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Aquatic Commons (28,896 recursos)
The Aquatic Commons is a thematic digital repository covering the natural marine, estuarine /brackish and fresh water environments . It includes all aspects of the science, technology, management and conservation of these environments, their organisms and resources, and the economic, sociological and legal aspects.

Subject = Fisheries

Mostrando recursos 1 - 20 de 10,695

1. Highly migratory shark fisheries research by the National Shark Research Consortium (NSRC), 2002-2007 - Hueter, Robert E.; Cailliet, Gregor M.; Ebert, David A.; Musick, John A.; Burgess, George H.
The National Shark Research Consortium (NSRC) includes the Center for Shark Research at Mote Marine Laboratory, the Pacific Shark Research Center at Moss Landing Marine Laboratories, the Shark Research Program at the Virginia Institute of Marine Science, and the Florida Program for Shark Research at the University of Florida. The consortium objectives include shark-related research in the Gulf of Mexico and along the Atlantic and Pacific coasts of the U.S., education and scientific cooperation.

2. Lobster trap debris in the Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary: distribution, abundance, density, and patterns of accumulation - Uhrin, Amy V.; Matthews, Thomas R.; Lewis, Cynthia
The fishery for spiny lobster Panulirus argus in the Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary is well chronicled, but little information is available on the prevalence of lost or abandoned lobster traps. In 2007, towed-diver surveys were used to identify and count pieces of trap debris and any other marine debris encountered. Trap debris density (debris incidences/ha) in historic trap-use zones and in representative benthic habitats was estimated. Trap debris was not proportionally distributed with fishing effort. Coral habitats had the greatest density of trap debris despite trap fishers’ reported avoidance of coral reefs while fishing. The accumulation of trap debris...

3. Bycatch of billfishes by the European tuna purse-seine fishery in the Atlantic Ocean - Gaertner, Daniel; Menard, Frederic; Develter, Carol; Ariz, Javier
Billfishes are a component of offshore ecosystems; thus it is important to quantify the impact of the tuna fishery on these species in the world’s ocean. The aim of this study was to assess the bycatch of billfishes generated by the tropical tuna purse-seine fishery in the eastern Atlantic Ocean. Information on bycatch was collected by observers at sea during the European Union Bigeye Program. With a total of 62 observers’ trips, conducted on Spanish and French vessels between June 1997 and May 1999, this project is the biggest observer program ever carried out in the European tuna purse-seine fishery....

4. Age and growth of the smooth dogfish (Mustelus canis) in the northwest Atlantic Ocean - Conrath, Christina L.; Gelsleichter, James; Musick, John A.
The northwest Atlantic population of smooth dogfish (Mustelus canis) ranges from Cape Cod, Massachusetts, to South Carolina. Although M. canis is seasonally abundant in this region, very little is known about important aspects of its biology, such as growth and reproductive rates. In the early 1990s, commercial fishery landings of smooth dogfish dramatically increased on the east coast of the United States. This study investigated growth rates of the east coast M. canis population through analysis of growth patterns in vertebral centra. Marginal increment analysis, estimates of precision, and patterns in seasonal growth supported the use of vertebrae to age these sharks. Growth bands in...

5. Effects of experimental harvest on red sea urchins (Strongylocentrotus franciscanus) in northern Washington - Carter, Sarah K.; VanBlaricom, Glenn R.
Commercial harvest of red sea urchins began in Washington state in 1971. Harvests peaked in the late 1980s and have since declined substantially in Washington and other areas of the U.S. west coast. We studied effects of experimental harvest on red sea urchins in San Juan Channel (SJC), a marine reserve in northern Washing-ton. We recorded changes in density and size distribution of sea urchin populations resulting from three levels of experimental harvest: 1) annual size-selective harvest (simulating cur-rent commercial urchin harvest regulations), 2) monthly complete (non–size selective) harvest, and 3) no harvest (control) sites. We also examined re-colonization rates...

6. Hybridization between two serranids, the coney (Cephalopholis fulva) and the creole-fish (Paranthias furcifer), at Bermuda - Bostrom, Meredith A.; Collette, Bruce B.; Luckhurst, Brian E.; Reece, Kimberly S.; Graves, John E.
Intergeneric hybridization between the epinepheline serranids Cephalopholis fulva and Paranthias furcifer in waters off Bermuda was investigated by using morphological and molecular characters. Putative hybrids, as well as members of each presumed parent species, were analyzed for 44 morphological characters and screened for genetic variation at 16 nuclear allozyme loci, two nuclear (n)DNA loci, and three mitochondrial (mt)DNA gene regions. Four of 16 allozyme loci, creatine kinase (CK-B*), fumarase (FH*), isocitrate dehydrogenase (ICDH-S*), and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH-B*), were unique in C. fulva and P. furcifer. Restriction fragments of two nuclear DNA intron regions, an actin gene intron and the second...

7. Spawning, growth, and overwintering size of searobins (Triglidae: Prionotus carolinus and P. evolans) - McBride, Richard S.

8. Spawning of American shad (Alosa sapidissima) and striped bass (Morone saxatilis) in the Mattaponi and Pamunkey Rivers, Virginia - Bilkovic, Donna Marie; Olney, John E.; Hershner, Carl H.

9. Origin of immature loggerhead sea turtles (Caretta caretta) at Hutchinson Island, Florida: evidence from mtDNA markers - Witzell, Wayne N.; Bass, Anna L.; Bresette, Michael J.; Singewald, David A.; Gorham, Jonathan C.
Loggerhead sea turtles (Caretta caretta) are migratory, long-lived, and slow maturing. They are difficult to study because they are seen rarely and their habitats range over vast stretches of the ocean. Movements of immature turtles between pelagic and coastal developmental habitats are particularly difficult to investigate because of inadequate tagging technologies and the difficulty in capturing significant numbers of turtles at sea. However, genetic markers found in mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) provide a basis for predicting the origin of juvenile turtles in developmental habitats. Mixed stock analysis was used to determine which nesting populations were contributing individuals to a foraging aggregation...

10. Recruitment of larval Atlantic menhaden (Brevoortia tyrannus) to North Carolina and New Jersey estuaries: evidence for larval transport northward along the east coast of the United States - Warlen, Stanley M.; Able, Kenneth W.; Laban, Elisabeth H.
Age, size, abundance, and birthdate distributions were compared for larval Atlantic menhaden (Brevoortia tyrannus) collected weekly during their estuarine recruitment seasons in 1989–90, 1990–91, and 1992–93 in lower estuaries near Beaufort, North Carolina, and Tuckerton, New Jersey, to determine the source of these larvae. Larval recruitment in New Jersey extended for 9 months beginning in October but was discontinuous and was punctuated by periods of no catch that were associated with low water temperatures. In North Carolina, recruitment was continuous for 5–6 months beginning in November. Total yearly larval density in North Carolina was higher (15–39×) than in New Jersey...

11. Recovery of the Gulf of Maine--Georges Bank Atlantic herring (Clupea harengus) complex: perspectives based on bottom trawl survey data - Overholtz, William J.; Friedland, Kevin D.
NMFS bottom trawl survey data were used to describe changes in distribution, abundance, and rates of population change occurring in the Gulf of Maine–Georges Bank herring (Clupea harengus) complex during 1963–98. Herring in the region have fully recovered following severe overfishing during the 1960s and 1970s. Three distinct, but seasonally intermingling components from the Gulf of Maine, Nantucket Shoals (Great South Channel area), and Georges Bank appear to compose the herring resource in the region. Distribution ranges contracted as herring biomass declined in the late 1970s and then the range expanded in the 1990s as herring increased. Analysis of research...

12. Age, growth, mortality, and distribution of pinfish (Lagodon rhomboides) in Tampa Bay and adjacent Gulf of Mexico waters - Nelson, Gary A.
Life-history dynamics of pinfish (Lagodon rhomboides) were examined from data derived from random station surveys conducted in Tampa Bay and adjacent Gulf of Mexico waters during 1993–97. In addition, patterns in spatial distribution and abundance in Gulf of Mexico waters were investigated. Ages determined from whole otoliths ranged from 0 to 7 years, and von Bertalanffy growth models for males and females were not significantly different. Von Bertalanffy growth model parameters were L∞=219.9 mm SL, k =0.33/yr, and t0 =–1.10 years for all fish combined. High gonadosomatic indices during October–December indicated that some spawning may occur in Tampa Bay. Estimated...

13. Spatial and temporal patterns in the demersal fish community on the shelf and upper slope regions of the Gulf of Alaska - Mueter, Franz J.; Norcross, Brenda L.
We analyzed data from National Marine Fisheries Service bottom trawl surveys carried out triennially from 1984 to 1996 in the Gulf of Alaska (GOA). The continental shelf and upper slope (0–500 m) of the GOA support a rich demersal fish fauna dominated by arrowtooth flounder (Atheresthes stomias), walleye pollock (Theragra chalcogramma), Pacific cod (Gadus macrocephalus), Pacific halibut (Hippoglossus stenolepis), and Pacific Ocean perch (Sebastes alutus). Average catch per unit of effort (CPUE) of all groundfish species combined increased with depth and had a significant peak near the shelf break at 150–200 m. Species richness and diversity had significant peaks at...

14. Seasonal growth of King George whiting (Sillaginodes punctata) estimated from length-at-age samples of the legal-size harvest - McGarvey, Richard; Fowler, Anthony J.
Samples of 11,000 King George whiting (Sillaginodes punctata) from the South Australian commercial and recreational catch, supplemented by research samples, were aged from otoliths. Samples were analyzed from three coastal regions and by sex. Most sampling was undertaken at fish processing plants, from which only fish longer than the legal minimum length were obtained. A left-truncated normal distribution of lengths at monthly age was therefore employed as model likelihood. Mean length-at-monthly-age was described by a generalized von Bertalanffy formula with sinusoidal seasonality. Likelihood standard deviation was modeled to vary allometrically with mean length. A range of related formulas (with 6...

15. Nuclear and mitochondrial DNA markers for specific identification of istiophorid and xiphiid billfishes - McDowell, Jan R.; Graves, John E.
Independent molecular markers based on mitochondrial and nuclear DNA were developed to provide positive identification of istiophorid and xiphiid billfishes (marlins, spearfishes, sailfish, and swordfish). Both classes of markers were based on amplification of short segments (<1.7 kb) of DNA by the polymerase chain reaction and subsequent digestion with informative restriction endonucleases. Candidate markers were evaluated for their ability to discriminate among the different species and the level of intraspecific variation they exhibited. The selected markers require no more than two restriction digestions to allow unambiguous identification, although it was not possible to distinguish between white marlin and striped marlin...

16. Stock-rebuilding time isopleths and constant-F stock-rebuilding plans for overfished stocks - Jacobson, Larry D.; Cadrin, Steven X.
Stock-rebuilding time isopleths relate constant levels of fishing mortality (F), stock biomass, and management goals to rebuilding times for overfished stocks. We used simulation models with uncertainty about FMSY and variability in annual intrinsic growth rates (ry) to calculate rebuilding time isopleths for Georges Bank yellowtail flounder, Limanda ferruginea, and cowcod rockfish, Sebastes levis, in the Southern California Bight. Stock-rebuilding time distributions from stochastic models were variable and right-skewed, indicating that rebuilding may take less or substantially more time than expected. The probability of long rebuilding times increased with lower biomass, higher F, uncertainty about FMSY, and autocorrelation in ry...

17. Do fluctuations in the somatic growth rate of rock lobster (Jasus lalandii) encompass all size classes? A re-assessment of juvenile growth - Hazell, R. W. Anthony; Schoeman, David S.; Noffke, Mark N.
Catch rates in the South African rock lobster (Jasus lalandii) fishery declined after 1989 in response to reduced adult somatic growth rates and a consequent reduction in recruitment to the fishable population. Although spatial and temporal trends in adult growth are well described, little is known about how juvenile growth rates have been affected. In our study, growth rates of juvenile rock lobster on Cape Town harbor wall were compared with those recorded at the same site more than 25 years prior to our study, and with those on a nearby natural nursery reef. We found that indices of somatic...

18. Population structure of king mackerel (Scomberomorus cavalla) around peninsular Florida, as revealed by microsatellite DNA - Gold, John R.; Pak, Elena; DeVries, Doug A.
A total of 1006 king mackerel (Scomberomorus cavalla) representing 20 discrete samples collected between 1996 and 1998 along the east (Atlantic) and west (Gulf) coasts of Florida and the Florida Keys were assayed for allelic variation at seven nuclear-encoded microsatellites. No significant deviations from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium expectations were found for six of the microsatellites, and genotypes at all microsatellites were independent. Allele distributions at each microsatellite were independent of sex and age of individuals. Homogeneity tests of spatial distributions of alleles at the microsatellites revealed two weakly divergent “genetic” subpopulations or stocks of king mackerel in Florida waters—one along the...

19. Turtle excluder devices -- Are the escape openings large enough? - Epperly, Sheryan P.; Teas, Wendy G.
All five species of sea turtles in continental U.S. waters are protected under the Endangered Species Act of 1973 and the population sizes of all species remain well below historic levels. Shrimp trawling was determined to be the largest source of anthropogenic mortality of many of the species. As a mechanism to reduce the incidental catch of turtles in trawl nets, turtle excluder devices have been required intermittently in the shrimp fishery since 1987, and at all times since 1994. The expanded turtle excluder device (TED) regulations, implemented in 1994, were expected to reduce shrimp trawl capture of sea turtles...

20. Vertical and horizontal movements of southern bluefin tuna (Thunnus maccoyii) in the Great Australian Bight observed with ultrasonic telemetry - Davis, Tim L. O.; Stanley, Clive A.
The vertical and horizontal movements of southern bluefin tuna (SBT), Thunnus maccoyii, in the Great Australian Bight were investigated by ultrasonic telemetry. Between 1992 and 1994, sixteen tuna were tracked for up to 49 h with depth or combined temperature-depth transmitting tags. The average swimming speeds (measured over the ground) over entire tracks ranged from 0.5 to 1.4 m/s or 0.5 to 1.4 body lengths/s. The highest sustained swimming speed recorded was 2.5 m/s for 18 hours. Horizontal movements were often associated with topographical features such as lumps, reefs, islands and the shelf break. They spent long periods of time...

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