply in 2003. Landings in both fisheries increased in 2004 and 2005, but the increase...

10. Characterization of the U.S. Gulf of Mexico and South Atlantic penaeid and rock shrimp fisheries based on observer data - Scott-Denton, Elizabeth; Cryer, Pat F.; Duffy, Matt R.; Gocke, Judith P.; Harrelson, Mike R.; Kinsella, Donna L.; Nance, James M.; Pulver, Jeff R.; Smith, Rebecca C.; Williams, Jo A.
In July 2007, a mandatory Federal observer program was implemented to characterize the U.S. Gulf of Mexico penaeid shrimp (Farfantepenaeus aztecus, F. duorarum, and Litopenaeus setiferus) fishery. In June 2008, the program expanded to include the South Atlantic penaeid and rock shrimp, Sicyonia spp., fisheries. Data collected from 10,206 tows during 5,197 sea days of observations were analyzed by geographical area and target species. The majority of tows (~70%) sampled were off the coasts of Texas and Louisiana. Based on total hours towed, the highest concentrated effort occurred off South Texas and southwestern Florida. Gear information, such as net characteristics,...

11. Estimates of total seabird bycatch by Atlantic pelagic longline fisheries from 2003 to 2006 - Klaer, Neil L.
Results of recent seabird bycatch studies in the International Commission for the Conservation of Atlantic Tunas Convention Area were combined to estimate total seabird bycatch of pelagic longline fishing in the Atlantic Ocean, and bycatch per selected species. Available studies do not apply to the full spatial and temporal extent of the fishing effort, so assumptions were made to account for missing information. Over the 4 years from 2003 to 2006 the total seabird bycatch estimate was 48,500. Results indicate that about 57% of the pelagic longline seabird bycatch was albatrosses (Diomedea, Phoebastria, Thalassarche, Phoebetria spp.). This mortality is at...

12. Evaluating the quality of bycatch data and bycatch estimates among disparate fisheries - Desfosse, Lisa L.; Karp, William A.; Brooke, Samantha G.
In 2006, the National Marine Fisheries Service, NOAA, initiated development of a national bycatch report that would provide bycatch estimates for U.S. commercial fisheries at the fishery and species levels for fishes, marine mammals, sea turtles, and seabirds. As part of this project, the need to quantify the relative quality of available bycatch data and estimation methods was identified. Working collaboratively with fisheries managers and scientists across the nation, a system of evaluation was developed. Herein we describe the development of this system (the “tier system”), its components, and its application. We also discuss the value of the tier system...

13. Estimating overall fish bycatch in U.S. commercial fisheries - Brooke, Samantha G.; Desfosse, Lisa L.; Karp, William A.
Bycatch, or the unintended capture of fish, marine mammals, sea turtles, and seabirds by fishing gear, occurs to some degree in most fisheries. The recently released National Marine Fisheries Service’s (NMFS) U.S. National Bycatch Report provides information on bycatch in U.S. commercial fisheries by fishery and species. The report also provides national statistics in the form of national bycatch ratio and a national bycatch estimate. We describe the methods used to develop these statistics and compare them to similar studies. We conclude that the national bycatch ratio and national bycatch estimates developed by NMFS represent the best available information on...

14. Reducing sea turtle bycatch in trawl nets: a history of NMFS turtle excluder device (TED) research - Jenkins, Lekelia D.
Thirty-six years ago, NOAA’s National Marine Fisheries Service began research on how to reduce mortality of sea turtles, Chelonioidea, in shrimp trawls. As a result of efforts of NMFS and many stakeholders, including domestic and foreign fishermen, environmentalists, Sea Grant agents, and government agencies, many trawl fisheries around the world use a version of the turtle excluder device (TED). This article chronicles the contributions of NMFS to this effort, much of which occurred at the NMFS Mississippi Laboratories in Pascagoula. Specifically, it summarizes the impetus for and results of major developments and little known events in the TED research and...

15. Bycatch in marine fisheries - Ward, John M.; Benaka, Lee R.; Moore, Christopher M.; Meyers, Steve
A review of the significant contributions in the peer-reviewed literature indicates that the discarding of marine fish known as bycatch remains one of the most significant problem facing fisheries managers. Bycatch has negative affects on marine biodiversity, is ripe with ethical and moral issues surrounding the waste of life from increased juvenile fish mortality, hinders commercial profitability and recreational satisfaction, increases management costs, and results in socio-cultural problems and conflicts. While appearing to have a simple conservation engineering solution, reducing or eliminating bycatch in marine fishing operations given the presently existing regulated open access management environment is demonstrated to actually...

16. Bycatch provisions in the reauthorized Magnuson-Stevens Act - Benaka, Lee R.; Cimo, Laura F.; Jenkins, Lekelia D.
Bycatch can harm marine ecosystems, reduce biodiversity, lead to injury or mortality of protected species, and have severe economic implications for fisheries. On 12 January 2007, President George W. Bush signed the Magnuson-Stevens Fishery Conservation and Management Reauthorization Act of 2006 (MSRA). The MSRA required the U.S. Secretary of Commerce (Secretary) to establish a Bycatch Reduction Engineering Program (BREP) to develop technological devices and other conservation engineering changes designed to minimize bycatch, seabird interactions, bycatch mortality, and post-release mortality in Federally managed fisheries. The MSRA also required the Secretary to identify nations whose vessels are engaged in the bycatch of...

17. Home range and seasonal movements of Black Sea Bass (Centropristis striata) during their inshore residency at a reef in the mid-Atlantic Bight - Fabrizio, Mary C.; Manderson, John P.; Pessutti, Jeffrey P.
Black Sea Bass (Centropristis striata) in the mid-Atlantic Bight undertake seasonal cross-shelf movements to occupy inshore rocky reefs and hardbottom habitats between spring and fall. Shelf-wide migrations of this stock are well documented, but movements and home ranges of fish during their inshore residency period have not been described. We tagged 122 Black Sea Bass with acoustic transmitters at a mid-Atlantic reef to estimate home-range size and factors that influence movements (>400 m) at a 46.1-km2 study site between May and November 2003. Activity of Black Sea Bass was greatest and most consistent during summer but declined rapidly in September...

18. Limited genetic structure of Gulf Menhaden (Brevoortia patronus), as revealed by microsatellite markers developed for the genus Brevoortia (Clupeidae) - Anderson, Joel D.; Karel, William J.
Long-term sustainable management of wild populations should be based on management actions that account for the genetic structure among populations. Knowledge of genetic structure and of the degree of demographic exchange between discreet [sic] populations allows managers to better define management units. However, adequate gene loci for population assessments are not always available. In this study, variable co-dominant DNA loci in the heavily exploited marine genus Brevoortia were developed with a microsatellite-enriched DNA library for the Gulf Menhaden (Brevoortia patronus). Microsatellite marker discovery was followed by genetic characterization of 4 endemic North American Brevoortia species, by using 14 novel loci...

19. Co-occurrence of bycatch and target species in the groundfish demersal trawl fishery of the U.S. west coast; with special consideration of rebuilding stocks - Heery, Eliza; Cope, Jason M.
Bycatch and resultant discard mortality are issues of global concern. The groundfish demersal trawl fishery on the west coast of the United States is a multispecies fishery with significant catch of target and nontarget species. These catches are of particular concern in regard to species that have previously been declared overfished and are currently rebuilding biomass back to target levels. To understand these interactions better, we used data from the West Coast Groundfish Observer Program in a series of cluster analyses to evaluate 3 questions: 1) Are there identifiable associations between species caught in the bottom trawl fishery; 2) Do...

20. Population genetics of Cobia (Rachycentron canadum): implications for fishery management along the coast of the southeastern United States - Darden, Tanya L.; Walker, Matthew J.; Brenkert, Karl; Yost, Justin R.; Denson, Michael R.
Cobia (Rachycentron canadum) is a pelagic, migratory species with a transoceanic distribution in tropical and subtropical waters. Recreational fishing pressure on Cobia in the United States has increased substantially during the last decade, especially in areas of its annual inshore aggregations, making this species potentially susceptible to overfishing. Although Cobia along the Atlantic and Gulf coasts of the southeastern United States are currently managed as a single fishery, the genetic composition of Cobias in these areas is unclear. On the basis of a robust microsatellite data set from collections along the U.S. Atlantic coast (2008–09), offshore groups were genetically homogenous....

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