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Aquatic Commons (28,936 recursos)
The Aquatic Commons is a thematic digital repository covering the natural marine, estuarine /brackish and fresh water environments . It includes all aspects of the science, technology, management and conservation of these environments, their organisms and resources, and the economic, sociological and legal aspects.

Subject = Earth Sciences

Mostrando recursos 1 - 20 de 297

1. Boat wakes and their influence on erosion in the Atlantic Intracoastal Waterway, North Carolina - Fonseca, Mark S.; Malhotra, Amit
Boat wakes in the Atlantic Intracoastal Waterway (AIWW) of North Carolina occur in environments not normally subjected to (wind) wave events, making sections of AIWW potentially vulnerable to extreme wave events generated by boat wakes. The Snow’s Cut area that links the Cape Fear River to the AIWW is an area identified by the Wilmington District of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers as having significant erosion issues; it was hypothesized that this erosion could be being exacerbated by boat wakes. We compared the boat wakes for six combinations of boat length and speed with the top 5% wind events....

2. Manual for the Sampling Design Tool for ArcGIS - Buja, Ken; Menza, Charles
The Biogeography Branch’s Sampling Design Tool for ArcGIS provides a means to effectively develop sampling strategies in a geographic information system (GIS) environment. The tool was produced as part of an iterative process of sampling design development, whereby existing data informs new design decisions. The objective of this process, and hence a product of this tool, is an optimal sampling design which can be used to achieve accurate, high-precision estimates of population metrics at a minimum of cost. Although NOAA’s Biogeography Branch focuses on marine habitats and some examples reflects this, the tool can be used to sample any type...

3. Southern California's megaflood event of ca. 1605 AD linked to large-scale atmospheric forcing - Schimmelmann, Arndt; Lange, Carina B.; Zhao, Meixun; Harvey, Colin
A distinct, 1- to 2-cm-thick flood deposit found in Santa Barbara Basin with a varve-date of 1605 AD ± 5 years testifies to an intensity of precipitation that remains unmatched for later periods when historical or instrumental records can be compared against the varve record. The 1605 AD ± 5 event correlates well with Enzel's (1992) finding of a Silver Lake playa perennial lake at the terminus of the Mojave River (carbon-14-dated 1560 AD ± 90 years), in relative proximity to the rainfall catchment area draining into Santa Barbara Basin. According to Enzel, such a persistent flooding of the Silver...

4. Sampling design tool for ArcGIS: Instruction manual.[for ESRI ArcGIS 10.0 Service Pack 3 or higher] - Buja, K.; Menza, Charles
The Biogeography Branch’s Sampling Design Tool for ArcGIS provides a means to effectively develop sampling strategies in a geographic information system (GIS) environment. The tool was produced as part of an iterative process of sampling design development, whereby existing data informs new design decisions. The objective of this process, and hence a product of this tool, is an optimal sampling design which can be used to achieve accurate, highprecision estimates of population metrics at a minimum of cost. Although NOAA’s Biogeography Branch focuses on marine habitats and some examples reflects this, the tool can be used to sample any type of population...

5. Stratigraphy and chronology of Holocene marine sedment core from the California continental borderland and their paleoceanographic/paleoclimatic significance [abstract] - Lund, Steve P.
EXTRACT (SEE PDF FOR FULL ABSTRACT): Paleomagnetic secular variation (PSV) records have been recovered from three marine sediment cores from Santa Catalina basin, California continental borderland, in order to more accurately date these late Quaternary sediments. ... The sedimentation rates derived from the time/depth curves suggest a constant rate of 20-25 cm/ky for the last 6700 years throughout Santa Catalina basin, and more variable rates (but constant within each core) of 13-86 cm/ky prior to 6700 ybp. The sedimentation rates prior to 6700 ybp are lowest in the southcentral portion of the basin and systematically increase toward the north end of...

6. Holocene climate and El Nino history as recorded in the sediments of northern coastal Peru [abstract, table, and references] - Wells, Lisa E.
EXTRACT (SEE PDF FOR FULL ABSTRACT): The history of the El Nino phenomena is recorded in both the fluvial and coastal sediments of northern Peru. The fluvial record was presented at the 1987 PACLIM Workshop and is discussed in detail elsewhere (Wells, 1987). However, the number of radiocarbon dated El Nino events has increased since Wells (1987) was published; this data is presented in Table 1.

7. Tropical forest history of the Ecuadorian Andes over the last 34,000 years: preliminary results from pollen and oxygen isotope analyses of Trident 163-13 from the eastern equatorial Pacific [abstract] - Heusser, Linda E.
EXTRACT (SEE PDF FOR FULL ABSTRACT): Pollen from the upper 2.75 m of a core taken 200 km west of the Golfo de Guayaquil, Ecuador (Trident 163-13, 3° S, 84° W, 3,000 m water depth) documents changes in Andean vegetation and climate of the Cordillera Occidental for ~17,000 years before and after the last glacial maximum.

8. On the trail of interannual variability in phytoplankton and climate [abstract and figures] - Soutar, Andy
EXTRACT (SEE PDF FOR FULL ABSTRACT): A selective but nontheless real record of phytoplankton activity over the Santa Barbara Basin can be obtained from the underlying varved sediments. The phytoplankton groups preserved are: diatoms (frustrules and spores), silicoflagellates, dinoflagellates (cysts) and coccoliths.

9. A review of water year 1987 in northern California [abstract and figures] - Roos, Maurice
EXTRACT (SEE PDF FOR FULL ABSTRACT): It seems that an average water year is a rare beast; 1987 was no exception. It turned out to be the ninth driest this century in Northern California's Sacramento River basin. I'd like to summarize for you some interesting facts about water year 1987 and how it affected rainfall, snowpack, runoff, and water storage in California.

10. Paleoenvironmental records from the Quelccaya ice cap, Peru and preliminary results from the Dunde ice cap, China [abstract] - Thompson , Lonnie G.; Mosley-Thompson, Ellen
EXTRACT (SEE PDF FOR FULL ABSTRACT): The 1000 year records of particulate deposition (soluble and insoluble), oxygen isotopic ratios, and net accumulation from the Quelccaya ice cap are presented. The net accumulation record from Quelccaya is shown to serve as a reasonable proxy for the water levels in Lake Titicaca. ... The ice core record from the Dunde ice cap offers the potential to reconstruct a very detailed history of environmental conditions on the Tibetan Plateau for the last 3000 years.

11. 400 years of precipitation variability in central and southern California reconstructed from tree-rings [abstract] - Michaelsen, Joel
EXTRACT (SEE PDF FOR FULL ABSTRACT): Precipitation variability at 31 stations hanging from San Diego to San Francisco and from the coast to the Sierras was characterized ...

12. Periodic autoregressive moving average models for the analysis of streamflow [abstract] - Slack, J.R.
EXTRACT (SEE PDF FOR FULL ABSTRACT): Streamflow values show definite seasonal patterns in their month-to-month correlation structure. The structure also seems to vary as a function of the type of stream (coastal versus mountain or humid versus arid region). The standard autoregressive moving average (ARMA) time series model is incapable of reproducing this correlation structure. ... A periodic ARMA time series model is one in which an ARMA model is fitted to each month or season but the parameters of the model are constrained to be periodic according to a Fourier series. This constraint greatly reduces the number of parameters but...

13. Dendroclimatic reconstructions of temperature, precipitation, and pressure patterns over the western and central USA, 1602-1961 [abstract] - Fritts, Harold C.
EXTRACT (SEE PDF FOR FULL ABSTRACT): Verified reconstructions of seasonal temperature, precipitation and sea-level pressure over North America and the North Pacific have been derived from 65 arid-site tree-ring chronologies in the North American West. Significant reconstructions were obtained for temperature for wide areas in the West and mid-continent. Precipitation reconstructions were significant only in the West, and pressure was reconstructed over wide areas of the North Pacific Ocean and the North American continent.

14. Equatorial upwelling at Galapagos: the cadmium record in corals since 1600 [abstract and figures] - Shen, Glen T.
EXTRACT (SEE PDF FOR FULL ABSTRACT): Chemical isolation of lattice-bound trace elements in marine carbonates has opened new windows to paleoceanographic study. In a modern context at the Galapagos Islands, oceanic upwelling variability is mirrored by changes in the Cd content of reef-building corals. This association derives from cadmium's nutrient-like distribution in the water column and its ability to substitute for calcium in the aragonite lattice of corals. Given corals of sufficient age, it is thus possible to reconstruct near-term ENSO-related changes in surface waters of the eastern Equatorial Pacific on annual and sub-annual timescales.

15. Climatic indicators in an ice core from the Yukon [abstract] - Holdsworth, G.; Fogarasi, S.; Krouse, H.R.; Nosal, M.
EXTRACT (SEE PDF FOR FULL ABSTRACT): Stable isotope data obtained from snow and ice cores retrieved from an altitude of 5340m on Mt. Logan (60°30'N; 140°36'W) indicate that "isotopic seasons" are not generally in phase with calendar seasons. The former are phase lagged with respect to the latter by up to several months and appear to be correlated with SST'S and ocean heat transfer curves and/or the position of the Aleutian low rather than with air temperature or the temperature difference between the ocean surface and the core site.

16. The influence of North Pacific atmospheric circulation on streamflow in the West [abstract] - Cayan, Daniel R.; Peterson, David
EXTRACT (SEE PDF FOR FULL ABSTRACT): The annual cycle and non-seasonal variability of streamflow over a network of stations in western North America and Hawaii is studied in terms of atmospheric forcing elements. The phase lag between the annual cycle of streamflow and precipitation varies considerably over this network, as does the persistence of monthly streamflow anomalies. This lag effect appears to be largely a function of the relative amount of snow laid down in a particular basin. In addition to the rather strong annual cycle that exists in mean streamflow and its variance at most of the stations, there is...

17. 5th Workshop on Climate Variability of the Eastern North Pacific and Western North America [PACLIM], 20-24 March 1988, Pacific Grove, California [front matter]

18. Using sidescan sonar to assess the impact and persistence of natural and anthropogenic disturbance to low-relief oyster habitats in coastal Louisiana [abstract]; El uso del sonar se sidescan para determinar el impacto y la persistencia de disturbios naturales y anthropogenicos en los habitat de poco relieve en la costa de Luisiana [resumen] - Allen, Y.; Wilson, C.; Roberts, H.; Supan, J.

19. High-resolution natural recording systems: intercomparisons of the response to interannual climatic variability [abstract] - Baumgartner, Timothy; Thompson, Lonnie; Michaelsen, Joel; Soutar, Andrew; Casey, Richard
The goal of this work is to examine the properties of recording mechanisms which are common to continuously recording high-resolution natural systems in which climatic signals are imprinted and preserved as proxy records. These systems produce seasonal structures as an indirect response to climatic variability over the annual cycle. We compare the proxy records from four different high-resolution systems: the Quelccaya ice cap of the Peruvian Andes; composite tree ring growth from southern California and the southwestern United States; and the marine varve sedimentation systems in the Santa Barbara basin (off California, United States) and in the Gulf of California, Mexico....

20. Hydrologic variability related to El Nino in the Pacific Northwest [abstract] - Koch, Roy W.
A preliminary statistical analysis was undertaken to evaluate whether the effect of El Nino events is apparent in variables related to hydrologic behavior. Annual precipitation, temperature and streamflow were used for three locations in Oregon representing coastal, Willamette Valley/Cascade and eastern Oregon regions. The mean and variance for periods of El Nino occurrence vs. those with no El Nino were computed. Numerical differences were observed but were not consistent across all stations. The coastal area showed a decrease in mean precipitation and increase in mean streamflow during El Nino events. Other stations showed a positive increase in mean for both...

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