The Aquatic Commons is a thematic digital repository covering the natural marine, estuarine /brackish and fresh water environments . It includes all aspects of the science, technology, management and conservation of these environments, their organisms and resources, and the economic, sociological and legal aspects.
Subject = Biology
Mostrando recursos 1 - 20 de 4.287
St. John, USVI mission report, NOAA/NOS/NCCOS/CCMA/Biogeography Branch, July 6 - July 17, 2009
The intent of this field mission was to continue ongoing efforts: (1) to spatially characterize and monitor the distribution, abundance and size of reef fishes, and the abundance of macroinvertebrates (conch, Diatema, lobster) within and around the waters of the Virgin Islands National Park (VIIS) and newly established Virgin Islands Coral Reef National Monument (VICR), (2) to correlate this information to in-situ data collected on associated habitat parameters, (3) to use this information to establish the knowledge base necessary for enacting management decisions in a spatial setting and (4) to establish the efficacy of those management decisions.
An additional focus this...
The biology and ecology of the invasive Indo-Pacific lionfish - Morris Jr., James A.
The Indo-Pacific lionfishes, Pterois miles and P. volitans, are now established along the Southeast U.S. and Caribbean and are expected to expand into the Gulf of Mexico and Central and South America. Prior to this invasion little was known regarding the biology and ecology of these lionfishes. I provide a synopsis of chronology, taxonomy, local abundance, reproduction, early life history and dispersal, venomology, feeding ecology, parasitology, potential impacts, and possible control and management strategies for the lionfish invasion. This information was collected by review of the literature and by direct field and experimental study. I confirm the existence of an...
Accelerating loss of seagrasses across the globe threatens coastal ecosystems - Waycott, Michelle; Duarte, Carlos M.; Carruthers, Tim J.B.; Orth, Robert J.; Dennison, William C.; Olyarnik, Suzanne; Calladine, Ainsley; Fourqurean, James W.; Heck Jr., Kenneth L.; Hughes, A. Randall; Kendrick, Gary A.; Kenworthy, W. Judson; Short, Frederick T.; Williams, Susan L.
Coastal ecosystems and the services they provide are adversely affected by a wide variety of human activities. In particular, seagrass meadows are negatively affected by impacts accruing from the billion or more people who live within 50 km of them. Seagrass meadows provide important ecosystem services, including an estimated $1.9 trillion per year in the form of nutrient cycling; an order of magnitude enhancement of coral reef fish productivity; a habitat for thousands of fish, bird, and invertebrate species; and a major food source for endangered dugong, manatee, and green turtle. Although individual impacts from coastal development, degraded water quality,...
Spatial and temporal patterns of coral bleaching around Buck Island Reef National Monument, St. Croix, U.S. Virgin Islands [poster] - Clark, Randall D.; Jeffrey, Christopher F.G.; Woody, Kimberly; Hillis-Starr, Zandy
Limited information currently exists on the recovery periods of bleached corals as well as the spatial extent, causative factors, and the overall impact of bleaching on coral reef ecosystems. During October, 2005, widespread coral bleaching was observed within Buck Island Reef National Monument (BUIS) St. Croix, USVI. The bleaching event was preceded by 10 weeks of higher than average water temperatures (28.9-30.1°C). Random transects (100 square meters) over hard bottom habitats (N=94) revealed that approximately 51% of live coral cover was bleached. Nineteen of 23 coral species within 16 genera and two hydrocoral species exhibited signs of bleaching; species-specific bleaching...
Coral health and disease in the Pacific: vision for action
Shallow coral reefs in the IndoPacific contain the highest diversity of marine organisms in the world, with approximately 1500 described species of fish, over 500 species of scleractinian corals, and an estimated 1-10 million organisms yet to be characterized (Reaka-Kudla et al. 1994). These centers of marine biodiversity are facing significant, multiple threats to reef community and habitat structure and function, resulting in local to wide-scale regional damage. Wilkinson (2004) characterized the major pressures as including (1) global climate change, (2) diseases, plagues and invasive species, (3) direct human pressures, (4) poor governance and lack of political will, and (5)...
Coral reef ecosystems of Reserva Natural de La Parguera (Puerto Rico): spatial and temporal patterns in fish and benthic communities (2001-2007) - Pittman, Simon J.; Hile, Sarah D.; Jeffrey, Christopher F.G.; Clark, Randy; Woody, Kimberly; Herlach, Brook D.; Caldow, Chris; Monaco, Mark E.; Appeldoorn, Richard
Since 1999, NOAA’s Center for Coastal Monitoring and Assessment, Biogeography Branch (CCMA-BB) has been working with federal and territorial partners to characterize monitor and assess the status of the marine environment in southwestern Puerto Rico. This effort is part of the broader NOAA Coral Reef Conservation Program’s (CRCP) National Coral Reef Ecosystem Monitoring Program (NCREMP). With support from CRCP’s NCREMP, CCMA conducts the “Caribbean Coral Reef Ecosystem Monitoring project” (CREM) with goals to: (1) spatially characterize and monitor the distribution, abundance and size of marine fauna associated with shallow water coral reef seascapes (mosaics of coral reefs, seagrasses, sand and...
Threatened corals provide underexplored microbial habitats - Sunagawa, Shinichi; Woodley, Cheryl M.; Medina, Monica
Contemporary in-depth sequencing of environmental samples has provided novel insights into microbial community structures, revealing that their diversity had been previously underestimated. Communities in marine environments are commonly composed of a few dominant taxa and a high number of taxonomically diverse, low-abundance organisms. However, studying the roles and genomic information of these “rare” organisms remains challenging, because little is known about their ecological niches and the environmental conditions to which they respond. Given the current threat to coral reef ecosystems, we investigated the potential of corals to provide highly specialized habitats for bacterial taxa including those that are rarely detected...
Age, growth and mortality of the toadfish, Halobatrachus didactylus (Schneider, 1801) (Pisces: Batrachoididae), in the Bay of Cádiz (southwestern Spain) - Palazon-Fernandez, Jose Luis; Potts, Jennifer C.; Manooch III, Charles S.; Sarasquete, Carmen
Age, growth and mortality of the toadfish, Halobatrachus didactylus, were determined by examination of the whole sagittal otoliths of fish sampled in the Bay of Cádiz (southwestern Spain) from March 1999 to March 2000. A total of 844 specimens (425 males, 416 females, and 3 of indeterminate sex), ranging from 95 to 470 mm in total length were examined. Eighty-nine percent of the otoliths could be read allowing an age estimation. The opaque zone was formed between April and May coincident with the maximum reproductive peak, while the translucent zone formed mainly in summer-fall (June to December). Maximum ages for...
Gulf of Mexico tidal creeks serve as sentinel habitats for assessing the impact of coastal development on ecosystem health - Sanger , D.; Bergquist, D.; Blair, A.; Riekerk, G.; Wirth, E.; Webster, L.; Felber, J.; Washburn, T.; DiDonato, G.; Holland, A. F.
A study was conducted, in association with the Alabama and Mississippi National Estuarine Research Reserves (NERRs) in the Gulf of Mexico (GoM) as well as the Georgia, South
Carolina, and North Carolina NERRs in the Southeast (SE), to evaluate the impacts of coastal development on tidal creek sentinel habitats, including potential impacts to human health and well-being. Uplands associated with Southeast and Gulf of Mexico tidal creeks, and the salt
marshes they drain, are popular locations for building homes, resorts, and recreational facilities because of the high quality of life and mild climate associated with these environments. Tidal creeks form part of...
Nutritional properties of the invasive lionfish: A delicious and nutritious approach for controlling the invasion - Morris, Jr., James A.; Thomas, Amber; Rhyne, Andrew L.; Breen, Nancy; Akins, Lad; Nash, Barry
Lionfish, Pterois volitans and P. miles, are native to the Indo-Pacific and have recently invaded the Western Atlantic Ocean. Strategies for control of this invasion have included limited removal programs and promotion of lionfish consumption at both local and commercial scales. We demonstrate that lionfish meat contains higher levels of healthy n-3 fatty acids than some frequently consumed native marine fish species. Mean lionfish fillet yield was 30.5% of the total body wet weight, a value that is similar to that of some grouper and porgy species. A sensory evaluation indicated that lionfish meet the acceptability threshold of most consumers.
Oogenesis and spawn formation in the invasive lionfish, Pterois miles and Pterois volitans - Morris, Jr., James A.; Sullivan , Craig V.; Govoni, John J.
The Indo-Pacific lionfish, Pterois miles and P. volitans, have recently invaded the U.S. east coast and the Caribbean and pose a significant threat to native reef fish communities. Few studies have documented reproduction in pteroines from the Indo-Pacific. This study provides a description of oogenesis and spawn formation in P. miles and P. volitans collected from offshore waters of North Carolina, U.S.A and the Bahamas. Using histological and laboratory observations, we found no differences in reproductive biology between P. miles and P. volitans. These lionfish spawn buoyant eggs that are encased in a hollow mass of mucus produced by specialized...
Sediment quality triad assessment in Kachemak Bay: characterization of soft bottom benthic habitats and contaminant bioeffects assessment condensed. A NOAA/NOS/NCCOS/CCMA Special Report - Hartwell, S. Ian; Apeti, A. Dennis; Clarlin, W. Larry; Johnson, W. Edward; Kimbrough, L. Kimani
A baseline environmental characterization of the inner Kachemak Bay, Alaska was conducted using standardized National Status and Trends Bioeffects Program methods. Three sites near the village of Port Graham were also sampled for comparison. Concentrations of over 120 organic and metallic contaminants were analyzed. Ambient toxicity was assessed using two bioassays. A detailed benthic
community condition assessment was performed. Habitat parameters (e.g. depth, salinity, temperature, dissolved oxygen, sediment grain size, and organic carbon content) that influence species and contaminant distribution were also measured at each sampling site. The following is the synopsis of findings
• Sediments were mostly mixed silt and sand...
Assessment of natural resource conditions in and adjacent to Dry Tortugas National Park - Jeffrey, Christopher F.G.; Hile, Sarah D.; Addison, Christine; Ault, Jerald S.; Currin, Carolyn; Field, Don; Fogarty, Nicole; Luo, Jiangang; McDonough, Vanessa; Morrison, Doug; Piniak, Greg; Ransibrahmanakul, Varis; Smith, Steve G; Viehman, Shay
This project characterized and assessed the condition of coastal water resources in the Dry Tortugas National Park (DRTO) located in the Florida Keys. The goal of the assessment was to: (1) identify the state of knowledge of natural resources that exist within the DRTO, (2) summarize the state of knowledge about natural and anthropogenic stressors and threats that affected these resources, and (3) describe strategies being implemented by DRTO managers to meet their resource management goals.
The park, located in the Straits of Florida 113 km (70 miles) west of Key West, is relatively small (269 square kilometers) with seven small...
A baseline assessment of the ecological resources of Jobos Bay, Puerto Rico
This baseline assessment of Jobos Bay and surrounding marine ecosystems consists of a two part series. The first report (Zitello et al., 2008) described the characteristics of the Bay and its watershed, including modeling work related to nutrients and sediment fluxes, based on existing data. The second portion of this assessment, presented in this document, presents the results of new field studies conducted to fill data gaps identified in previous studies, to provide a more complete characterization of Jobos Bay and the surrounding coral reef ecosystems. Specifically, the objective was to establish baseline values for the distribution of habitats, nutrients,...
Habitat availability and heterogeneity and the Indo-Pacific warm pool as predictors of marine species richness in the tropical Indo-Pacific - Sanciangco, Jonnell C.; Carpenter, Kent E.; Etnoyer, Peter J.; Moretzsohn, Fabio
Range overlap patterns were observed in a dataset of 10,446 expert-derived marine species distribution maps, including 8,295 coastal fishes, 1,212 invertebrates (crustaceans and molluscs), 820 reef-building corals, 50 seagrasses and 69 mangroves. Distributions of tropical Indo-Pacific shore fishes revealed a concentration of species richness in the northern apex and central region of the Coral Triangle epicenter of marine biodiversity. This pattern was supported by distributions of invertebrates and habitat-forming primary producers. Habitat availability, heterogeneity and sea surface temperatures were highly correlated with species richness across spatial grains ranging from 23,000 to 5,100,000 km2 with and without correction for autocorrelation. The...