Recursos de colección

Aquatic Commons (41.069 recursos)

The Aquatic Commons is a thematic digital repository covering the natural marine, estuarine /brackish and fresh water environments . It includes all aspects of the science, technology, management and conservation of these environments, their organisms and resources, and the economic, sociological and legal aspects.

Subject = Health

Mostrando recursos 1 - 20 de 43

  1. Antimicrobial activities of semi polar-nonpolar and polar secondary metabolites of sponge Dysidea pallescens from Hengam Island, Persian Gulf

    Nazemi, M.; Moradi, Y.; Rezvani Gilkolai, F.; Ahmaditaba, M.A.; Gozari, M.; Salari, Z.
    Sponges are the simplest multicellular animals that lack defense mechanisms and rely on chemical defense that have been used by mankind to develop antimicrobial drugs against diseases. The present study was designed to demonstrate the antibacterial and antifungal activities of marine sponge Dysidea pallescens semipolar and nonpolar extracts. In this study, D. pallescens were collected from Hengam Island in the Persian Gulf. The extracts were produced by Bligh and Dyer method. Broth Dilution Methods were used to check the antimicrobial activity of D. pallescens extracts against Escherichia coli (ATCC 15224), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (ATCC 25619), Staphylococcus aureus aureus (ATCC 1764), Bacillus...

  2. Diagnosis of endosulfan induced DNA damage in rohu (Labeo rohita, Hamilton) using comet assay

    Ullah, S.; Hasan, Z.; Zorriehzahra, M.J.; Ahmad, S.
    Use of different pesticides in the agriculture sector, in order to boost crop yield within a short time period and low labor, has been tremendously increased since the last decade. Pesticide use has elevated crop yield but has produced a number of pronounced problems regarding environmental and health safety. The continuously deteriorating toxicological effects of these pesticides are not only hazardous to humans and land animals but also to economically important aquatic organisms such as fish. One of these extensively used pesticides is an organochlorine insecticide, endosulfan. Experiments conducted in the past have shown the deleterious effects of endosulfan on...

  3. Chitosan extracted from the Persian Gulf chiton shells: Induction of apoptosis in liver cancer cell line

    Rasti, H.; Parivar, K.; Baharara, J.; Iranshahi, M.; Namvar, F.
    Here for the first time, we investigated the cytotoxic effects of the chitosan extracted from the Persian Gulf Chiton shell (Acanthopleura vaillantii) on liver cancer cell line (HepG_2). Chitosan extraction was implemented following this method: chitin was produced by demineralization and deproteinization procedure, and the extracted chitin was converted into soluble chitosan using deacetylation method. The cytotoxic effects of extracted chitosan were evaluated using four different tests, including 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay, Annexin V-FITC, propidium iodide (PI) staining, 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) staining, and Caspase activity analysis. The IC_50 inhibitory concentrations of chitosan were obtained at 250 µg/mL after 24 h. Chitosan...

  4. Short communication: Study on heavy metals (Chromium, Cadmium, Cobalt and Lead) concentration in three pelagic species of kilka (Genus Clupeonella) in the southern Caspian Sea

    Taghavi Jelodar, H.; Fazli, H.; Salman Mahiny, A.
    Environmental pollution by heavy metals has been a matter of growing concern over the last decades. Heavy metals are toxic and tend to accumulate in living organisms. In many studies, fish has been used as a sampling item to monitor the quality of ecosystems because of two reasons: 1- Fish bio-concentrate and integrate contaminant load both in time and space leading to more representative results compared to water samples, and 2- Fish represent the bio-available fraction of environmental contaminants, unlike water and sediment samples. On the other hand, humans consume fish species which makes attention to these fauna even more...

  5. Water quality assessment in Choghakhor Wetland using water quality index (WQI)

    Fathi, P.; Ebrahimi, E.; Mirghafarry, M.; Esmaeili Ofogh, A.
    The Choghakhor International Wetland plays an important role in preserving and protection of part of the plant and animal species in the Iranian plateau. Since the water of this wetland is utilized for different human purposes, complete periodic chemical and physical quality assessment of its water seems necessary. Water quality index (WQI) was calculated using the following eleven parameters: Nitrate, Nitrite, Ammonium, Alkalinity, Hardness, Turbidity, Conductivity, Dissolved Oxygen, Total Dissolved Solid, pH and Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD5). For this purpose, the relative weight assigned to each parameter ranged from 1 to 4 based on the importance of the parameter for...

  6. Yersinia enterocolitica as a cause of septicemia in crucian carp (Carassius carassius)

    Wang, L.
    Yersinia enterocolitica is an important pathogen to animals and humans. Thirteen strains of Y. enterocolitica were isolated from diseased fish. The partial 16SrDNA gene, five virulence genes, pathogenicity, and drug resistance of Y. enterocolitica strain G6029 were studied using molecular biological technology and toxicological method. Results showed that the length of amplified 16SrDNA sequence was 1448bp, and revealed 99% homology with Y. enterocolitica. Its GenBank accession number was JX855135. Five virulence genes (ail, ystB, yadA, virF and HPIINT) were detected, and only yadA gene was not seen. Twenty-eight crucian carps that were injected with strain G6029 died within a week,...

  7. Detection of antibiotic resistance genes in some Lactococcus garvieae strains isolated from infected rainbow trout

    Raissy, M.; Moumeni, M.
    The present study was done to evaluate the presence of antibiotic resistance genes in Lactococcus garvieae isolated from cultured rainbow trout, West Iran.The isolates were examined for antimicrobial resistance using disc diffusion method. Of the 24 strains tested, 21 were resistant to ampicillin (87.5%), 9 to erythromycin (37.5%) and 19 to tetracycline (79.1%). Fourteen strains were resistant to four antibiotics, 8 resistant to five antibiotics and 2 to six antibiotics.The strains were also characterized for their genotypic resistance profiles. The results revealed that all 24 isolates contained one to three of the antibiotic resistance genes. StrA, tetS and ermB genes...

  8. Assessment of the essential elements and heavy metals content of the muscle of kutum (Rutilus frisii kutum) from the south Caspian Sea and potential risk assessment

    Hosseini, S.M.; Karaminasab, M.; Batebi-Navaei, M.; Aflaki, F.; Monsefrad, F.; Regenstein, J.M.; Vajdi, R.
    Concentrations of heavy metals were determined in muscles of Kutum (Rutilus frisii kutum) collected from the central part of the southern end of the Caspian Sea during February 2011. Except for silver (Ag) and nickel (Ni) which were below the limits of detection, the average levels of arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), copper [sic] (Co), chromium (Cr), copper (Cu), iron (Fe), manganese (Mn), lead (Pb), selenium (Se) and zinc (Zn) were 1.61, 0.025, 0.038, 0.176, 1.32, 5.83, 0.238, 0.869, 1.93 and 8.05 mg kg^-1 wet weight, respectively. Although the maximum levels of Pb were higher than that recommended in some international...

  9. Assessment of water quality parameters and trace metal contents of drinking water sources in Minna, Niger State

    Ojikutu, R.O.; Ibrahim, A.; Raymond, A.
    This study assessed the physico-chemical parameters and heavy metal concentration of tap and borehole water in Minna metropolis. The experiment lasted over a period of three months from May to July 2012. Six (6) locations were identified within Minna metropolis, Bosso, Kpagungu, Chanchaga, Mobil, Maitumbi, and Tunga where water samples were randomly taken once every month. Hydrogen ions concentration, chloride, Sodium and Potassium were determined by the method of American Public Health Association (1995), while temperature was measured with thermometer. Air and Water temperature were determined in situ, while Hyd rogen ions concenration (pH), Ionic conductivity, Alkalinity, Hardness, Chloride, Sodium,...

  10. Short communication: A comparative study on manganese accumulation in liver, kidney, fatty tissues including muscle of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) fed with different levels of manganese in the diet

    Emadi, H.; Samavat, Z.; Saeedi, A.A.; Hosseinzadeh Sahafi, H.
    Most minerals, occurring in aqueous environments, play a key role in the survival rate of aquatic living organisms. However, life situation of the living organisms would be under attack when the contents of these elements exceed than the specified limit because of various reasons. Bioaccumulation of the elements in living organisms and their excess concentration than standard limit would result in acute and chronic biological impacts in their tissues. ... The experiment was performed in fish farming center of Arab Kheil at the countryside of Amol city for 90 days from July to October 2010. Four diets were prepared for...

  11. A new method for venom extraction from venomous fish, green scat

    Ghafari Khalaf Mohamadi, S.M.; Shahbazzadeh, D.; Jamili, S.; Fatemi, S.M.R.; Pooshang Bagheri, K.
    Scatophagus argus argus (Green Scat) is a pretty aquarium fish. Its hard spines are venomous and can cause painful injury. In this study 60 specimens of Green Scat were collected periodically from coastal waters of Boushehr (south of Iran) from May 2011 to April 2012. Anatomical features of venomous spines were investigated. Scat venom was extracted from the spines in a new manner for keeping the specimens alive. The nature of venom was tested by SDS-PAGE. Ethical issues and animal welfare principles such as rapid and instantaneous anesthetizing, post operation disinfection and fast recovery of the specimens was practiced in...

  12. Prevalence of Camallanus cotti in Poecilia reticulata obtained from some waste water drains in Lagos State

    Kinwale, M.M.A.; Adesola, A.H.
    One way to diversify Nigeria's economy is to improve on agricultural activities with low import input but high export potential such as the promotion of the ornamental fish industry. Poecilia reticulata is one such fish species that enjoys international acceptability. However, a potential bottleneck in its international trade is the decertification of exports from Nigeria in the uncertainty of standing parasite fauna of locally available stock of Poecilia reticulata. Four Streets in different local government areas of Lagos State were identified with existing populations of P. reticulata where collection of samples with a scoop net was done before sorting into...

  13. Detection of Listeria monocytogenes in frozen fish in Lagos, Nigeria

    Amusan, E.E.
    The objective of this study was to detect Listeria monocytogenes in frozen fish in Lagos, Nigeria. A total of 55 frozen fish from two markets (Iyana-Ipaja and Mushin) were analyzed for the presence of L. monocytogenes using Oxoid Listeria Precis method. Out of the 55 samples analyzed, only 15 were positive for L. monocytogenes. The study showed that L. monocytogenes is a contaminant of frozen fish and may pose serious health implications on consumption of the contaminated fish.

  14. Occurrence of Vibrio spp., Aeromonas hydrophila, Escherichia coli and Campylobacter spp. in crayfish (Astacus leptodactylus) from Iran

    Raissy, M.; Khamesipour, F.; Rahimi, E.; Khodadoostan, A.
    The aim of this research was to study the occurrence of Vibrio spp., Aeromonas hydrophila, Escherichia coli and Campylobacter spp. in crayfish from Azerbaijan Province using culture method and PCR assay. A total of 55 isolates were collected from 97 studied samples. Vibrio spp., A. hydrophila, E. coli and Campylobacter spp. were detected in 26 samples (26.8%), 12 samples (12.3%), 15 samples (15.46%) and 2 samples (2.06%), respectively. Among Vibrio isolates, Vibrio vulnificus (11.3%) was the species most frequently detected followed by V. harveyi (7.2%), V. alginolyticus (2.06%) and V. mimicus (1.03%). The results of this study indicated that crayfish...

  15. Toxicity of unripe Ackee apple (Blighiasapida) fruit extract on Clarias gariepinus fingerlings

    Akin-Obasola, B.J.; Bello-Olusoji, O.A.
    The study was conducted to determine the toxicity of unripe Ackee apple (Blighiasapida) fruit extract on catfish, Clarias gariepinus fingerlings using the 96-hour bioassay under laboratory condition. The LC50 was determined graphically as 3.00ppt. Mean mortality was 0, 40, 50, 70 and 80% in the concentrations of 0, 3.33, 3.47,3.60 and 3.73ppt. Statistical analysis of the results showed that there were significant differences (P<0.05) on the effect of concentration. Mortality increased with increase in concentration of toxicant and duration of exposure. Clarias gariepinus showed erratic swimming pattern, loss of reflex which increased with increase in concentration. Histopathological changes were revealed...

  16. Comparative quality assessment of two-smoked dried fish species (Clarias gariepinus and Tilapia guineensis) using oil bean seed and rubber trees as firewood

    Daniel, U.I.; Hart, A.I.; Udoh, I.I.
    The quality of two processed fish products (Clarias gariepinus and Tilapia guineensis) using oil bean and rubber trees as firewood were assessed. The weight and size of the fishes were weighed and measured as well as the weight and size of the fire wood before the start of the experiment. Clarias gariepinus weighed 0.72kg while tilapia weighed 0.4kg with total and standard lengths of 35cm and 3 for C. gariepinus while the total and standard lengths for tilapia were 20cm and I7cm respectively. Two metal smoking kilns were used to provide chamber for the different fire wood and platform for...

  17. Bacteriological assessment of smoked fish (Clarias Sp.) around Shiroro Lake area of Niger State, Nigeria

    Gana, E.S.; Oyero, J.O.; Yisa, T.A.; Adeniji, A.A.
    Bacteria has been implicated in food poisoning, and smoked fish is not an exception.Generally, fish is highly susceptible to spoilage; therefore this study evaluated the bacteria load in smoked fish from three major locations in Shiroro area of Niger State namely; Gwada, Kuta and Zumba.The smoked fish samples collected from these locations were smeared at both the gills and head regions of the fishes. The bacteria samples identified were Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Samonella typhi, which were common to all the three locations sampled, while only Streptococcus feacaliswas only was found to be...

  18. Microbial load on the African catfish (Clarias gariepinus) sold in Markurdi metropolis: a case study of selected markets

    Ayuba, V.O.; Onah, A.; Ataguba, G.A.
    The work was carried out using 48 samples of smoke-dried African catfish (Clarias gariepinus). Twelve samples each were obtained from high level market, Wadata market, Wurukum Market and North bank market respectively. Different media (SDA, MSA, EMBA, N.A, MCA), gram reaction and biochemical tests were carried out to confirm the presence of the pathogenic bacteria. There was a strong correlation between the bacterial count and water activity of the fish for all bacterial isolates. The micro-organisms isolated were Aspergilus niger, Mucor spp, Salmonella spp, Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus which were indications of contamination from surrounding environment.

  19. Challenges to meeting best procedure in quarantine services delivery

    Areola, F.O.
    The paper defined quarantine as the totality of measures taken by every country to prevent the entry of foreign exotic pest, pathogens and diseases of plant, animals and aquatic resources through international boundries. Also discussed is the international regulatory framework on quality control and quarantine of agricultural products. The advantages and socioeconomics impact of quarantine are discussed. The paper further examined the best practice procedure in quarantine service delivery in the aquatic resources and products right from production, processing, marketing and condition for exporting of aquatic (Live fish) from Nigeria, In conclusion the paper enumerated the challenges in meeting best...

  20. Proximate composition of Pseudotolithus elongatus subjected to different processing techniques

    Abraham-Olukayode, A.O.; Adejonwo, A.O.; Oramadike, C.E.; Kolade, O.Y.
    The changes that occur on proximate composition of some common fish processing methods used in Nigeria were studied in order to determine the nutritional content of the processed products. Traditional (smoke drying and sun drying) and modern (electrical oven drying) methods of processing were used to process Pseudotholithus elongatus and the results were compared with the fresh sample to determine the changes that occur during processing. The results for the fresh sample of P. elongatus were 79.50%, 1.50%, 0.8% and 18.2% for moisture, ash, lipid and protein. For the processed products, the moisture content for smoke-dried, sun-dried, salt sun-dried and...

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