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Aquatic Commons (27.577 recursos)
The Aquatic Commons is a thematic digital repository covering the natural marine, estuarine /brackish and fresh water environments . It includes all aspects of the science, technology, management and conservation of these environments, their organisms and resources, and the economic, sociological and legal aspects.

Subject = Biology

Mostrando recursos 1 - 20 de 4.210

1. Holistic fisheries management: combining macroecology, ecology, and evolutionary biology - Fowler, Charles W.; Belgrano, Andrea; Casini, Michele
Ecosystem-based management is one of many indispensable components of objective, holistic management of human impacts on nonhuman systems. By itself, however, ecosystem-based management carries the same risks we face with other forms of current management; holism requires more. Combining single-species and ecosystem approaches represents progress. However, it is now recognized that management also needs to be evosystem-based. In other words, management needs to account for all coevolutionary and evolutionary interactions among all species; otherwise we fall far short of holism. Fully holistic practices are quite distinct from the approaches to the management of fisheries that are applied today. In this...

2. Home range and seasonal movements of Black Sea Bass (Centropristis striata) during their inshore residency at a reef in the mid-Atlantic Bight - Fabrizio, Mary C.; Manderson, John P.; Pessutti, Jeffrey P.
Black Sea Bass (Centropristis striata) in the mid-Atlantic Bight undertake seasonal cross-shelf movements to occupy inshore rocky reefs and hardbottom habitats between spring and fall. Shelf-wide migrations of this stock are well documented, but movements and home ranges of fish during their inshore residency period have not been described. We tagged 122 Black Sea Bass with acoustic transmitters at a mid-Atlantic reef to estimate home-range size and factors that influence movements (>400 m) at a 46.1-km2 study site between May and November 2003. Activity of Black Sea Bass was greatest and most consistent during summer but declined rapidly in September...

3. Limited genetic structure of Gulf Menhaden (Brevoortia patronus), as revealed by microsatellite markers developed for the genus Brevoortia (Clupeidae) - Anderson, Joel D.; Karel, William J.
Long-term sustainable management of wild populations should be based on management actions that account for the genetic structure among populations. Knowledge of genetic structure and of the degree of demographic exchange between discreet [sic] populations allows managers to better define management units. However, adequate gene loci for population assessments are not always available. In this study, variable co-dominant DNA loci in the heavily exploited marine genus Brevoortia were developed with a microsatellite-enriched DNA library for the Gulf Menhaden (Brevoortia patronus). Microsatellite marker discovery was followed by genetic characterization of 4 endemic North American Brevoortia species, by using 14 novel loci...

4. Co-occurrence of bycatch and target species in the groundfish demersal trawl fishery of the U.S. west coast; with special consideration of rebuilding stocks - Heery, Eliza; Cope, Jason M.
Bycatch and resultant discard mortality are issues of global concern. The groundfish demersal trawl fishery on the west coast of the United States is a multispecies fishery with significant catch of target and nontarget species. These catches are of particular concern in regard to species that have previously been declared overfished and are currently rebuilding biomass back to target levels. To understand these interactions better, we used data from the West Coast Groundfish Observer Program in a series of cluster analyses to evaluate 3 questions: 1) Are there identifiable associations between species caught in the bottom trawl fishery; 2) Do...

5. Population genetics of Cobia (Rachycentron canadum): implications for fishery management along the coast of the southeastern United States - Darden, Tanya L.; Walker, Matthew J.; Brenkert, Karl; Yost, Justin R.; Denson, Michael R.
Cobia (Rachycentron canadum) is a pelagic, migratory species with a transoceanic distribution in tropical and subtropical waters. Recreational fishing pressure on Cobia in the United States has increased substantially during the last decade, especially in areas of its annual inshore aggregations, making this species potentially susceptible to overfishing. Although Cobia along the Atlantic and Gulf coasts of the southeastern United States are currently managed as a single fishery, the genetic composition of Cobias in these areas is unclear. On the basis of a robust microsatellite data set from collections along the U.S. Atlantic coast (2008–09), offshore groups were genetically homogenous....

6. Strandings as indicators of marine mammal biodiversity and human interactions off the coast of North Carolina - Byrd, Barbie L.; Hohn, Aleta A.; Lovewell, Gretchen N.; Altman, Karen M.; Barco, Susan G.; Friedlaender, Ari; Harms, Craig A.; McLellan, William A.; Moore, Kathleen T.; Rosel, Patricia E.; Thayer, Victoria G.
The adjacency of 2 marine biogeographic regions off Cape Hatteras, North Carolina (NC), and the proximity of the Gulf Stream result in a high biodiversity of species from northern and southern provinces and from coastal and pelagic habitats. We examined spatiotemporal patterns of marine mammal strandings and evidence of human interaction for these strandings along NC shorelines and evaluated whether the spatiotemporal patterns and species diversity of the stranded animals reflected published records of populations in NC waters. During the period of 1997–2008, 1847 stranded animals were documented from 1777 reported events. These animals represented 9 families and 34 species...

7. Reproductive biology of Black Anglerfish (Lophius budegassa) in the northwestern Mediterranean Sea - Colmenero, Ana I.; Tuset, Victor M.; Recasens, Laura; Sanchez, Pilar
Gonadal morphology and reproductive biology of the Black Anglerfish (Lophius budegassa) were studied by examining 4410 specimens collected between June 2007 and December 2010 in the northwestern Mediterranean Sea. Ovaries and testes presented traits common among fishes of the order Lophiiformes. Spawning occurred between November and March. Size at first maturity (L50) was 33.4 cm in total length (TL) for males and 48.2 cm TL for females. Black Anglerfish is a total spawner with group-synchronous oocyte development and determinate fecundity. Fecundity values ranged from 87,569 to 398,986 oocytes, and mean potential fecundity was estimated at 78,929 (standard error of the...

8. Food habits of Sowerby's beaked whales (Mesoplodon bidens) taken in the pelagic drift gillnet fishery of the western North Atlantic - Wenzel, Frederick W.; Polloni, Pamela T.; Craddock, James E.; Gannon, Damon P.; Nicolas, John R.; Read, Andrew J.; Rosel, Patricia E.
We describe the food habits of the Sowerby’s beaked whale (Mesoplodon bidens) from observations of 10 individuals taken as bycatch in the pelagic drift gillnet fishery for Swordfish (Xiphias gladius) in the western North Atlantic and 1 stranded individual from Kennebunk, Maine. The stomachs of 8 bycaught whales were intact and contained prey. The diet of these 8 whales was dominated by meso- and benthopelagic fishes that composed 98.5% of the prey items found in their stomachs and cephalopods that accounted for only 1.5% of the number of prey. Otoliths and jaws representing at least 31 fish taxa from 15 families...

9. Multiscale analysis of factors that affect the distribution of sharks throughout the northern Gulf of Mexico - Drymon, J. Marcus; Carassou, Laure; Powers, Sean P.; Grace, Mark; Dindo, John; Dzwonkowski, Brian
Identification of the spatial scale at which marine communities are organized is critical to proper management, yet this is particularly difficult to determine for highly migratory species like sharks. We used shark catch data collected during 2006–09 from fishery-independent bottom-longline surveys, as well as biotic and abiotic explanatory data to identify the factors that affect the distribution of coastal sharks at 2 spatial scales in the northern Gulf of Mexico. Centered principal component analyses (PCAs) were used to visualize the patterns that characterize shark distributions at small (Alabama and Mississippi coast) and large (northern Gulf of Mexico) spatial scales. Environmental data...

10. Habitat and diet overlap of 4 piscivorous fishes: variation on the inner continental shelf off New Jersey - Wuenschel, Mark J.; Able, Kenneth W.; Vasslides, James M.; Byrne, Donald M.
Piscivorous fishes, many of which are economically valuable, play an important role in marine ecosystems and have the potential to affect fish and invertebrate populations at lower trophic levels. Therefore, a quantitative understanding of the foraging ecology of piscivores is needed for ecosystem-based fishery management plans to be successful. Abundance and stomach contents of seasonally co-occurring piscivores were examined to determine overlap in resource use for Summer Flounder (Paralichthys dentatus; 206–670 mm total length [TL]), Weakfish (Cynoscion regalis; 80–565 mm TL), Bluefish (Pomatomus saltatrix; 55–732 mm fork length [FL]), and Striped Bass (Morone saxatilis; 422–920 mm FL). We collected samples from...

11. Using measurements of muscle cell nuclear RNA with flow cytometry to improve assessment of larval condition of Walleye Pollock (Gadus chalcogrammus) - Porter, Steven M.; Bailey, Kevin M.
Nuclear RNA and DNA in muscle cell nuclei of laboratory-reared larvae of Walleye Pollock (Gadus chalcogrammus) were simultaneously measured through the use of flow cytometry for cell-cycle analysis during 2009–11. The addition of nuclear RNA as a covariate increased by 4% the classification accuracy of a discriminant analysis model that used cell-cycle, temperature, and standard length to measure larval condition, compared with a model without it. The greatest improvement, a 7% increase in accuracy, was observed for small larvae (<6.00 mm). Nuclear RNA content varied with rearing temperature, increasing as temperature decreased. There was a loss of DNA when larvae...

12. Maternal effects on fecundity and egg quality of the Patagonian stock of Argentine Hake (Merluccius hubbsi) - Macchi, Gustavo J.; Leonarduzzi, Ezequiel; Diaz, Marina V.; Renzi, Marta; Rodrigues, Karina
The influences of age, size, and condition of spawning females on fecundity and oocyte quality were analyzed for the Patagonian stock of Argentine Hake (Merluccius hubbsi). Samples of mature females were collected in the spawning area as part of 2 research surveys conducted in January 2010 and 2011, during the peak of the reproductive season. Batch fecundity (BF) ranged between 40,500 (29 cm total length [TL]) and 2,550,000 (95 cm TL) hydrated oocytes, and was positively correlated with TL, gutted weight, age, hepatosomatic index (HSI), and the relative condition factor (Kn). Relative fecundity ranged between 85 and 1040 hydrated oocytes...

13. Staging ovaries of Haddock (Melanogrammus aeglefinus): implications for maturity indices and field sampling practices - Burchard, Katie A.; Juanes, Francis; Rountree, Rodney A.; Roumillat, William A.
We build on recent efforts to standardize maturation staging methods through the development of a field-proof macroscopic ovarian maturity index for Haddock (Melanogrammus aeglefinus) for studies on diel spawning periodicity. A comparison of field and histological observations helped us to improve the field index and methods, and provided useful insight into the reproductive biology of Haddock and other boreal determinate fecundity species. We found reasonable agreement between field and histological methods, except for the regressing and regenerating stages (however, differentiation of these 2 stages is the least important distinction for determination of maturity or reproductive dynamics). The staging of developing ovaries...

14. James's rule and causes and consequences of a latitudinal cline in the demography of John's Snapper (Lutjanus johnii) in coastal waters of Australia - Cappo, Mike; Marriott, Ross J.; Newman, Stephen J.
Demographic parameters were derived from sectioned otoliths of John’s Snapper (Lutjanus johnii) from 4 regions across 9° of latitude and 23° of longitude in northern Australia. Latitudinal variation in size and growth rates of this species greatly exceeded longitudinal variation. Populations of John’s Snapper farthest from the equator had the largest body sizes, in line with James’s rule, and the fastest growth rates, contrary to the temperature-size rule for ectotherms. A maximum age of 28.6 years, nearly 3 times previous estimates, was recorded and the largest individual was 990 mm in fork length. Females grew to a larger mean asymptotic...

15. Establishing species–habitat associations for 4 eteline snappers with the use of a baited stereo-video camera system - Misa, William F.X.E.; Drazen, Jeffrey C.; Kelley, Christopher D.; Moriwake, Virginia N.
With the use of a baited stereo-video camera system, this study semiquantitatively defined the habitat associations of 4 species of Lutjanidae: Opakapaka (Pristipomoides filamentosus), Kalekale (P. sieboldii), Onaga (Etelis coruscans), and Ehu (E. carbunculus). Fish abundance and length data from 6 locations in the main Hawaiian Islands were evaluated for species-specific and size-specific differences between regions and habitat types. Multibeam bathymetry and backscatter were used to classify habitats into 4 types on the basis of substrate (hard or soft) and slope (high or low). Depth was a major influence on bottomfish distributions. Opakapaka occurred at depths shallower than the depths...

16. Mortality and movement of Yellowtail Flounder (Limanda ferruginea) tagged off New England - Wood, Anthony D.; Cadrin, Steven X.
From 2003 to 2006, 44,882 Yellowtail Flounder (Limanda ferruginea) were captured and released with conventional disc tags in the western North Atlantic as part of a cooperative Yellowtail Flounder tagging study. From these releases, 3767 of the tags were recovered. The primary objectives of this tagging program were to evaluate the mortality and large-scale movement of Yellowtail Flounder among 3 stock areas in New England. To explore mortality, survival and recovery rate were estimated from traditional Brownie tag-recovery models fitted to the data with Program MARK. Models were examined with time and sex-dependent parameters over several temporal scales. The models with...

17. Age, size, and sexual maturity of channeled whelk (Busycotypus canaliculatus) in Buzzards Bay, Massachusetts - Peemoeller, Bhae-Jin; Stevens, Bradley G.
With the southern New England lobster fishery in distress, lobster fishermen have focused more effort toward harvesting channeled whelk (Busycotypus canaliculatus). However, minimal research has been conducted on the life history and growth rates of channeled whelk. Melongenid whelks generally grow slowly and mature late in life, a characteristic that can make them vulnerable to overfishing as fishing pressure increases. We sampled channeled whelk from Buzzards Bay, Massachusetts, in August 2010 and in July 2011, studied their gonad development by histology, and aged them by examining opercula. Males had a slower growth rate and a lower maximum size than females....

18. Reproductive potential of Yellowfin Tuna (Thunnus albacares) in the western Indian Ocean - Zudaire, Iker; Murua, Hilario; Grande, Maitane; Bodin, Nathalie
The reproductive biology of Yellowfin Tuna (Thunnus albacares) in the western Indian Ocean was investigated from samples collected in 2009 and 2010. In our study, 1012 female Yellowfin Tuna were sampled: 320 fish on board a purse seiner and 692 fish at a Seychelles cannery. We assessed the main biological parameters that describe reproductive potential: maturity, spawning seasonality, fish condition, and fecundity. The length at which 50% of the female Yellowfin Tuna population matures (L50) was estimated at 75 cm in fork length (FL) when the maturity threshold was established at the cortical alveolar stage of oocyte development. To enable...

19. Effects of pot fishing on the physical condition of snow crab (Chionoecetes opilio) and southern Tanner crab (Chionoecetes bairdi) - Moiseev, Sergey I.; Moiseeva, Svetlana A.; Ryazanova, Tatyana V.; Lapteva , Anna M.
The effects of commercial fishing with crab pots on the physical condition of the snow crab (Chionoecetes opilio) and southern Tanner crab (C. bairdi) were investigated in the Bering Sea and in Russian waters of the Sea of Okhotsk. In crabs that were subjected to pot hauling, the presence of gas embolism and the deformation of gill lamellae were found in histopathological investigations. Crab vitality, which was characterized subjectively through observation of behavioral responses, depended on not only the number of pot hauls but also the time between hauls. Immediately after repeated pot hauls at short time intervals (≤3 days),...

20. Influence of soak time and fish accumulation on catches of reef fishes in a multispecies trap survey - Bacheler, Nathan M.; Bartolino, Valerio; Reichert, Marcel J.M.
Catch rates from fishery-independent surveys often are assumed to vary in proportion to the actual abundance of a population, but this approach assumes that the catchability coefficient (q) is constant. When fish accumulate in a gear, the rate at which the gear catches fish can decline, and, as a result, catch asymptotes and q declines with longer fishing times. We used data from long-term trap surveys (1990–2011) in the southeastern U.S. Atlantic to determine whether traps saturated for 8 reef fish species because of the amount of time traps soaked or the level of fish accumulation (the total number of...

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