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Aquatic Commons (31,313 recursos)
The Aquatic Commons is a thematic digital repository covering the natural marine, estuarine /brackish and fresh water environments . It includes all aspects of the science, technology, management and conservation of these environments, their organisms and resources, and the economic, sociological and legal aspects.

Subject = Biology

Mostrando recursos 1 - 20 de 4,899

1. Some aspects of the biology of Tachysurus tenuispinis Day from Veraval - Raje, S.G.
The regression coefficients in length-weight relationship of males and females of Tachysurus tenuispinis differ significantly. The relative condition factor was calculated for females in relation to various lengths and months. The sex ratio in the catch varied widely in the different months. The number of eggs ranged from 72 to 89 for the fish of length 394 to 570 mm. Empty stomachs occurred in a very high percentage (63.5%) of the total stomachs examined. This is a bottom carnivorous feeder. The main food items found in the guts in order of preference were crustaceans, polychaetes, molluscs, fishes and echinoderms.

2. On the biology of Tachysurus caelatus (Valenciennes) from Veraval - Raje, S.G.
The length-weight relationship of males and females of Tachysurus caelatus can be described by the equation log W = -5.6659 + 3.2685 log L and log W = -4.7648 + 2.9104 log L, respectively. A sex ratio of 1.37 males : 1.00 females was observed. Fecundity in the fish measuring 385 to 402 mm ranges between 44 and 55 ova. It is a demersal carnivorous feeder, feeding chiefly on crustaceans, fish, molluscs and polychaetes.

3. Growth parameters of Lepturacanthus savala (Cuvier, 1829) from Mumbai waters - Rizvi, A.F.; Deshmukh, V.D.
Lepturacanthus savala (Cuvier, 1829) constitutes a minor fishery contributing 23.3% to the total ribbonfish catch in Maharashtra. Based on the length data obtained from shrimp trawlers and the traditionally operated bag nets, age and growth of the species have been investigated from Mumbai waters. Growth was studied by various computer-based methods incorporated in FiSAT Programme. The growth parameters L∞ and K (on annual basis) by Gulland-Holt plot were 683.3 mm and 0.87, respectively. As the seasonal temperature variations in coastal waters of Mumbai are not pronounced, the seasonally oscillating growth patterns by ELEFAN and Appledoorn's method were not considered. Following...

4. Studies on length-weight relationship of Gerres filamentosus Cuvier from the estuaries of the southern Karnataka coast - Udupa, K.S.; Averel, M.; Raghavendra, C.H.; Bevinahalli, V.; Reddy, A.; Kumarswamy, A.R.
Random samples of Gerres filamentosus Cuvier from the Netravathi-Gurpur, Mulky, Kallayanapura, Mabukala and Kundapura estuaries of the southern Karnataka Coast were collected in the years 2000, 2001 and 2002, and length-weight relationships for each estuary were derived using multiple linear regression technique with one dummy variable. Hence, combined or sex-wise length-weight relationships were obtained after testing for homogeneity and isometric growth condition of fishes for each estuary by t-test. The extent of closeness of length-weight relationships between sexes and among estuaries for different years is explained by a trend line graph. The whole process of multiple linear regression analysis with...

5. Length-weight studies of Epinephelus chlorostigma and E. areolatus from Arabian Gulf - Alkahem, H.F.; Ahmad, Z.; Al-Dhahi, A.A.A-R.
Regression coefficient value (b) of the length-weight relation of Epinephelus chlorostigma was registered as 2.6383, which is significantly (p<0.01) less than the hypothetical value (3). This coefficient of E. areolatus was registered as 2.9500, a value close to 3. The correlation coefficients (r) were registered as 0.9725 and 0.9837 for E. chlorostigma and E. areolatus, respectively, which show a good relationship between the two parameters.

6. Effects of probiotics and antibiotics on biofilms - Pradeep, B.; Pandey, P.K.; Ayyappan, S.
Experiments were conducted to study the effects of probiotics and antibiotics on 3-months old biofilms formed on three different substrates, namely glass, granite and fiberglass reinforced plastic. The variations in heterotrophic bacterial populations associated with biofilms were monitored for a period of one month after one-time application of the probiotic Biogreen (Gee Key Marine Pvt. Ltd, Chennai) at 0.2 mg lˉ¹ and the antibiotic tetracycline at 1.0 mg lˉ¹. The variations in heterotrophic bacterial populations associated with biofilms were compared with that of control to analyse the effects of probiotics and antibiotics on biofilms. The observations showed that the biofilm...

7. Comparative account of growth rate of body parts with total length in Rita pavimentata (Gunther) - Tiwari, V.K.; Qureshi, T.A.
The paper deals with sex-wise growth rate of different body parts in relation to total length in Rita paviinentata (Gunther). Growth rates calculated on pooled data by using the common regression coefficient 'b' reveals isometric and homogeneous nature in sexes.

8. Reproductive biology of the blue spot mullet Valamugil seheli (Forskal) from Mangalore Region, southwest coast of India - Venkatesha Moorty, K.S.; Reddy, H.R.V.; Annappaswamy, T.S.
The blue spot mullet Valamugil seheli spawns once a year between August and February with peak spawning during October - November. Males attain maturity at 250.5 mm and females at 256.5 mm total length. Males outnumbered females in the commercial catches, although the sex-ratio (M:F=1:0.90) in the population showed no significant deviation. The fecundity of this species varied from 108378 to 910350 eggs with an average of 327944. Linear relationships were found between fish length, gonad weight and fecundity; and between fish length, fish weight and ovary weight.

9. Toxigenic molds on fish feeds-1: impact of climatic change - Das, M.; Prasad, S.; Verma, S.K.
The present communication is a survey report carried out to assess the incidence of toxic mycoflora on seven types of agriculture products/by products incorporated during fish culture as supplementary dietary items. Samples were obtained from various sources at Darbhanga, Madhubani and Samashtipur districts during summer, winter and monsoon months. Out of the total 1774 samples, only 894 appeared to be fresh visually reflecting average incidence of contamination around 46.6%. However, the apparently fresh samples, when subjected to culture, 26.9% of them were found to be contaminated. Thus, degree of fungal spoilage in feed ingredients in parts of north Bihar appears...

10. Bacterial quality and depuration of the green mussel Perna viridis from natural beds - Malarvannan, G.; Patterson, E.J.K.
Green mussel (Perna viridis) and sea water from their natural beds on the coastal areas of Porto Novo were studied between April and August 1996 for their bacterial quality. Water samples from the beds were also analysed for their physico-chemical parameters. The total bacterial count of mussels from natural beds as well as bed waters ranged 10³ organisms per gram of mussel meat suspension and per milliliter of sea water. The faecal coliforms were found to be within the permissible limits. Pathogenic bacteria such as Salmonella spp., Streptococcus spp. and Staphylococcus spp. were absent. The variations in pH, temperature, salinity...

11. Antibacterial effect of the Indian squid, Loligo duvauceli (d'Orbigny), ink - Nirmale, V.; Nayak, B.B.; Kannappan, S.; Basu, S.
The ink of the Indian squid Loligo duvauceli (d'Orbigny) was tested for antibacterial activity. The antibacterial effect of bacteria present in the ink gland was also tested. Only one type of bacteria was found to be present in the ink gland of squid and was identified as Photobacterium leiognathi. Among the various forms of ink extracts, the precipitated and freeze-dried ink showed more pronounced antibacterial effect against Gram-negative bacteria, Salmonella, spp. Escherichia coli, Vibrio cholerae, V. parahaemolyticus and Pseudoinonas spp., and a less pronounced effect against Gram-positive bacteria, Staphylococcus spp. and Micrococcus spp., P. leiognathi did not inhibit any of...

12. Length-weight relationship of intertidal molluscs from Mumbai, India - Jaiswar, A.K.; Kulkarni, B.G.
A study on the length-weight relationship of common intertidal molluscs from Mumbai showed a high degree of correlation between their length and weight. Most of the molluscs exhibited isometric growth pattern but in some species, allometric growth was found, which is attributed to maturity, nonlinear growth of shell and the ecological conditions. The variations in the growth rate of Gafriarium divaricatum sampled from two geographically separate sites, Bandstand and NCPA, is a result of variation in ecological conditions.

13. Ecophysiological response of Nerita oryzarum (Recluz), a gastropod, to variations in temperature, pH and salinity - Thakur, M.K.; Kulkarni, B.G.; Jaiswar, A.K.
During ecophysiological investigations on an intertidal gastropod, Nerita oryzarum (Recluz), of Mumbai shore, various biochemical changes could be recorded. Glycogen and lipid contents of N. oryzarum were found to decrease, whereas, water content increased with decreasing salinity. The rate of oxygen consumption declined with the decrease in salinity and also in highly acidic (pH 2) as well as highly alkaline (pH 10) sea water. The observed variations in the rate of oxygen consumption and changes in biochemical composition in the animal with changes in salinity, pH and temperature are probably the process of physiological and biochemical adjustments to the fluctuating...

14. Estimation of ploidy and hybridization status by erythrocyte and nucleus size analysis in carps - Nair, V.R.; Gopal, K.
The present experiment was designed to observe whether the nuclear volume and area are affected by the ploidy and hybrid status of the individual. Polyploidy was induced by heat shock treatment given at 44 ± 0.5°C for 30 seconds and 45 seconds which was found to be most effective (64.7%) for induction of triploidy in Cyprinus carpio. Cell and nuclear volume and cell and nuclear area varied significantly in triploid fishes as compared to those of controls. Triploid fishes showed significantly higher growth compared to diploid counterparts. It was also observed that catla x rohu hybrid and its parents showed...

15. Toxicity of copper sulphate on some haematological parameters of a freshwater teleost Cyprinus carpio var. communis - Ramesh, M.
Haematological changes in a freshwater teleost, Cyprinus carpio var. communis, exposed to acute and sublethal toxicity of copper sulphate were studied. During the acute treatment, erythrocyte and leucocyte count, and haemoglobin content increased, whereas during the sublethal treatment, erythrocyte count and haemoglobin content decreased and leucocyte count increased.

16. On the spawning activities of kingfish, Scomberomorous commerson, in Oman waters - Thangaraja, M.; Al-Aisry, A.
The spawning activities of kingfish, Scomberomorus commerson, in Oman waters are traced out for the first time. The possible spawning period and spawning ground are identified on the basis of collection of its eggs and larvae from Oman waters. The eggs and early larval characteristics are described suitably with photographic illustration of 4.9 mm larva. The optimum surface water temperature and salinity recorded for the occurrence of kingfish eggs and larvae are 23.57-26.05°C and 36.0-36.1‰, respectively.

17. Study on the morphometric and meristic characteristics of splendid silver belly Leiognathus splendens (Cuvier) from Bombay coast - Gulati, D.; Acharya, P.
Ten morphometric and six meristic characters of Leiognathus splendens (Cuvier) of Bombay Coast have been studied sexwise. Regression and sexwise difference if any between the compared morphometric characteristics have been worked out. Range, mode, standard deviation, co-efficient of variation of 6 meristic characters have been analysed. There was no significant difference between the sexes in morphometric and any deviation in the meristic characters.

18. Length-weight relationship of a hill-stream fish, Glyptothorax telchitta (Ham.) from Saptakoshi River of Nepal - Subba, B.R.; Ghosh, T.K.
The length-weight relationship of a hill-stream fish, Glyptothorax telchitta from Saptakoshi River of Nepal was analysed using the formula W=aLᵇ. The exponential values computed for total length and standard length in relation to body weight were 2.991 and 2.888 respectively.

19. Field application of anabolic steroids in carp seed production. II. Rearing of spawn to fry stage. - Bora, U.; Rao, P.S.; Venkateshvaran, K.
Two synthetic androgenic steroids, Ethylestrenol (17 β - Hydroxy - 17 α ethyl - estr - 4 - en - 3 - one) and Stanozolal (17 β - Hydroxy- 17 α - methyl - 5 a - androstano - 3, 2 - C - pyrazole) were fed via diet at 3 ppm to the spawn of Rohu and Mrigal which were reared up to fry stage over a period of 15 days in earthen carp nurseries. Both hormones enhanced growth of spawn. A maximum of 25.78% increase in length and 25.69% increase in weight as compared to the controls has...

20. Artificial insemination in penaeid shrimps - Pawar, R.; Mohiuddin, M.I.
Artificial Insemination (AI) is a tool for genetic manipulation in the shrimp stocks. It is seen as one of the means for propagating shrimp culture to new areas by controlled reproduction. Attempts at artificial insemination in the dominant closed-thelycum penaeid shrimps species of the area viz. Metapenaeus affinis and Metapenaeus brevicornis were induced in wild adult stocks collected off Mumbai coast. Female specimens were subjected to unilateral eyestalk ablation by pinching so as to induce moulting and maturation. AI was performed two days after moulting on these females when the cuticle was still soft and flexible. Moulting also ensured rejection...

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