The Aquatic Commons is a thematic digital repository covering the natural marine, estuarine /brackish and fresh water environments . It includes all aspects of the science, technology, management and conservation of these environments, their organisms and resources, and the economic, sociological and legal aspects.
Growth, osmoregulation and ion accumulation in the coastal halophyte Arthrocnemum indicum under field conditions - Gul, B.; Khan, M.A.
Life cycle and population biology of a perennial halophyte Arthrocnemum indicum Willd, was studied from February 1992 to January 1993. During the 12 months, the population was exposed to great variations in soil salinity from 35 to 58 ms/cm2 and soil moisture ranging from flood to drought levels. Seasonal changes in dry weight are directly related to soil salinity stress. When salinity levels become low, the dry matter production increases. A little increase in dry weight from April to July indicates that more negative soil water potentials were limiting plant growth. Proline content increased considerably during the dry season with...
Studies of microbial abundances in mangrove habitat along the Karachi coast - Jalaluddin, M.
Three species of bacteria, 8 species of fungi and 3 species of VAM-fungi were isolated from the soil substrata supporting Avicennia marina which comprises the majority of mangrove vegetation along the Karachi coast. The species abundances for fungi and bacteria were greater at one site (Sandspit) supporting healthy mangrove growth with soil pH 7.8, EC 16.2mmhos/cm², TSS 2.57% and available phosphorus 0.008% than at the other site (Korangi creek) with stunted growth of mangrove where the soil samples showed pH 7.9, EC 18.8mmhos/cm², TSS 1.45% and available phosphorus 0.001%. Symbiotic association by vasicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal (VAM) fungi in the roots of...
Toxic effects of dietary seaweeds Sargassum bovianum, Caulera faridii and Gracilaria corticata on blood parameters of albino rats - Alam, J.M.; Qasim, R.
The present communication deals with the feeding trials of brown (Sargassum bovianum), green (Caulerpa faridii) and red (Gracilaria corticola) seaweeds in albino rats for a period of thirty days in order to investigate their digestibility and acceptability as supplementary food for animals. The parameters used were: changes in blood hemoglobin, ESR, MCHC, PCV and plasma vitamin levels. The result revealed that all the three species of seaweeds had acceptability up to 5% level, as no ill effect was noted during the experiment. But at 10% and 20% levels, marked changes were observed in blood parameters with diarrhea, vomiting and convulsions...
Observations on spawning and egg capsule of Melongena bucephala (Lamarck)(Mollusca: Gastropoda) from the Karachi coast - Zehra, I.; Perveen, R.
No work has been done on the reproduction of Melongena bucephala from northern Arabian Sea (Karachi coast). This paper presents a description of spawning, egg capsule and macromophology of eggs of M. bucephala collected from the rocky shore of Buleji on May 28, 1986 at a tidal height of 0.5m. The individual was found in the act of spawning. The egg mass and development of M. bucephala from Karachi coast are also compared with the Hemifusus ternatanus from the Pacific Ocean (Amio, 1963).
Recovery of a leucosid crab Nursia abbreviata Bell, 1855 from Arabian Sea fish - Tirmizi, N.M.; Ghani, N.
On two occasions Nursia abbreviata Bell, 1855 has been recovered from the stomachs of Batrochus grunniens (Linnaeus, 1758) caught with commercial fish. Nursia abbreviata has been previously recorded from Karachi by Alcock (1896). The present specimens afford the first subsequent record of the species from the region, and are represented by only two males recovered from fish stomachs. The only other species of the genus from Pakistan is N. Rubifera Muller, 1866 which is common in shore collections (Tirmizi and Kazmi, 1988). A brief description of the present material is given below.
On the rediscovery of Baseodiscus hemprichii (Ehrenberg, 1831)(Nemertea, Anopla, Baseodiscidae) from Karachi waters - Kazmi, Q.B.; Gibson, R.
During a study of biodiversity in the Pakistan coast several species of nemerteans were encountered. One is uncertainly identified as Lineus ruber (Muller, 1774), the identification of another is under way. A third, Baseodiscus hemprichii, has previously been recorded from Karachi by Puri (1924). He gave a detailed description of his specimens, but no illustrations. Baseodiscus hemprichii has been collected many times from rocky areas on the Karachi coast, but on only one occasion was it photographed and then drawn. The species is briefly described here.
Fecundity of the sole Euryglossa orientalis (Bl. & Schn.)(family: Soleidae) from Karachi coast - Khan, M.A.; Shamsul Hoda, S.M.
During the present study fecundity of 30 ovaries of Euryglossa orientalis was determined. Fecundity ranged from 9922 to 8389 with a mean value of 36361. The number of ova in the dorsal lobe was less than that of ventral lobe. Log-log relationship between fecundity and total length, fish weight, ovary weight and ovary length were determined.
An Indian Ocean record for a porcellanid crab, Raphidopus ciliatus Stimpson, 1958 - Tirmizi, N.M.; Ghani, N.
Several specimens of a porcellanid crab Raphidopus ciliatus are being reported for the first time from the northern Arabian Sea, extending the range of the species into the Indian Ocean. Specimens were found in by-catches landing at fish harbour, four specimens were recovered from stomachs of noncommercial fish, Batrachus grunniens. Salient features of the species are described. Individual variations specially noted.
A study of the male reproductive organs of nine species of penaeid prawns (Crustacea: Penaeinae) - Sultana, R.; Mustaquim, J.; Tirmizi, N.M.
This paper deals with the male reproductive organs of nine species of penaeid prawns; Penaeus penicillatus Alcock, P. merguiensis De Man, P. semisulcatus De Haan, Metapenaeus affinis (H.Milne Edwards), M. monoceros (Fabricius), M. stebbingi Nobili, Parapenaeopsis hardwickii (Miers), P. sculptilis (Heller) and P. stylifera (H. Milne Edwards). The male reproductive organs exhibited structural variations, which were more pronounced at generic level. These variations are mainly due to the type of spermatophore they possess. One species of each genus, that is, P. merguiensis, M. affinis and P. sculptilis were also studied histologically to examine the internal structure of the male reproductive...
Role of microalgae in conditioning water in penaeid larval culture - Amjad, S.; Jones, D.A.
Microalgae play an important role in conditioning water quality for penaeid larval culture. Recently it has been demonstrated that a modification of the green water larval culture system (Ling, 1969) for Macrobrachium allows the production of post larvae without any water change, despite extensive use of artificial feeds (Ang and Cheah, 1986). Increase of toxic metabolites such as ammonia and nitride are also common in penaeid larval culture, especially where excessive amounts of artifial feeds are employed. Present work examines the use of six marine microalgae at four cell concentrations as a "biological filter" system, to control and detoxify levels...
Seasonal and spatial distribution of Chlorophyll a in the north Arabian Sea bordering Pakistan - Saifullah, S.M.
The average integrated chlorophyll a values for a 30-m deep surface layer in the north Arabian Sea bordering Pakistan ranged from negligible amounts to as high as 0.53μg chl. a 1ˉ¹(15.9mg mˉ²) during the period January 20, 1977 to June 4, 1977. The values, in general, decreased offshore except for the westernmost part of the Makran shelf, where unexpectedly high values were recorded over deep water. Seasonal distribution showed very high values in January (northeast monsoon season) which, with a few exceptions, gradually decreased to very low values in May, and then increased in June. The January peak may be...
Acyclic diterpene alcohols isolated from four algae of Bryopsidophyceae and their toxicity - Aliya, R.; Shameel, M.; Perveen, S.; Shaiq Ali, M.; Usmanghani, K.; Ahmad, V.U.
Three new acylic diterpenoids belonging to the class of phytol series have been isolated. They were obtained from the ethyl acetate soluble fractions of four siphonaceous green seaweeds, Bryopsis pennata Lamour., Caulerpa taxifolia (Vahl) C. Ag., Codium decorticatum (Woodw.) Howe and Valoniopsis pachynema (Mart.) Børg., collected from Karachi coast of Pakistan. Structures of these compounds were elucidated with the help of spectroscopic methods and confirmed by comparison with the known compounds. Even the known compounds are being reported for the first time from a green algal source. All the compounds were found to display a strong toxicity at all the...
Respiratory metabolism in Oreochromis mossambicus, Peters under different environmental conditions - Thampi, R.; Rattan, P.; Chatterji, A.
Oxygen consumption in Oreochromis mossambicus, Peters (3-60g in weight) was measured under different stress conditions at a constant temperature of 20±1°C. The rate of oxygen consumption was significantly higher (0.170 ml gˉ¹hˉ¹)at a salinity of 30x10ˉ³ compared with that (0.132ml gˉ¹hˉ¹) in freshwater. The oxygen consumption was also found to be affected by changes in pH. Weight specific rate decreased significantly from 0.113 to 0.045 ml gˉ¹hˉ¹ with increasing body weight. A positive correlation was recorded between availability of dissolved oxygen and the rate of oxygen consumption by the fish. While copper sulphate and malachite green inhibited the respiratory metabolism,...
The myogenic automatism of the systemic heart of Octopus vulgaris (Cephalopoda: Coleoidea): evidence for localized stretch sensitivity and pacing activity - Agnisola, C.
The localization of the stretch sensitivity and myogenic automatism in the systemic heart of Octopus vulgaris has been studied on an isolated preparation in which the ventricle was zoned by ligatures. Each region has been submitted to two different levels of internal hydrostatic pressure (1 and 2 kPa). Only the two atrio-ventricular regions were able to contract regularly when submitted to internal pressure, with a frequency dependent from the pressure value, while the ventricle-aortic region was insensitive to the stretching by internal pressure. This result supports the hypothesis that the automatism in this heart is localized. Electrocardiogram recordings from different...
Records of Oxycephalid amphipods (Crustacea) from Pakistan - Nayeem, I.; Tirmizi, N.M.; Kazmi, Q.B.
Members of the family Oxycephalidae are quite common in the offshore waters of Pakistan, but no previous attempt has been made to study them. Nine species belonging to six genera are recorded from Pakistan waters (22°09′ to 25°21′N and 61°35′ to 67°55′E). The material was taken by R/V Dr. Fridtjof Nansen, during 1977. A descriptive account along with identification key to the genera is provided.
Salt-tolerance in mangrove soil bacteria - Amir, R.; Ahmed, N.; Talat, M.
A total of sixteen bacterial species were isolated from mangrove soils of Karachi, Pakistan. Twelve of the isolates were gram positive while four were gram negative. All sixteen species showed resistance to high concentration of streptomycin, however, resistance to chloramphenicol and tetracycline was variable. The isolates tolerated up to 110‰ salinity and accumulated sodium form the media.
Feeding trials of green seaweed Ulva fasciata - Alam, J.M.; Qasim, R.
For the nutritional evaluation of green seaweed Ulva fasciata, a feeding trial was performed in albino rats. The results indicated that the 20% replacement of seaweed U. fasciata instead of carrot or lettuce in rad diet causes no harmful effects, as evident by a non-significant change in blood constituents and serum enzyme levels. The weight gain observed in rats with U. fasciata diet was same as that of control diet. The true digestibility ratio of U. fasciata was 80.20% with carrot and 83.4% with lettuce. The data suggest that the green seaweed U. fasciata could be used as an alternative...