Nnaji, J.C.; Okoye, F.C.
Heavy metals are toxic to man, animals and plants once safe limits are exceeded. Then ability to bio accumulate in plant and animal tissues makes them particularly hazardous. Heavy metals are toxic to all aquatic biota and cause high mortality of fish larva, fry, fingerling and adult fish. They accumulate in the gills, heart, liver, kidneys, brain, bones and muscles of fish. The physico-chemical forms of heavy metals determine their mobility, availability and toxicity to fish. These metals enter aquaculture systems through various means (polluted water, storage facilities, fish feed, atmospheric deposition, etc) and constitute a factor detrimental to successful...
Ugwu, L.L.C.; Nwamba, H.O.; Mgbenka, B.O.
The effect of exposing juveniles of Heterobranchus bidorsalis (Geoffroy St. Hilaire, 809) (mean weight: 15.02~c:0.14g) to different concentrations of Bonny-light crude oil (BLCO) on alanine kinase and alanine transaminase activities were studied. The exposure of the fish to 1.00, 2.00, 4.00, 8.001L-1 BLCO and a control (0.00m1 L-1) within 4 days toxicity and 42 days recovery periods indicated that the significant increases (P<0.05; P<0.01) in the serum alanine transaminase (HCAT) activities were dependent on the BLCO concentrations. The reduced SAK and (HCAK) activities noticed within the first 14 days recovery period implied that the removal of the oil pollutant probably...
Ugwu, L.L.C.; Nwamba, H.O.; Mgbenka, B.O.
Studies on the effects of crude oil and its fractions on the blood haemoglobin (HB) neutrophil (NP) concentration in the blood of Heterobranchus bidorsalis juveniles were carried out. Two study periods (toxicity and recovery) and four oil types (Bonny-light crude oil (BLCO), premium motor spirit (PMS), kerosene (DPK) and lubricating engine oil (lBO) at 1.00, 2.00, 4.00 and 8.00ml were used. There were significant differences (P<0.05, p< 0.01) on the HB and NP values in blood of fish samples. The elevated values of HB levels in fish exposed to 2.00,4.00 and 8.00m1 L-1 BLCC, 2.00ml L-1 PMS and DPK; and...
Ojutiku, R.O.; Kolo, R.J.
The study assessed heavy metal (Copper, iron, potassium, sodium, lead, magnesium, manganese
and calcium) concentration of River Chanchaga and tap water for public consumption and fisheries
in Minna Township from June to November 2004. There were variations in the concentration of
these metals during the sampling period, but they all fell within tolerable limits for both fish culture
and for public water consumption. The mean concentration for some of these metals were Sodium
(6.1 0-8.83mg/I), potassium (2.84-3.56mg/l) and copper (0.27-3.40mg/I).
Njoku, D.C.; Igwe, O.O.
Water quality status of Mbaa River, which receives effluents from aluminum extrusion
industries at Inyishi Imo State, was investigated between November 2004 and April 2005.
Concentration of toxic metals and non metallic radicals in the stream (Fe, Zn, Cr,AI, Pb, Cd,
So42, PH, etc) were evaluated as indices, using the atomic absorption spectrophotometer
and other standard methods. The concentration of iron (Fe) ranged from 0.003mgl-l in the
upstream course to 22.966mgl-1 at the point of discharge. Lead (Pb) was 0.29mgl-l
(upstream) to 0.583mgl-l (point of discharge). Cadmium (Cd), 0.026mgl-1 (downstream) to
O.068mgl-l (discharge point). Aluminum, (AI), 6.24mgl-1 (upstream) to 8.256mgl-1
(discharge point), sot, 9.003mgl-1 (downstream) to 37.293 mgl_1...
Uka, U.N; Chukwuka, K.S.; Daddy, F.
The effect of water hyacinth infestation on the abundance, distribution and species
composition of zooplankton in Awba Reservoir were investigated. Samples were collected in each
of the sampling areas (water hyacinth infested and open water) by vertical zooplankton hauls using
§1Yro bolting silk net. The species composition of the zooplankton from the sampled areas
consisted of 3 taxa, comprising of 6 species of Cladocera (Moina sp.,Ceriodaphnia sp.,Pleuroxus
sp.,Diaphanosoma sp.,Chydorus sp., and Leydigia sp.,) 6 species of Rotifers(Asplanchna
sp.,Trichocerca.,Filinia sp., Polyarthra sp.,Brachionus sp.,and Lecane sp.) and 3 species of
Copepoda(Cycloid copepods, Copepodite nauphii and Calanoid copepods). However, the study
showed that the Rotifers had higher numerical abundance in the...
Piri, M.; Ördog, V.
The toxic effects of herbicides (Machete, Saturn) and pesticides (Diazinon and Malathion) on green algae, Scenedesmus obtusiusculus, and cyanobacteria, Anabaena flos aquae, were studied. The results indicated that Machete and Saturn, in comparison to Diazinon and Malathion, were more toxic. On the other hand it was revealed that green algae was more sensitive to the pesticides than the cyanobacteria. When we added 3.199 mg/l machete (EC50 of this toxicant for Anabaena flos aquae) to a mix algal culture, the growth rate of green algae after 6 days of treatment was reduced 0.95 times, while it was 4.5 for the cyanobacteria....
Piri, M.; Ördog, V.
Fingerlings of Silver Carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) were used in an ecotoxicological investigation. The fish were exposed to (0.3-10 mg/l) Machete, (3-5 mg/l) Saturn, (1.5-13 mg/l) Diazinon and (1-10 mg/l) Malathion to measure the toxicity effect of these chemicals on mortality, feeding and ingestion rate. Methods for investigation on mortality were according to TRC (1984) and feeding behavior, according to Gould Equation (1951). Porbit analysis was used for evaluation of obtained data. LC10 of these toxic compounds were 0.17-0.23, 2.85-3.73, 0.6-0.95, 0.87-1.34 mg/l for Machete, Saurn, Diazinon and Malathion respectively. Experiments showed that Machete and Diazinon in comparison with Saturn and...
Concentration of chlorophyll-a is an adequate parameter for assessing the trophic state in the summer. So, check the photosynthetic content of pigments as a bioindicator of chlorophylla,b,c were studied in six stations of Gomishan international wetland and a sea station. Furthermore were investigated the qualitative evaluation of trophic state of the wetland and its dynamics. Phytoplankton samples after the filtration were extracted in 90% acetone, and were obtained the absorption of pigments in Spectrophotometer. In addition to chlorophyll, were measured the water temperature, dissolved oxygen, pH, salinity, turbidity and depth. Based on results, the increasing concentrations of chlorophyll-a in September...
Ibiwoye, T.I.I.; Owolabi, O.D.; Ajala, A.A.; Oketoki, T.O.; Adio, S.M.; Adedapo, A.O.; Ayeku, P.O.; Agbontale, J.J.
A total of 610 freshwater fish specimens comprising 7 scaly fishes (Sarotherodon,
Oreochromis, Tilapia, Marcusenius and Brycinus) and 6 non-scaly catfishes (Clarias, Chrysichthys,
Synodontis arid Physailia) belonging to 7 families and 9 genera, from Jebba Lake and Bida
floodplain areas of River Niger, Nigeria, between June 2004 and May 2006, were sampled and
examined parasitologically for helminth parasites. Nine species of 1331 helminth parasites
comprising five nematodes Eustrongylides africanus, Procamallanus laeviconchus, Spironoura
petrei, Cucullanus bavlisi and an unidentified species; cestodes Proteocephalus ambloplitis and
Wenyonia virilis keinjii, and two trematodes Oiplostomum tragenona and Euclinosiomum
heterostomum were obtained from 198 infected fishes. The distribution of the helminth parasites
were 48.4%; 35.6%;...
Tabibzadeh, M.; Velayatzadeh, M.
The present study was carried out to investigate accumulation of eleven toxic and essential trace elements in muscle and shell of Potamon persicum from Kakareza River in Lorestan Province (Iran) collected in summer and autumn, 2011. The elements levels were analyzed by Perkin Elmer 4100 Zl atomic absorption and data were analyzed statistically using one-way ANOVA and Duncan’s test by SPSS17. The results showed that the highest and lowest concentration of Hg, Cd, As, Fe, Co and P were in shell collected in autumn and muscle collected in summer, respectively. Also, the highest and lowest concentration of Pb, Zn, Ca...
Peykanheraty, F.; Khalaji, M.; Zangeneh, M.; Mahbobi Sofyani, N.; Dorafshan, S.
Aquatic environments received huge amount of pollutants such as heavy metals, hydrocarbons, pesticides and organic materials every day. In this study, the effect of dissolved cadmium chloride on liver and gill in Chondrostoma regium was investigated. For this purpose, one hundred fishes were caught by sein net from one of the branches of Zayandeh Roud and transferred to the laboratory. The experiments consist of four treatments including: control group (without cadmium), 0.5, 2.5 and 7.5 µg/l cadmium concentrations. For histopathological studies liver and gill were performed at the end of experiment the samples were fixed in 10% formalin.The highest rate...
Zarshenas, R.; Nasrollahzadeh Saravi, H.; Farshchi, P.; Najafpour, S.
This study was conducted to determine some heavy metals (Fe, Mg, Cr, Ni) of surface sediment in the southern Caspian Sea during two seasons (Summer and Winter) in 2014-2015. 36 surface sediments samples (with triplicate) were collected at two stations (Tonekabon and Bandar Amirabad). All samples were analyzed using sequential extraction to indicate natural and anthropogenic sources. The results indicated that the percentage of non-resistance fraction in Tonekabon area were measured 3.5,45.0, 22.1 and 6.0 for Fe, Mg, Cr, Ni, respectively and in Amirabad area were 23.0,2.6,1.8 and 4.0, respectively. On the other hand, the percentage of resistance fraction values...
Farrokhi, F.; Jamili, Sh.; Shahidi, M.; Mashinchian, A.; Vosoughi, Gh.
Malathion is an organophosphate insecticide which uses to destroy insects and pests of fruit trees, ornamental plants and agricultural corps. In the present study, effect of Malathion on liver and selected enzymes (SGOT, SGPT and ALP) was studied in Caspian Roach (Rutilus rutilus caspicus). Four treatments with three replications were designed to carry out the survey. Four groups of experimental fish (containing 30 fish in each group) were exposed to different concentrations of Malathion. e. 0, 0.01, 0.05 and 0.1 ppm respectively for 23 days. Blood collection was done in 3rd, 13th and 23th after exposure to Malathion and also...
Malekpouri, P.; Peyghan, R.; Mahboobi-Soofiani, N.; Herbert, N.; Mohammadian, B.
Regarding to the tight association between aquatic hypoxia and heavy metal contaminations in one hand and the role of both parameters on fish respiration, metabolism of carp could be assessed under single and mutual exposures to hypoxia and cadmium. Following measuring LC50-96h of cadmium (43.679 mg/l) for this species, 80 common carp were exposed to 10 different treatments, including control, acute (43.68 mg/l), sub-lethal (21.84 mg/l) and chronic (4.37 mg/l) cadmium as well as hypoxia for immediately (20% of saturation), 24h (40%) and 7 days (60%), and joint exposure of each similar treatment. By using of respirometer technique, we measured...
Pourang, N.; Ghanbari Baghestani, F.; Lamei Rashti, M.; Mrotazavi, M.S.; Kamali, E.; Varasteh, T.
This study was carried out in order to evaluate the potential of the soft and hard tissues of a bivalve species (Callista umbonella) for biomonitoring of different elements in coastal areas of northern part of the Persian Gulf as well as to assess the possible use of PIXE (Proton Induced X-ray Emission) method in this regard. The bivalve specimens and surficial sediment samples were collected from three sampling sites located on the intertidal zone of Hormozgan Province in August 2014. Concentrations of the elements were determined using the non-destructive method, PIXE. Assessment of total organic matter (TOM) and grain size...
It is important to evaluate the co-exposure effects of chemical contaminants on aquatics. Mercury ions and silver nanoparticles are among the chemicals mixed together through amalgamation. This study was aimed to evaluate the effect of the presence of a non-lethal concentration of silver nanoparticles in water on the acute toxicity of inorganic mercury in zebrafish. In the presence or absence of silver nanoparticles, therefore, median lethal concentrations (LC50) of mercury were calculated according to the OECD standard guideline. The comparison of LC50s showed that the presence of 0.1 mg silver nanoparticles per liter, reduces the acute toxicity of mercury in...
Nazemi, M.; Moradi, Y.; Sadrian, M.; Lekzaee, F.
Sponges are the most primitive of the multicellular, These organisms don’t have any mechanical defense system, so their early appearance in evolution has given them a lot of time for the development of advanced secondary metabolites as chemical defense system. Sponges have the potential to provide drugs from chemical components against diseases. In this investigation the sponge samples, which it is Dysidea pallescens, were collected at depth of 15- 20 meter, from locations on the coastline of Island Hengam in Persian Gulf of Iran. For identifying natural components, methanol and diethyl ether were used as extraction solvents, after removal of...
Khanipour, A.A.; Seifzadeh, M.; Lakzaei, F.
This study was conducted to measure the accumulation of heavy metals (Co and Ni) in the edible tissues of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) and comparison with international standards of FAO and FDA. Samples were caught from the West, Centre and East part of Anzali Wetland in autumn of 2012. Accumulations of heavy metals were measured by flame atomic absorption spectrophotometer. The level of nickel in the West, Centre and East part of Anzali wetland was in permissible range. Cobalt was not observed in carp fish of western wetland. But, concentration of cobalt was not showed any significant differences compared with...
Nekuie Fard, A.; Moradi, Y.; Seidgar, M.; Javan, S.; Aghebati, S.
This study was carried out in three farmed rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) of Guilan Province. Heavy metals (Iron and Lead) were measured using Atomic absorption spectrometry in food, water and fish muscles of farms. The amounts of Iron and Lead (Mean ±SD) in all water samples from studied farms were 55.29±2.71 and 2.066±0.714 µg/L, respectively. The amounts of Iron and Lead (Mean± SD) in consumed feed of studied farms were 494.51± 89.18 and 3.494± 1.462 mg/kg, respectively. Also, the amounts of Iron and lead in fish muscle of studied farms were measured as 7.715± 1.050 and 0.39970± 0.073 mg/kg, respectively....