The Aquatic Commons is a thematic digital repository covering the natural marine, estuarine /brackish and fresh water environments . It includes all aspects of the science, technology, management and conservation of these environments, their organisms and resources, and the economic, sociological and legal aspects.
Subject = Health
Mostrando recursos 1 - 20 de 175
Comparative analysis of three brevetoxin-associated bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) mortality events in the Florida Panhandle region (USA) - Twiner , Michael J.; Flewelling, Leanne J.; Fire , Spencer E.; Bowen-Stevens, Sabrina R.; Gaydos, Joseph K.; Johnson , Christine K.; Landsberg, Jan H.; Leighfield, Tod A.; Mase-Guthrie, Blair; Schwacke, Lori; Van Dolah, Frances M.; Wang, Zhihong; Rowles, Teresa K.
In the Florida Panhandle region, bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) have been highly susceptible to large-scale unusual mortality events (UMEs) that may have been the result of exposure to blooms of the dinoflagellate Karenia brevis and its neurotoxin, brevetoxin (PbTx). Between 1999 and 2006, three bottlenose dolphin UMEs occurred in the Florida Panhandle region. The primary objective of this study was to determine if these mortality events were due to brevetoxicosis. Analysis of over 850 samples from 105 bottlenose dolphins and associated prey items were analyzed for algal toxins and have provided details on tissue distribution, pathways of trophic transfer, and...
Skin lesions on common bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) from three sites in the Northwest Atlantic, USA - Hart, Leslie Burdett; Rotstein, Dave S.; Wells, Randall S.; Allen, Jason; Barleycorn, Aaron; Balmer, Brian C.; Lane , Suzanne M.; Speakman, Todd; Zolman, Eric S.; Stolen, Megan; McFee, Wayne E.; Goldstein, Tracey; Rowles, Teri K.; Schwacke, Lori H.
Skin disease occurs frequently in many cetacean species across the globe; methods to categorize lesions have relied on photo-identification (photo-id), stranding, and bycatch data. The current study used photo-id data from four sampling months during 2009 to estimate skin lesion prevalence and type occurring on bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) from three sites along the southeast United States coast [Sarasota Bay, FL (SSB); near Brunswick and Sapelo Island, GA (BSG); and near Charleston, SC (CHS)]. The prevalence of lesions was highest among BSG dolphins (P=0.587) and lowest in SSB (P=0.380), and the overall prevalence was significantly different among all sites (p<0.0167)....
Deep-sea benthic footprint of the Deepwater Horizon blowout - Montagna, Paul A.; Baguley, Jeffrey G.; Cooksey, Cynthia; Hartwell, Ian; Hyde, Larry J.; Hyland, Jeffrey L.; Kalke, Richard D.; Kracker, Laura M.; Reuscher , Michael; Rhodes, Adelaide C. E.
The Deepwater Horizon (DWH) accident in the northern Gulf of Mexico occurred on April 20, 2010 at a water depth of 1525 meters, and a deep-sea plume was detected within one month. Oil contacted and persisted in parts of the bottom of the deep-sea in the Gulf of Mexico. As part of the response to the accident, monitoring cruises were deployed in fall 2010 to measure potential impacts on the two main soft-bottom benthic invertebrate groups: macrofauna and meiofauna. Sediment was collected using a multicorer so that samples for chemical, physical and biological analyses could be taken simultaneously and analyzed...
Assessment of contaminant body burdens and histopathology of fish and shellfish species frequently used for subsistence food by Alaskan Native communities - Apeti, Dennis A.; Hartwell, S. Ian; Myers, Mark; Hetrick, Jeff; Davenport, John
Subsistence food items can be a health concern in rural Alaska because community members often rely on fish and wildlife resources not routinely monitored for persistent bioaccumulative contaminants and pathogens. Subsistence activities are a large part of the traditional culture, as well as a means of providing protein in the diets for Tribal members. In response to the growing concerns among Native communities, contaminant body burden and histopathological condition of chum and sockeye salmon
(Oncorhynchus keta and Oncorhynchus nerka) and the shellfish cockles and softshell clams (Clinocardium nuttallii and Mya arenaria) were assessed. In the Spring of 2010, the fish and...
Increased toxicity of Karenia brevis during phosphate limited growth: ecological and evolutionary implications - Hardison, D. Ransom; Sunda, William G.; Shea, Damian; Litaker, R. Wayne
Karenia brevis is the dominant toxic red tide algal species in the Gulf of Mexico. It produces potent neurotoxins (brevetoxins [PbTxs]), which negatively impact human and animal health, local economies, and ecosystem function. Field measurements have shown that cellular brevetoxin contents vary from 1–68 pg/cell but the source of this variability is uncertain. Increases in cellular toxicity caused by nutrient-limitation and inter-strain differences have been observed in many algal species. This study examined the effect of P-limitation of growth rate on cellular toxin concentrations in five Karenia brevis strains from different geographic locations. Phosphorous was selected because of evidence for...
Marine cage culture and the environment: twenty-first century science informing a sustainable industry - Price , Carol Seals; Morris Jr., James A.
Technological innovation has made it possible to grow marine finfish in the coastal and open ocean. Along with this opportunity comes environmental risk. As a federal agency charged with stewardship of the nation’s marine resources, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) requires tools to evaluate the benefits and risks that aquaculture poses in the marine environment, to implement policies and regulations which safeguard our marine and coastal ecosystems, and to inform production designs and operational procedures compatible with marine stewardship.
There is an opportunity to apply the best available science and globally proven best management practices to regulate and guide...
Ecological condition of coastal ocean waters of the northwestern Gulf of Mexico: 2011 - Balthis, W. Leonard; Hyland, Jeffrey L.; Cooksey, Cynthia; Fulton, Michael H.; Wirth, Edward F.
In August 2011, the NOAA National Ocean Service (NOS) conducted an assessment of the status of ecological condition of soft-bottom habitat and overlying waters of the continental shelf in the northwestern Gulf of Mexico (GOM). The original sampling design included 50 randomly selected sites from the Mississippi River delta to the U.S./Mexican border, representing a total area of 111,162 square kilometers; however, vessel failures and inclement weather precluded sampling at 16 sites in the western-most part of the study region. Sampling was completed at the remaining 34 sites in offshore waters between the Mississippi River delta and Freeport, Texas, representing...
Nutrient enhanced coastal ocean productivity in the north Gulf of Mexico: understanding the effects of nutrients on a coastal ecosystem
The continental shelf adjacent to the Mississippi River is a highly productive system, often referred to as the fertile fisheries crescent. This productivity is attributed to the effects of the river, especially nutrient delivery. In the later decades of the 2oth century, though, changes in the system were becoming evident. Nutrient loads were seen to be increasing and reports of hypoxia were becoming more frequent.
During most recent summers, a broad area (up to 20,000 krn2) of near bottom, inner shelf waters immediately west of the Mississippi River delta becomes hypoxic (dissolved oxygen concentrations less than 2 mgll). In 1990, the...
Prioritizing county-level well-being: Moving toward assessment of Gulf Coast counties impacted by the Deepwater Horizon Industrial Disaster - Lovelace, Susan; Goedeke, T. L.; Dillard, M.
To develop a portfolio of indicators and measures that could best measure changes in the social, economic, environmental and health dimensions of well-being in coastal counties we convened a group of experts March 8-9, 2011 in Charleston, SC, U.S.A. The region of interest was of the northern Gulf of Mexico, specifically, those coastal counties most impacted during the explosion and subsequent oil spill from the Macondo Prospect wellhead during the summer of 2010. Over the course of the two-day workshop participants moved through presentations and facilitated sessions to identify and prioritize potential indicators and measures deemed most valuable for capturing...
Survey and impact assessment of derelict fish traps in St. Thomas and St. John, U.S. Virgin Islands
Since 2001, NOAA National Centers for Coastal Ocean Science (NCCOS), Center for Coastal Monitoring and Assessment’s (CCMA) Biogeography Branch (BB) has been working with federal and territorial partners to characterize, monitor, and assess the status of the marine environment across the U.S. Virgin Islands (USVI). At the request of the St. Thomas Fisherman’s Association (STFA) and NOAA Marine Debris Program, CCMA BB developed new partnerships and novel technologies to scientifically assess the threat from derelict fish traps (DFTs). Traps are the predominant gear used for finfish and lobster harvesting in St. Thomas and St. John. Natural phenomena (ground swells, hurricanes)...
A pilot study to determine the movements of buoy line used in the crab pot fishery to assess bottlenose dolphin entanglement - McFee, W. E.; Burdett, L G.; Beddia , L. A.
A pilot study on the characteristics of crab pot buoy line movements to assess bottlenose dolphin entanglement was conducted from 19 September to 30 September 2005 in the Charleston Harbor, Charleston, South Carolina. The objectives of this study were to determine: 1) the movements of the buoy line in the water at various tidal stages, current strengths, lengths of line, and water depth, 2) if lead-core rope was a better alternative to nylon rope, 3) and if the manner of deployment of the gear affected the suspension of the line in the water and on the bottom. Diamond braided nylon...
Preliminary report on bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) uterine samples for parity analysis - Meisner, Rene; McFee, Wayne E.
There have been numerous studies on various mammalian species regarding vascular changes in uterine arteries elucidating the effects of parity. In equids, vascular changes of uterine arteries have been demonstrated to occur in uniparous and multiparous mares. The severity of these arteriole changes suggests a link to previous pregnancies. Differences in the number or range of pregnancies can be ascertained through microscopic evaluation of elastin deposition in the arterioles, perivascular fibrosis, and stromal cellularity. There has been little, if any, work performed on parity in the bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus). The objective of this preliminary study was to determine the...
Trace metals in common marine foods of the Pacific Coast - Tolan, Tod
Trace metal analysis of 23 species of common Pacific Coast marine foods revealed high cadmium values for Bent-nosed clams (Macoma nasuta), Bay mussels (Mytilus edulis), Bay oysters (Osrtrea lurida), Pacific oysters (Crassostrea gigas), and Littleneck clams (Protothaca staminea). Metals were found to concentrate in the gills, heart, and visceral mass of all 10 species of bivalve mollusks examined. Swordfish (Xiphias gladius) and Salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) demonstrated the highest cadmium values for fish flesh.
A través de la selva [Digitalizado de A través de la Selva, Talleres Gráficos de la Penitenciaría, Buenos Aires, 1937] - Maradona, Esteban Laureano
Prosiguiendo con la tarea de rescate de documentos realizada por ProBiota, tenemos el privilegio de editar en este número la obra A través de la Selva de Esteban Laureano Maradona.
Hablar de esta figura, llamado por los indígenas Piognak que significa ‘Dr. Dios’ en pilagá, es mencionar a un ser humano generoso y solidario entregado totalmente al bien común. Un hombre que, además de su ejercicio profesional, se dedicó a la investigación cientifíca de la vida y cultura de los pueblos originarios, así como de la flora y fauna de la región ,colaborando con las comunidades locales en aspectos económicos, culturales,...
Genetic evidence of two sibling species within the Contracoecum ogmorhini Johnson & Mawson 1941 complex (Nematoda; Anisakidae) from otariid seals in boreal and austral regions - Mattiucci, S.; Cianchi, R.; Nascetti, G.; Paggi, L.; Sardella, N.; Timi, J.; Webb, S.C.; Bastida, R.; Rodriguez, D.; Bullini, L.
Genetic variation of Contracaecum ogmorhini (sensu lato) populations from different otariid seals of the northern
and southern hemisphere was studied on the basis of 18 enzyme loci as well as preliminary sequence analysis of
the mitochondrial cyt b gene (260 bp). Samples were collected from Zalophus californianus in the boreal region
and from Arctocephalus pusillus pusillus, A. pusillus doriferus and A. australis from the austral region. Marked
genetic heterogeneity was found between C. ogmorhini (sensu lato) samples from the boreal and austral region,
respectively. Two loci (Mdh-2 and NADHdh) showed fixed differences and a further three loci (Iddh, Mdh-1 and
6Pgdh) were highly differentiated between boreal...
Tuberculosis in seals caused by a novel member of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex: Mycobacterium pinnipedii sp. nov. - Cousins, D.V.; Bastida, R.; Cataldi, A.; Qous, V.; Redrobe, S.; Dow, S.; Duignan, P.; Murray, A.; Dupont, C.; Ahmed, N.; Collins, D.M.; Butler, W.R.; Dawson, D.; Rodriguez, D.; Loureiro, J.; Romano, M.I.; Alito, A.; Zumarrago, M.; Bernadelli, A.
A comparison of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex isolates from seals (pinnipeds) in Australia, Argentina, Uruguay, Great Britain and New Zealand was undertaken to determine their relationships to each other and their taxonomic position within the complex. Isolates from 30 cases of tuberculosis in six species of pinniped and seven related isolates were compared to representative and standard strains of the M. tuberculosis complex. The seal isolates could be distinguished from other members of the M. tuberculosis complex, including the recently defined ‘Mycobacterium canettii’ and ‘Mycobacterium caprae’, on the basis of host preference and phenotypic and genetic tests. Pinnipeds appear to be...
DNA extraction from formalin-fixed Franciscana tissues - Rodríguez, D.; Bastida, R.; Olsson, P. E.
The present paper reports the extraction of DNA from formalin-fixed Pontoporia blainvillei tissues. Following the Vachot and Monerot (1996) protocol, fragmented DNA (300-700bp) was extracted from more than 95% of liver and muscle samples. DNA yield in liver samples was significantly higher than in muscle samples (4.574 ± 1.169mg DNA/mg versus 0.808 ± 0.297mg DNA/mg). Similar results were obtained from nine other species of cetaceans and five species of pinnipeds. It is of special interest to have a method that allows the utilisation of museum specimens not originally preserved for genetic studies,
which may include rarely available, declining or extinct species.
Lethal Parasites in Oysters from Coastal Georgia with Discussion of Disease and Management Implications - Lewis , Earl J.; Kern , Frederick G.; Rosenfield, Aaron; Stevens, Stuart A.; Walker , Randal L.; Heffernan, Peter B.
Extensive mortalities of oysters, Crassostrea virginica, occurred from 1985 through 1987 in coastal waters of Georgia. Fluid thioglycolate cultures of oysters collected from 16 of 17 locations revealed infections by the apicomplexan parasite Perkinsus marinus. An ascetosporan parasite, Haplosporidium nelsoni, was also observed in histopathological examination of oysters from 4 of the locations. While the range of H. nelsoni currently is recognized as the east coast of the United States from Maine to Florida, this is the first report of the parasite in Georgia waters. This paper documents the occurrence of these two lethal parasites in oysters from coastal waters...