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Aquatic Commons (28.304 recursos)
The Aquatic Commons is a thematic digital repository covering the natural marine, estuarine /brackish and fresh water environments . It includes all aspects of the science, technology, management and conservation of these environments, their organisms and resources, and the economic, sociological and legal aspects.

Subject = Biology

Mostrando recursos 1 - 20 de 4.295

1. Distribution and abundance of Dungeness crab and crangon shrimp, and dredging-related mortality of invertebrates and fish in Grays Harbor, Washington - Armstrong, David A.; Stevens, Bradley G.; Hoeman, James C.
The impacts of widening and deepening the existing navigation channel in Grays Harbor on Dungeness crab, crangon shrimp and fish was investigated. The spatial and temporal distribution of these organisms was studied using an otter trawl and ring nets, and the uptake of organisms by dredges was estimated from samples collected on working hopper and pipeline dredges. ... Impacts of the dredging project on crabs, shrimp and fish could be associated with entrainment, food loss and toxicants released from sediments. Scenarios are presented that predict impacts. Suggestions for reducing impacts are given.

2. Morfología comparativa de las células sanguíneas del tiburón nodriza Ginglymostoma cirratum (Bonnaterre, 1788) con diversos peces. - Vergara Pinzón, Elsa V.; Mantilla Aldana, Leonardo
Se llevó a cabo una comparación entre la morfología de las células de la sangre periférica de 9 tiburones nodriza, de una raya americana y 9 peces teleósteos; además, se determinó la fórmula leucocitaria y la cantidad total de eritrocitos y leucocitos/mm 3 de sangre para cada pez estudiado. English Abstract This work is a comparation of the blood cells morphology between 9 nurse sharks, southern stingray and 9 bone fishes, moreover, it was maked a differential leucocytes count, red and white cells counts by blood mm3 for any fish.

3. PCR-based assay for detection of four coral pathogens - Polson, S.W.; Higgins, J.L.; Woodley, C.M.
Several microorganisms have been identified as pathogenic agents responsible for various outbreaks of coral disease. Little has been learned about the exclusivity of a pathogen to given disease signs. Most pathogens have only been implicated within a subset of corals, leaving gaps in our knowledge of the host range and geographic extent of a given pathogen. PCR-based assays provide a rapid and inexpensive route for detection of pathogens. Pathogen-specific 16S rDNA primer sets were designed to target four identified coral pathogens: Aurantimonas coralicida, Serratia marcescens, Vibrio shilonii, and Vibrio coralliilyticus. Assays detected the presence of targets at concentrations of less than...

4. Synthesis of education programs, scholarship, loan, and internship opportunities available to assist in increasing the numbers of minorities working in fisheries and marine sciences - Thayer, Gordon W.; Cullenberg, Paula; Garza, Dolly
This report is divided into six sections, the first of which provides information on documents that emphasize the need for education/training of minorities in the sciences including marine science. Also provided is material students can use to find out about careers in the sciences, some universities that offer marine science education, and curricula that should be considered. The second section deals with existing programs designed to train pre-college students and prepare them either for further education or potential employment in the sciences. The next four sections deal with existing programs in the marine sciences for college-level students, scholarships and scholarship...

5. Fatty acid composition of red drum maintained by fishmeal, fish oil substitutes in diets - Leffler, John W.; Arrington, Deliah; Seaborn, Gloria; Browdy, Craig L.
Recent research by the authors evaluated strategies to reduce fishmeal and fish oil in diets for red drum by substituting terrestrial proteins and lipids while maintaining beneficial fatty acids with DHA supplements derived from marine algae. Results suggested fatty acid-enriched finishing diets can be used with growout diets containing little or no fishmeal and fish oil to achieve the desired DHA content in the final fish fillets.

6. Leaf growth of the seagrass Syringodium filiforme in outer Florida Bay, Florida - Schwarzschild, Arthur C.; Kenworthy, W. Judson; Zieman, Joseph C.
Leaf growth of the seagrass Syringodium filiforme (Kütz., 1860) was determined using a new technique based on the growth of emergent leaves (EL method) and compared to the more labor intensive repeated measurements (RM) and demographic allometric age reconstruction techniques (DA). All three techniques were used to compare leaf growth dynamics of plants with different morphologies at two sites, a shallow water (0.5 m) banktop and an adjacent deeper water (1.5 m) environment in outer Florida Bay, Florida. Leaf formation rates (Leaf Plastochrone Interval or PI) determined using the EL and RM methods were nearly identical, with means of 20...

7. Spatial and temporal patterns of coral bleaching around Buck Island Reef National Monument, St. Croix, U.S. Virgin Islands - Clark, Randall; Jeffrey, Christopher; Woody, Kimberly; Hillis-Starr, Zandy; Monaco, Mark
Since 2001, biannual fish and habitat monitoring has been conducted for the shallow (> 30 m), colonized pavement and gorgonian dominated Buck Island Reef National Monument (BIRNM) St. Croix, USVI and adjacent waters. during October, 2005, widespread coral bleaching was observed within the ∼50 square-kilometer study area that was preceded by 10 wks of higher than average water temperatures (28.9–30.1 °C). Random transects (100 square meters) were conducted on linear reefs, patch reefs, bedrock, pavement, and scattered coral/rock habitats during October 2005, and April and October 2006, and species specific bleaching patterns were documented. During October 2005 approximately 51% of...

8. Guide to the identification of larval and early juvenile pricklebacks (Perciformes: Zoarcoidei: Stichaeidae) in the northeastern Pacific Ocean and Bering Sea - Matarese, Ann C.; Blood, Deborah M.; Busby, Morgan S.
Stichaeidae, commonly referred to as pricklebacks, are intertidal and subtidal fishes primarily of the North Pacific Ocean. Broad distribution in relatively inaccessible and undersampled habitats has contributed to a general lack of information about this family. In this study, descriptions of early life history stages are presented for 25 species representing 18 genera of stichaeid fishes from the northeastern Pacific Ocean, Bering Sea, and Arctic Ocean Basin. Six of these species also occur in the North Atlantic Ocean. Larval stages of 16 species are described for the first time. Additional information or illustrations intended to augment previous descriptions are provided...

9. St. John, USVI mission report, NOAA/NOS/NCCOS/CCMA/Biogeography Branch, July 6 - July 17, 2009
The intent of this field mission was to continue ongoing efforts: (1) to spatially characterize and monitor the distribution, abundance and size of reef fishes, and the abundance of macroinvertebrates (conch, Diatema, lobster) within and around the waters of the Virgin Islands National Park (VIIS) and newly established Virgin Islands Coral Reef National Monument (VICR), (2) to correlate this information to in-situ data collected on associated habitat parameters, (3) to use this information to establish the knowledge base necessary for enacting management decisions in a spatial setting and (4) to establish the efficacy of those management decisions. An additional focus this...

10. The biology and ecology of the invasive Indo-Pacific lionfish - Morris Jr., James A.
The Indo-Pacific lionfishes, Pterois miles and P. volitans, are now established along the Southeast U.S. and Caribbean and are expected to expand into the Gulf of Mexico and Central and South America. Prior to this invasion little was known regarding the biology and ecology of these lionfishes. I provide a synopsis of chronology, taxonomy, local abundance, reproduction, early life history and dispersal, venomology, feeding ecology, parasitology, potential impacts, and possible control and management strategies for the lionfish invasion. This information was collected by review of the literature and by direct field and experimental study. I confirm the existence of an...

11. Accelerating loss of seagrasses across the globe threatens coastal ecosystems - Waycott, Michelle; Duarte, Carlos M.; Carruthers, Tim J.B.; Orth, Robert J.; Dennison, William C.; Olyarnik, Suzanne; Calladine, Ainsley; Fourqurean, James W.; Heck Jr., Kenneth L.; Hughes, A. Randall; Kendrick, Gary A.; Kenworthy, W. Judson; Short, Frederick T.; Williams, Susan L.
Coastal ecosystems and the services they provide are adversely affected by a wide variety of human activities. In particular, seagrass meadows are negatively affected by impacts accruing from the billion or more people who live within 50 km of them. Seagrass meadows provide important ecosystem services, including an estimated $1.9 trillion per year in the form of nutrient cycling; an order of magnitude enhancement of coral reef fish productivity; a habitat for thousands of fish, bird, and invertebrate species; and a major food source for endangered dugong, manatee, and green turtle. Although individual impacts from coastal development, degraded water quality,...

12. Spatial and temporal patterns of coral bleaching around Buck Island Reef National Monument, St. Croix, U.S. Virgin Islands [poster] - Clark, Randall D.; Jeffrey, Christopher F.G.; Woody, Kimberly; Hillis-Starr, Zandy
Limited information currently exists on the recovery periods of bleached corals as well as the spatial extent, causative factors, and the overall impact of bleaching on coral reef ecosystems. During October, 2005, widespread coral bleaching was observed within Buck Island Reef National Monument (BUIS) St. Croix, USVI. The bleaching event was preceded by 10 weeks of higher than average water temperatures (28.9-30.1°C). Random transects (100 square meters) over hard bottom habitats (N=94) revealed that approximately 51% of live coral cover was bleached. Nineteen of 23 coral species within 16 genera and two hydrocoral species exhibited signs of bleaching; species-specific bleaching...

13. Impact of the invasive colonial tunicate Didemnum vexillum on the recruitment of the bay scallop (Argopecten irradians irradians) and implications for recruitment of the sea scallop (Placopecten magellanicus) on Georges Bank - Morris Jr., James A.; Carman, Mary R.; Hoagland, K. Elaine; Green-Beach, Emma R.M.; Karney, Richard C.
The invasive colonial tunicate Didemnum vexillum has become widespread in New England waters, colonizing large areas of shell-gravel bottom on Georges Bank including commercial sea scallop (Placopecten magellanicus) grounds. Didemnum vexillum colonies are also fouling coastal shellfish aquaculture gear which increases maintenance costs and may affect shellfish growth rates. We hypothesized that D. vexillum will continue to spread and may affect shellfish larval settlement and survival. We conducted a laboratory experiment to assess interactions between larval bay scallops (Argopectin irradians irradians) and D. vexillum. We found that larval bay scallops avoid settling on D. vexillum colonies, possibly deterred by the low pH...

14. Biogeographic characterization of fish communities and associated benthic habitats within the Flower Garden Banks National Marine Sanctuary: sampling design and implementation of scuba surveys on the coral caps - Caldow, Chris; Clark, Randy; Edwards, Kimberly; Hile, Sarah; Menza, Charles; Hickerson, Emma; Schmahl, George
The Flower Garden Banks National Marine Sanctuary (FGBNMS) is located in the northwestern Gulf of Mexico approximately 180 km south of Galveston, Texas. The sanctuary’s distance from shore combined with its depth (the coral caps reach to within approximately 17 m of the surface) result in limited exposure of this coral reef ecosystem to natural and human-induced impacts compared to other coral reefs of the western Atlantic. In spite of this, the sanctuary still confronts serious impacts including hurricanes events, recent outbreaks of coral disease, an increase in the frequency of coral bleaching and the massive Diadema antillarum die-off during...

15. Coral health and disease in the Pacific: vision for action
Shallow coral reefs in the IndoPacific contain the highest diversity of marine organisms in the world, with approximately 1500 described species of fish, over 500 species of scleractinian corals, and an estimated 1-10 million organisms yet to be characterized (Reaka-Kudla et al. 1994). These centers of marine biodiversity are facing significant, multiple threats to reef community and habitat structure and function, resulting in local to wide-scale regional damage. Wilkinson (2004) characterized the major pressures as including (1) global climate change, (2) diseases, plagues and invasive species, (3) direct human pressures, (4) poor governance and lack of political will, and (5)...

16. St. John, USVI mission report: a strategy to inventory, characterize, and monitor the marine region within and around the National Park and Monument boundaries of St. John, USVI
The intent of this field mission was to continue ongoing efforts: (1) to spatially characterize and monitor the distribution, abundance and size of both reef fishes and conch within and around the waters of the Virgin Islands National Park (VIIS) and newly established Virgin Islands Coral Reef National Monument (VICR), (2) to correlate this information to in-situ data collected on associated habitat parameters, (3) to use this information to establish the knowledge base necessary for enacting management decisions in a spatial setting and to establish the efficacy of those management decisions. This work is supported by the National Park Service...

17. Coral reef ecosystems of Reserva Natural de La Parguera (Puerto Rico): spatial and temporal patterns in fish and benthic communities (2001-2007) - Pittman, Simon J.; Hile, Sarah D.; Jeffrey, Christopher F.G.; Clark, Randy; Woody, Kimberly; Herlach, Brook D.; Caldow, Chris; Monaco, Mark E.; Appeldoorn, Richard
Since 1999, NOAA’s Center for Coastal Monitoring and Assessment, Biogeography Branch (CCMA-BB) has been working with federal and territorial partners to characterize monitor and assess the status of the marine environment in southwestern Puerto Rico. This effort is part of the broader NOAA Coral Reef Conservation Program’s (CRCP) National Coral Reef Ecosystem Monitoring Program (NCREMP). With support from CRCP’s NCREMP, CCMA conducts the “Caribbean Coral Reef Ecosystem Monitoring project” (CREM) with goals to: (1) spatially characterize and monitor the distribution, abundance and size of marine fauna associated with shallow water coral reef seascapes (mosaics of coral reefs, seagrasses, sand and...

18. An ecological characterization of the marine resources of Vieques, Puerto Rico Part II: Field studies of habitats, nutrients, contaminants, fish, and benthic communities
Since the 1940s, portions of the Island of Vieques, Puerto Rico have been used by the United States Navy (USN) as an ammunition support detachment and bombing and maneuver training range. In April 2001, the USN began phasing out military activities on the island and transferring military property to the U.S. Department of the Interior, the Municipality of Vieques, and the Puerto Rico Conservation Trust. A small number of studies have been commissioned by the USN in the past few decades to assess selected components of the coral reef ecosystem surrounding the island; however, these studies were generally of limited...

19. Threatened corals provide underexplored microbial habitats - Sunagawa, Shinichi; Woodley, Cheryl M.; Medina, Monica
Contemporary in-depth sequencing of environmental samples has provided novel insights into microbial community structures, revealing that their diversity had been previously underestimated. Communities in marine environments are commonly composed of a few dominant taxa and a high number of taxonomically diverse, low-abundance organisms. However, studying the roles and genomic information of these “rare” organisms remains challenging, because little is known about their ecological niches and the environmental conditions to which they respond. Given the current threat to coral reef ecosystems, we investigated the potential of corals to provide highly specialized habitats for bacterial taxa including those that are rarely detected...

20. Age, growth and mortality of the toadfish, Halobatrachus didactylus (Schneider, 1801) (Pisces: Batrachoididae), in the Bay of Cádiz (southwestern Spain) - Palazon-Fernandez, Jose Luis; Potts, Jennifer C.; Manooch III, Charles S.; Sarasquete, Carmen
Age, growth and mortality of the toadfish, Halobatrachus didactylus, were determined by examination of the whole sagittal otoliths of fish sampled in the Bay of Cádiz (southwestern Spain) from March 1999 to March 2000. A total of 844 specimens (425 males, 416 females, and 3 of indeterminate sex), ranging from 95 to 470 mm in total length were examined. Eighty-nine percent of the otoliths could be read allowing an age estimation. The opaque zone was formed between April and May coincident with the maximum reproductive peak, while the translucent zone formed mainly in summer-fall (June to December). Maximum ages for...

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