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Technology and Policy - Ph.D. / Sc.D.

Mostrando recursos 1 - 20 de 43

  1. Classes of defense for computer systems

    Wolff, Josephine Charlotte Paulina
    Computer security incidents often involve attackers acquiring a complex sequence of escalating capabilities and executing those capabilities across a range of different intermediary actors in order to achieve their ultimate malicious goals. However, popular media accounts of these incidents, as well as the ensuing litigation and policy proposals, tend to focus on a very narrow defensive landscape, primarily individual centralized defenders who control some of the capabilities exploited in the earliest stages of these incidents. This thesis proposes two complementary frameworks for defenses against computer security breaches -- one oriented around restricting the computer-based access capabilities that adversaries use to...

  2. Plug-in vehicles and carsharing : user preferences, energy consumption and potential for growth

    Zoepf, Stephen M
    Plug-in Electric Vehicles (PEVs) are seen as a key pathway to reduce fuel consumption and greenhouse gas emissions in transportation, yet their sales are under 1% of new cars despite large incentives. Carsharing, a market where consumers rent vehicles for short durations, is a low-risk way for consumers to use Plug-In Electric Vehicles for their travel needs without a large financial commitment. However, deployment of PEVs in carsharing depends on three key factors: (1) consumer acceptance of PEVs for rental trips, (2) the ability of carsharing providers to manage technical limitations of PEVs, and (3) that real-world energy consumption of...

  3. The cost of Jointness : insights from environmental monitoring systems in low Earth orbit

    Dwyer, Morgan Maeve
    The term jointness refers to activities or operations that are executed collaboratively by more than one government agency or military department. While joint operations have become increasingly common and successful, the government continues to struggle with joint system acquisition: in fact, although a common motivation for joint acquisition is cost savings, recent studies suggest that joint programs experience larger cost growth than non-joint programs and that it may be more cost effective for agencies to acquire systems independently rather than jointly. This thesis explains why joint programs often experience large cost growth and how jointness itself may induce it. To...

  4. The MQ-9 Reaper remotely piloted aircraft : humans and machines in action

    Cullen, Timothy M
    Remotely piloted aircraft and the people that control them are changing how the US military operates aircraft and those who fly, yet few know what "drone" operators actually do, why they do what they do, or how they shape and reflect remote air warfare and human-machine relationships. What do the remote operators and intelligence personnel know during missions to "protect and avenge" coalition forces in Iraq and Afghanistan and how do they go about knowing what they know? In an ethnographic and historical analysis of the Air Force's preeminent weapon system for the counterinsurgencies in the two countries, this study...

  5. The MQ-9 Reaper remotely piloted aircraft : humans and machines in action

    Cullen, Timothy M
    Remotely piloted aircraft and the people that control them are changing how the US military operates aircraft and those who fly, yet few know what "drone" operators actually do, why they do what they do, or how they shape and reflect remote air warfare and human-machine relationships. What do the remote operators and intelligence personnel know during missions to "protect and avenge" coalition forces in Iraq and Afghanistan and how do they go about knowing what they know? In an ethnographic and historical analysis of the Air Force's preeminent weapon system for the counterinsurgencies in the two countries, this study...

  6. Reduced DoD product development time : the role of the schedule development process

    McNutt, Ross Theodore
    by Ross McNutt.

  7. Symbiotic strategies in enterprise ecology : modeling commercial aviation as an Enterprise of Enterprises

    Sgouridis, Sgouris P
    We investigate the effectiveness of strategic alternatives that are designed to dampen the cyclicality manifest in the commercial aviation (CA)-related industries. In this research we introduce the conceptual framework of Enterprise of Enterprises (EoE) as an extension and special case of a System of Systems, to facilitate the design of strategic alternatives in an enterprise ecosystem characterized by loosely coupled enterprises. The constituent enterprises in an EoE exhibit managerial and operational independence and have diverse value functions that are often viewed by the enterprises as zero-sum games. We argue that this may not always be the case; for example, in...

  8. System transition : dynamics of change in the US air transportation system

    Mozdzanowska, Aleksandra L. (Aleksandra Ludmila), 1979-
    The US Air Transportation System is currently facing a number of challenges including an increasing demand for travel and growing environmental requirements. In order to successfully meet future needs, the system will need to transition from its current state using a combination of technology, infrastructure, procedure, and policy changes. However, the complexities of the air transportation system make implementing changes a challenge. In particular, the multi-stakeholder nature of the system poses a significant barrier to transition. Historically, many changes in the air transportation system were driven by safety concerns and implemented following accidents which provided the momentum to overcome transition...

  9. Implementing a time- and location-differentiated cap-and-trade program : flexible nitrogen oxide abatement from power plants in the eastern United States

    Martin, Katherine C
    Studies suggest that timing and location of emissions can change the amount of ozone formed from a given amount of nitrogen oxide (NOx) by a factor of five (Mauzerall et al. 2005). Yet existing NOx cap-and-trade programs require stationary sources in the Eastern U.S. to reduce emissions without reference to timing or location. This work is part of a larger study on whether a NOx cap-and-trade program that differentiates across emissions by time and location could reduce ozone concentrations more cost-effectively than simple aggregate reductions in the NOx cap in the Eastern United States. To gauge possible gains relative to...

  10. Evaluating the impact of advanced vehicle and fuel technologies in U.S. light duty vehicle fleet

    Bandivadekar, Anup P
    The unrelenting increase in oil use by the U.S. light-duty vehicle (LDV) fleet presents an extremely challenging energy and environmental problem. A variety of propulsion technologies and fuels have the promise to reduce petroleum use and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from motor vehicles. Previous work in this domain has compared individual vehicle or fuel alternatives. The aim of this research was to deepen the understanding of the likely scale and timing of the fleet-wide impact of emerging technologies. A model of the light-duty vehicle fleet showed that fuel consumption of mainstream gasoline internal combustion engine (ICE) technology vehicles will determine...

  11. Shaping the terms of competition : environmental regulation and corporate strategies to reduce diesel vehicle emissions

    Ng, Christine Bik-Kay, 1979-
    Environmental regulations are typically portrayed as an outside force stimulating development of environmental technologies in regulated industries. In reality, firms influence regulation by communicating their technological progress, which helps form a basis for future standards. Because of differences in each firm's technological capability and environmental performance, regulations affect the competitive position of firms. Firms with advanced technologies stand to gain competitive benefit from more stringent environmental regulations, and may therefore choose to introduce a more costly but cleaner technology ahead of regulation. Such a competitive regulatory strategy has the potential to bring competitive benefits to the lead firm(s) and environmental...

  12. Understanding and applying the concept of sustainable development to transportation planning and decision-making in the U.S.

    Hall, Ralph P., 1975-
    This research demonstrates that sustainable development is a multidimensional concept that should be approached in a transdisciplinary manner. Its objective has been to synthesize and integrate disparate and currently unconnected lines of thought that have not yet been applied in a systematic way to promote sustainable development and sustainable transportation. The primary contribution of this research is the theoretical development of a decision-support framework that identifies the tools and approaches that decision-makers could/should use to create policies and programs that transition society towards sustainability. These tools and approaches are either articulated or developed by the author throughout the dissertation. Specific...

  13. A life-cycle flexibility framework for designing, evaluating and managing "complex" real options : case studies in urban transportation and aircraft systems

    McConnell, Joshua B. (Joshua Bryan), 1974-
    Designing a flexible system with real options is a method for managing uncertainty. This research introduces the concept of "complex" real options, which are composed of interconnected echnological, organizational and process components. "Complex" real options differ from the "standard" real options described in the literature in the option life-cycle activities of design, evaluation and management. To address the challenges posed by "complex" real options, the Life-Cycle Flexibility (LCF) Framework was created. The framework addresses issues along the entire life-cycle of an option, in both technical and social system dimensions. Two case studies were considered in this research to better understand...

  14. New venture commercialization of clean energy technologies

    Miller, David S. (David Seth)
    Clean energy technologies lower harmful emissions associated with the generation and use of power (e.g. CO2) and many of these technologies have been shown to be cost effective and to provide significant benefits to adopters. Examples of clean energy technologies include renewable and/or efficient distributed generation (e.g. solar, wind, geothermal, fuel cells, cogeneration); energy efficiency technologies; intelligent energy management; efficient energy storage; green building technologies; biofuels; and ancillary products and services that reduce emissions associated with power generation, transmission and distribution. This thesis examines why new ventures founded to commercialize these technologies have failed to achieve widespread adoption. Based on...

  15. Guardians at the Gates of Hell : estimating the risk of nuclear theft and terrorism -- and identifying the highest-priority risks of nuclear theft

    Bunn, Matthew
    Methods are presented to assess the global risk of nuclear theft and nuclear terrorism, to identify the nuclear facilities and transport legs that pose the highest-priority risks of nuclear theft, and to evaluate policy approaches to strengthening security and accounting for nuclear stockpiles worldwide. First, a qualitative assessment outlines the demand for black-market nuclear weapons and materials; the plausibility of terrorist construction of an improvised nuclear device; the global stocks and flows of nuclear weapons, plutonium, and highly enriched uranium (HEU), with the global distribution of facilities where they exist; and the widely varying standards of physical protection, control, and...

  16. Architectural innovation, functional emergence diversification in engineering systems

    Osorio Urzúa, Carlos A. (Carlos Alberto), 1968-
    The evolution of the architecture of long-lived complex socio-technical systems have important consequences and can happen in unexpected ways. This dissertation explores this question through the study of the architectural evolution of Municipal Electric Utilities (MEUs) and their diversification into broadband services in the United States. Our research seeks answers to questions of process (why and how did this happen?), impact (what was the economic effect of this evolution?), theory (what is the phenomenon that explains this evolution?) and method (how can we study such changes?). The number of MEUs offering broadband services increased by more than 200% between 2000...

  17. Command in air war : centralized vs. decentralized control of combat airpower

    Kometer, Michael W
    This study answers the question, "What has been the impact of the Information Age on the Air Force's doctrinal tenet of "centralized control and decentralized execution?" It traces the evolution of command and control of airpower through operations Desert Storm, Allied Force, Enduring Freedom, and Iraqi Freedom and compares its practice with classic theories established by Huntington, Cohen, Van Creveld, and Air Force doctrine. In the absence of a peer superpower in the 1990s, U.S. decision-makers often resorted to the use of detailed constraints to gain direct influence on military operations. The more detailed the constraints from the strategic level,...

  18. Beating the system : accelerating commercialization of new materials

    Musso, Christopher Scott, 1974-
    Over the past century, materials have faced notoriously long delays between invention and commercialization. These delays make private investment very difficult, and can prevent good materials from reaching markets. A systematic exploration of the commercial histories of major commodity thermoplastics was performed, which showed that these delays were attributable to technical deficiencies in materials and obstacles in the application value chains. Contrary to popular wisdom, material costs, competitive materials, and serendipity were much smaller factors in commercialization delay. The factors that led to insertion of plastics into applications were different from the factors that led to post-insertion growth. The major...

  19. Effective information integration and reutilization : solutions to technological deficiency and legal uncertainty

    Zhu, Hongwei
    The amount of electronically accessible information has been growing exponentially. How to effectively use this information has become a significant challenge. A post 9/11 study indicated that the deficiency of semantic interoperability technology hindered the ability to integrate information from disparate sources in a meaningful and timely fashion to allow for preventive precautions. Meanwhile, organizations that provided useful services by combining and reusing information from publicly accessible sources have been legally challenged. The Database Directive has been introduced in the European Union and six legislative proposals have been made in the U.S. to provide legal protection for non-copyrightable database contents,...

  20. Stakeholder-assisted modeling and policy design for engineering systems

    Mostashari, Ali, 1974-
    There is a growing realization that stakeholder involvement in decision-making for large- scale engineering systems is necessary and crucial, both from an ethical perspective, as well as for improving the chances of success for an engineering systems project. Traditionally however, stakeholders have only been involved after decision-makers and experts have completed the initial decision-making process with little or no input from stakeholders. This has resulted in conflict and delays for engineering systems with brilliant technical designs that do not address the larger context of the broader social goals. One of the fears of experts is that the involvement of stakeholders...

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