The Aquatic Commons is a thematic digital repository covering the natural marine, estuarine /brackish and fresh water environments . It includes all aspects of the science, technology, management and conservation of these environments, their organisms and resources, and the economic, sociological and legal aspects.
A rapid procedure for the approximation of bacterial load in fishery products - Mathen, C.; Lekshmy, A.; Krishna Iyer, H.; Pillai, V.K.
The production of colour by homogenised fish material in a simplified sugar medium containing and acid indicator has been made use of for the rapid approximation of bacterial load in such products. The medium thus developed contains poptone, tryptone, yeast extract, sodium chloride and beef extract besides dextrose. The time of colour production is influenced to some extent by the level of sodium chloride in the medium and is almost always inversely proportional to the bacterial load in the homogenate.
Faecal indicator organisms in frozen prawn products. Pt. 1. Incidence and general distribution - Lekshmy, A.; Pillai, V.K.
A general survey carried out on several brands of frozen prawn products has shown that along with the standard plate count (SPC), the numbers of pathogenic organisms like Escherichia coli, enterococci and coagulase positive staphylococci have also to be taken into consideration for the evaluation of the quality of these products. No correlation could be established between the total plate count and the number of E. coli, enterococci or staphylococci. Enumeration of enterococci, however, is advocated as a better index of faecal contamination of the products than E. coli.
Chronological records of climate-related events and societal consequences [abstract] - Sharp, Gary D.
EXTRACT (SEE PDF FOR FULL ABSTRACT):
A chronology of documented regional and global warm and cold event records is collated along with documented ecosystem response records and health threat/sequellae records for the historical period. Patterns of societal response to cold periods punctuated by warm periods have been associated with considerable human health impacts, stimulated by blooms in disease vectors such as rodents and insects.
Assessment of some physico-chemical parameters of River Ogun (Abeokuta, Ogun State, southwestern Nigeria) in comparison with national and international standards - Dimowo, B.O.
This study assessed the physico-chemical quality of River Ogun, Abeokuta, Ogun state, Southwestern Nigeria. Four locations were chosen spatially along the water course to reflect a consideration of all possible human activities that are capable of changing the quality of river water. The water samples were collected monthly for seven consecutive months (December 2011 – June 2012) at the four sampling stations. pH, air temperature (℃), water temperature (℃), conductivity (µs/cm) and total dissolved solids (mg/L) were conducted in-situ with the use of HANNA Combo pH and EC multi meter Hi 98129 and Mercury-in-glass thermometer while dissolved oxygen (mg/L), nitrate...
Distribution of persistent organic contaminants in canyons and on the continental shelf off central California - Hartwell, S. Ian
The National Status and Trends (NS&T) Program has conducted studies to determine the spatial extent and severity of chemical contamination and associated adverse biological effects in coastal bays and estuaries of the United States since 1991. Sediment contamination in U.S. coastal areas is a major environmental issue because of its potential toxic effects on biological resources and often, indirectly, on human health. Thus, characterizing and delineating areas of sediment contamination and toxicity and demonstrating their effect(s) on benthic living resources are therefore important goals of coastal resource management at NOAA.
The National Centers for Coastal Ocean Science, and the Office of...
PCR-based assay for detection of four coral pathogens - Polson, S.W.; Higgins, J.L.; Woodley, C.M.
Several microorganisms have been identified as pathogenic agents responsible for various outbreaks of coral disease. Little has been learned about the exclusivity of a pathogen to given disease signs. Most pathogens have only been implicated within a subset of corals, leaving gaps in our knowledge of the host range and geographic extent of a given pathogen. PCR-based assays provide a rapid and inexpensive route for detection of pathogens. Pathogen-specific 16S rDNA primer sets were designed to target four identified coral
pathogens: Aurantimonas coralicida, Serratia marcescens, Vibrio shilonii, and Vibrio coralliilyticus. Assays detected the presence of targets at concentrations of less than...
Synopsis of researcher meeting -- Bottlenose Dolphin Health & Risk Assessment Project, February 22-24, 2005 - Fair, Patricia A.; Bossart, Gregory D.
A meeting was convened on February 22-24, 2005 in Charleston, South Carolina to bring together researchers collaborating on the Bottlenose Dolphin Health and Risk Assessment (HERA) Project to review and discuss preliminary health-related findings from captured dolphins during 2003 and 2004 in the Indian River Lagoon (IRL), FL and Charleston (CHS), SC. Over 30 researchers with diverse research expertise representing government, academic and marine institutions participated in the 2-1/2 day meeting.
The Bottlenose Dolphin HERA Project is a comprehensive, integrated, multi-disciplinary research program designed to assess environmental and anthropogenic stressors, as well as the health and long-term viability of Atlantic bottlenose...
Prevalence of brevetoxins in prey fish of bottlenose dolphins in Sarasota Bay, Florida - Fire, Spencer E.; Flewelling, Leanne J.; Naar, Jerome; Twiner, Michael J.; Henry, Michael S.; Pierce, Richard H.; Gannon, Damon P.; Wang, Zhihong; Davidson, Leigh; Wells, Randall S.
Blooms of the brevetoxin-producing dinoflagellate Karenia brevis have been linked to high mortality of bottlenose dolphins Tursiops truncatus on Florida’s Gulf of Mexico coast. A clear understanding of trophic transfer of brevetoxin from its algal source up the food web to top predators is needed to assess exposure of affected dolphin populations. Prey fish constitute a means of accumulating and transferring brevetoxins and are potential vectors of brevetoxin to dolphins frequently exposed to K. brevis blooms. Here we report results of brevetoxin analyses of the primary fish species consumed by long-term resident bottlenose dolphins inhabiting Sarasota Bay, Florida. Fish collected...
Liver genomic responses to ciguatoxin: evidence for activation of Phase I and Phase II detoxification pathways following an acute hypothermic response in mice - Morey, Jeanine S.; Ryan, James C.; Bottein Dechraoui, Marie-Yasmine; Rezvani, Amir H.; Levin, Edward D.; Gordon, Christopher J.; Ramsdell, John S.; Van Dolah, Frances M.
Ciguatoxins (CTX) are polyether neurotoxins that target voltage-gated sodium channels and are responsible for ciguatera, the most common fish-borne food poisoning in humans. This study characterizes the global transcriptional response of mouse liver to a symptomatic dose (0.26 ng/g) of the highly potent Pacific ciguatoxin-1 (P-CTX-1). At 1 h post-exposure 2.4% of features on a 44K whole genome array were differentially expressed (p ≤ 0.0001), increasing to 5.2% at 4 h and decreasing to 1.4% by 24 h post-CTX exposure. Data were filtered (|fold change| ≥ 1.5 and p ≤ 0.0001 in at least one time point) and a trend...
Influence of microbial interactions on the susceptibility of Karenia spp. to algicidal bacteria - Roth, Patricia B.; Mikulski, Christina M.; Doucette, Gregory J.
A bacterial strain (D38BY) belonging to the family Flavobacteriaceae and antagonistic towards an algicidal bacterium (strain S03; Flavobacteriaceae) was isolated from a culture of the red tide dinoflagellate Karenia brevis that had previously been characterized as resistant to attack by strain S03. This antagonistic bacterium increased the survival time of otherwise susceptible, bacteriafree
K. brevis cultures in a concentration-dependent manner during exposure to the algicidal bacterium. Experimental evidence indicated that direct contact was required in order for strain D38BY to inhibit the killing activity of algicidal strain S03. While further work is needed to determine its precise mode of action, the...
Scientific assessment of freshwater harmful algal blooms - Lopez, C.B.; Jewett, E.B.; Dortch, Q.; Walton, B.T.; Hudnell, H.K.
In 2004, Congress reauthorized the Harmful Algal Bloom and Hypoxia Research and Control Act of 1998 with the Harmful Algal Bloom and Hypoxia Amendments Act (HABHRCA 2004). The 2004 legislation required the generation of five reports, including this "Scientific Assessment of Freshwater Harmful Algal Blooms." HABHRCA 2004 stipulates that this report 1) examine the causes, consequences, and economic costs of freshwater HABs, 2) establish priorities and guidelines for a research program on freshwater HABs, and 3) make recommendations to improve coordination among Federal agencies with respect to research on HABs in freshwater environments. This report is divided into five chapters:...
Scientific assessment of marine harmful algal blooms - Lopez, C.B.; Dortch, Q.; Jewett, E.B.; Garrison, D.
Algae are the most abundant photosynthetic organisms in marine ecosystems and are essential components of marine food webs. Harmful algal bloom or “HAB” species are a small subset of algal species that negatively impact humans or the environment. HABs can pose health hazards for humans or animals through the production of toxins or bioactive compounds. They also can cause deterioration of water quality through the buildup of high biomass, which degrades aesthetic, ecological, and recreational values.
Humans and animals can be exposed to marine algal toxins through their food, the water in which they swim, or sea spray. Symptoms from toxin...
Field manual for investigating coral disease outbreaks - Woodley, C.M.; Bruckner, A.W.; McLenon, A.L.; Higgins, J.L.; Galloway, S.B.; Nicholson, J.H.
Coral reefs throughout their circumtropical range are declining at an accelerating rate. Recent predictions indicate that 20% of the world’s reefs have been degraded, another 24% are under imminent risk of collapse, and if current estimates hold, by 2030, 26% of the world’s reefs will be lost (Wilkinson 2004). Recent changes to these ecosystems have included losses of apex predators, reductions of important herbivorous fishes and invertebrates, and precipitous declines in living coral cover, with many reefs now dominated by macroalgae. Causes have been described in broad sweeping terms: global climate change, over-fishing and destructive fishing, land-based sources of pollution,...
The coastal environment and human health: microbial indicators, pathogens, sentinels and reservoirs - Stewart, Jill R.; Gast, Rebecca J.; Fujioka, Roger S.; Solo-Gabriele, Helena M.; Meschke, J. Scott; Amaral-Zettler, Linda A.; del Castillo, Erika; Polz, Martin F.; Collier, Tracy K.; Strom, Mark S.; Sinigalliano, Christopher D.; Moeller, Peter D.R.; Holland, A. Fredrick
Innovative research relating oceans and human health is advancing our understanding of disease-causing organisms in coastal ecosystems. Novel techniques are elucidating the loading, transport and fate of pathogens in coastal ecosystems, and identifying sources of contamination. This research is facilitating improved risk assessments for seafood consumers and those who use the oceans for recreation. A number of challenges still remain and define future directions of research and public policy. Sample processing and molecular detection techniques need to be advanced to allow rapid and specific identification of microbes of public health concern from complex environmental samples. Water quality standards need to...
Immunomodulatory effects of domoic acid differ between In vivo and In vitro exposure in mice - Levin, Milton; Leibrecht, Heather; Ryan, James; Van Dolah, Frances; De Guise, Sylvain
The immunotoxic potential of domoic acid (DA), a well-characterized neurotoxin, has not been fully investigated. Phagocytosis and lymphocyte proliferation were evaluated following in vitro and in vivo exposure to assay direct vs indirect effects. Mice were injected intraperitoneally with a single dose of DA (2.5 µg/g b.w.) and sampled after 12, 24, or 48 hr. In a separate experiment, leukocytes and splenocytes were exposed in vitro to 0, 1, 10, or 100 µM DA. In vivo exposure resulted in a significant increase in monocyte phagocytosis (12-hr), a significant decrease in neutrophil phagocytosis (24-hr), a significant decrease in monocyte phagocytosis (48-hr),...
Anti-grazing properties of the toxic dinoflagellate Karlodinium veneficum during predator-prey interactions with the copepod Acartia tonsa - Waggett, Rebecca J.; Tester, Patricia A.; Place, Allen R.
Karlodinium veneficum (syn. Karlodinium micrum, Bergholtz et al. 2006; J Phycol 42:170–193) is a small athecate dinoflagellate commonly present in low levels in temperate, coastal waters. Occasionally, K. veneficum forms ichthyotoxic blooms due to the presence of cytotoxic, hemolytic compounds, putatively named karlotoxins. To evaluate the anti-grazing properties of these karlotoxins, we conducted food removal experiments using the cosmopolitan copepod grazer Acartia tonsa. Wild-caught, adult female A. tonsa were exposed to 6 monoalgal or mixed algal diets made using bloom concentrations of toxic (CCMP 2064) and non-toxic (CSIC1) strains of K. veneficum. Ingestion and clearance rates were calculated using the...
Ciguatera Fish Poisoning: treatment, prevention and management - Friedman, Melissa A.; Fleming, Lora E.; Fernandez, Mercedes; Bienfang, Paul; Schrank, Kathleen; Dickey, Robert; Bottein, Marie-Yasmine; Backer, Lorraine; Watkins, Sharon; Granade, Ray; Reich, Andrew
Ciguatera Fish Poisoning (CFP) is the most frequently reported seafood-toxin illness in the world, and it causes substantial physical and functional impact. It produces a myriad of gastrointestinal, neurologic and/or cardiovascular symptoms which last days to weeks, or even months. Although there are reports of symptom amelioration with some interventions (e.g. IV mannitol), the appropriate treatment for CFP remains unclear to many physicians. We review the literature on the treatments for CFP, including randomized controlled studies and anecdotal reports. The article is intended to clarify treatment options, and provide information about management and prevention of CFP, for emergency room physicians,...
In utero domoic acid toxicity: a fetal basis to adult disease in the California sea lion (Zalophus californianus) - Ramsdell, John S.; Zabka, Tanja S.
California sea lions have been a repeated subject of investigation for early life toxicity, which has been documented to occur with increasing frequency from late February through mid-May in association with organochlorine (PCB and DDT) poisoning and infectious disease in the 1970's and domoic acid poisoning in the last decade. The mass early life mortality events result from the concentrated breeding grounds and synchronization of reproduction over a 28 day post partum estrus cycle and 11 month in utero phase. This physiological synchronization is triggered by a decreasing photoperiod of 11.48 h/day that occurs approximately 90 days after conception at...
Azaspiracid shellfish poisoning: a review on the chemistry, ecology, and toxicology with an emphasis on human health impacts - Twiner, Michael J.; Rehmann, Nils; Hess, Philipp; Doucette, Gregory J.
Azaspiracids (AZA) are polyether marine toxins that accumulate in various shellfish species and have been associated with severe gastrointestinal human intoxications since 1995. This toxin class has since been reported from several countries, including Morocco and much of western Europe. A regulatory limit of 160 μg AZA/kg whole
shellfish flesh was established by the EU in order to protect human health; however, in some cases, AZA concentrations far exceed the action level. Herein we discuss recent advances on the chemistry of various AZA analogs, review the ecology of AZAs, including the putative progenitor algal species, collectively interpret the in vitro and...