The Aquatic Commons is a thematic digital repository covering the natural marine, estuarine /brackish and fresh water environments . It includes all aspects of the science, technology, management and conservation of these environments, their organisms and resources, and the economic, sociological and legal aspects.
Subject = Law
Mostrando recursos 1 - 20 de 72
Newport's mooring regulations: legal and policy analysis - Algee, Jenna
The legal and policy issues facing Newport as it revises and implements its ordinances are numerous. Most of the issues have not been squarely resolved for Rhode Island. While Newport may take guidance from other states, it will be Rhode Island's task going forward to define the reach of its PTD as applied to some novel issues raised by mooring administration. The benefit of the flexibility of the PTD is allowing smaller units of government like Newport to
define their regulatory goals based on a locally-tailored balancing test of competing interests facing scarce ocean resources. This report was designed to facilitate...
El proyecto como instrumento de orientación: procedimientos para la construcción del lugar en el centro cultural Gabriel García Márquez de Rogelio Salmona - Figueredo Camacho, Carlos Leonardo
El siguiente trabajo se fundamenta en la hipótesis de que el proyecto para el Centro Cultural Gabriel García Márquez es un instrumento de orientación que construye un lugar, no como sitio no visitado, sino como espacio antropológico; espacio que vincula con la memoria y permite el paso del tiempo atmosférico y el conocimiento de la forma de la ciudad. Para alcanzar tal objetivo, el proyecto establece el control de dos condiciones que fijan el carácter amorfo de la naturaleza antes de ser delimitada: la espacial y la temporal. Para el control de la primera condición, el proyecto arregla el sitio,...
Differenzierung von Pangasius (Pangasius hypophthalmus) und Asiatischem Rotflossenwels (Hemibagrus wyckioides) durch Protein- und DNA-Analyse - Rehbein, Hartmut; Näumann, Gabriele; Stumme, Barbara
In the last years farmed Pangasius (Tra-Pangasius, Pangasius hypophthalmus) from Vietnam has reached a considerable market share, whereas aquaculture of Asian Redtail Catfish (Hemibagrus wyckioides) is in its infancy. Recently it has been detected by food control authorities in Hamburg, that Pangasius fillets have been mislabelled and sold as fillets produced from Asian Redtail catfish.
The necessity to improve the analytical methods for differentiation of Pangasius and Redtail Catfish prompted us to evaluate the suitability of isoelectric focusing (IEF) and DNA-analysis for identification of the two species. IEF of water soluble proteins was found to be a fast, reliable and economical...
Falling through the cracks: are European directives and international conventions the panacea for freshwater nature conservation? - Boon, Philip J.; Lee, Alison
There are many ways of practising freshwater nature conservation: from strict legislative protection of individual species considered rare or threatened to protecting whole lakes or long stretches of rivers; from practical conservation management at a local scale to integrated catchment management at the river basin scale; and from the encouragement of better habitat management through codes of good practice to statutory control of pollution or abstraction. Whatever the mechanism, an essential pre-requisite is a way of choosing where to put the effort, especially when resources for nature conservation are severely limited. The aim of this article is to review the...
The EC Water Framework Directive and monitoring lakes in the Republic of Ireland - Irvine, Ken; Free, Gary; De Eyto, Elvira; White, Jonathan; Allott, Norman; Mills, Paul
The authors of the article explore and discuss the effects of implementing the EC Water Framework Directive (WFD) in the Republic of Ireland. They also summarise some of the findings from a survey of 31 lakes sampled regularly between March 1996 and December 1997. The lakes were sampled regularly for a range of physico-chemical and biotic variables that probably would be important for monitoring programmes implemented under the WFD. The authors discuss problems of monitoring lake types with varying seasonal patterns.
The role of ecotoxicology for monitoring ecosystem health - Vindimian, Eric
The proposed EC Water Framework Directive (WFD)incorporates some new concepts in the field of water protection. Most of these concepts rely on the use of applied ecology of water systems. The expected improvement of environmental management is very new in this context. The new WFD will allow the checking of the eco-epidemiological results of several human impacts on aquatic ecosystems, such as toxic pollution and habitat modification. This paper intends to show some consequences of the WFD in the field of ecotoxicology.
An approach to the use of macrophytes for monitoring standing waters - Palmer, Margaret A.
Under the EC Water Framework Directive (WFD), each Member State is required to devise a comprehensive national monitoring programme for surface waters, incorporating hydromorphological, physico-chemical and biological elements. This paper describes one aspect of the biota - the macrophyte flora - to classify standing waters and to monitor their water quality. The evolution of this method is described and suggestions for its future development are made.
Preparation for implementing the proposed EC Water Framework Directive in Finland - Maunala, Markku; Makinen, Heikki; Pietilainen, Olli-Pekka
Finland reorganised its environmental administration in 1995 when thirteen Regional Environmental Centres (RECs) and one national agency called the Finnish Environment Institute (FEI) were created. The REC's and the FEI have been entrusted with functions related to water resources management. RECs and FEI together with the Ministry of Agriculture and Foresty have appointed a steering group which will supervise the implementation of the EC Water Framework Directive in Finland
Monitoring and classification of lakes in Finland - Mittikka, Sari
In Finland, as in other member countries of the European Union, preparations for implementing the EC Water Framework Directive (WFD) have begun. The article describes the current monitoring and classification strategies for Finnish Lakes.
The EC Water Framework Directive and its implications for the Environment Agency - Foster, Dave; Wood, Aram; Griffins, Martin
The bulk of the European Community's water policy legislation was developed between the mid 1970s and the early 1990s. These directives addressed specific substances, sources, uses or processes but caused problems with differing methods definitions and aims. The Water Framework Directive (WFD) aims to resolve the piecemeal approach. The Environemnt Agency (EA) welcomes and supported the overall objective of establishing a coherent legislative framework. The EA has been discussing the implications of the WFD with European partners and has developed a timetable for the implementation and a special team will commission necessary research.
Water quality objectives as a management tool for sustainability - Everard, Mark
The aim of this paper is to explore the potential role that quality objectives, particularly when backed by statutory force, may play in the sustainable management of river water quality. Economic valuation techniques are discussed, as well as the theory of "critical natural capital". A brief history of water quality legislation includes the implementation of the National Water Council classification in 1979, and the statutory water quality objectives introduced under the Water Resources Act 1991.
Statutory protection of freshwater flora and fauna - Boon, Philip J.; Morgan, David H.W.; Palmer, Margaret A.
The aim of this paper is to summarize the present legislation aimed at protecting freshwater species in Britain, and briefly to review its effectiveness. Some areas have been deliberately omitted, such as fisheries legislation designed to conserve stocks, and the statutory protection of birds associated with fresh waters which forms a large subject area in its own right.
The role of sites of special scientific interest (SSSIs) in the conservation of British rivers - Boon, Philip J.
This paper discusses the particular contribution of the SSSI (Sites of Special Scientific Interest) as a way of nature conservation for rivers. In 1989, the Nature Conservancy Council proposed a dual selection system for selection of rivers; either (1) "Whole river" SSSIs representing the main types of river, or rivers which show classic and representative transitions down their lengths, or (2) "Sectional" SSSIs which are shorter stretches of river with high nature conservation interest. The NCC has recently classified all SSSIs with a river interest into 4 categories: - river SSSIs, river valley SSSIs, river adds interest - where the...
Estudio de la relación entre alta tecnología e innovación en Colombia - Londoño Rúa, John Edisson
La generación de innovaciones depende en gran medida de la manera como se utilice y aproveche el factor tecnológico en la organización y de las capacidades generadas a partir de ello; por tanto, la relación tecnología-innovación está mediada por la gestión. En el caso de la alta tecnología su uso genera ventajas en la gestión organizacional, pero no se ha determinado si el solo hecho de usarla proporciona ventajas para la innovación.
A través de un análisis estadístico de datos este trabajo estudia las relaciones entre el uso de alta tecnología y la innovación, en empresas y sectores colombianos a partir...
Climate adaptation and the fifth amendment of the United States Constitution: How do adaptation strategies impact regulatory takings claims? - McGuire, Chad
As the impacts and potential of climate change are realized at the governance level, states are moving towards
adaptation strategies that include greater regulatory restrictions on development within coastal zones. The purpose of this paper is to outline the impacts of existing and planned regulatory mechanisms on the Fifth Amendment to the United States Constitution, which prevents the government taking of private property for public use without just compensation. A short history of regulatory takings is explained, and the potential legal issues surrounding mitigation and adaptation measures for coastal communities are discussed. The goal is to gain an understanding of the...
Enforcement of associated protected measures in particularly sensitive sea areas - Guan, Song
The distinguished character of Particularly Sensitive Sea Areas (PSSAs) is that every application for PSSAs
must be accompanied by Associated Protected Measures (APMs) which can make PSSAs efficient in practice.1
That is why APMs are regarded as the core feature of every PSSA.2 APM is “an international rule or standard
that falls within the purview of an international maritime organization (IMO) and regulates international
maritime activities for the protection of the area at risk.” So far, APMs have been approved by IMO as
-Compulsory or recommended pilotage
-Mandatory ship reporting
-An area to be avoided
-Traffic separation schemes
-Discharge prohibition or regulations
-Mandatory no anchoring areas
-Deep water routes
-Emission control areas