Recursos de colección

DSpace at MIT (104.280 recursos)

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Nuclear Engineering - Master's degree

Mostrando recursos 1 - 20 de 496

  1. An analysis of the spreading of radionuclides from a vent of an offshore floating nuclear power plant

    Briccetti, Angelo (Angelo J.)
    The offshore floating nuclear power plant (OFNP), is a new power plant design which provides for both increased safety and extra barriers to separate its radioactive material from the public. This design will minimize the probability of a severe accident leading to a release of radioactive material, but as always a release must still be planned for. The offshore siting of an OFNP allows for increased distance to human populations in addition to extra filtering of released radioactive material. This study will look at the potential consequences of a severe accident onboard an OFNP eventually leading to a vent and...

  2. Effects of intermittent generation on the economics and operation of prospective baseload power plants

    Kearns, Jordan Taylor
    The electricity system is transitioning from a system comprised primarily of dispatchable generators to a system increasingly reliant on wind and solar power-intermittent sources of electricity with output dependent on meteorological conditions, adding both variability and uncertainty to the system. Dispatchable generators with a high ratio of fixed to variable costs have historically relied on operating at maximum output as often as possible to spread these fixed costs over as much electricity generation as possible. Higher penetrations of intermittent capacity create market conditions that lead to lower capacity factors for these generators, presenting an economic challenge. Increasing penetrations of intermittent...

  3. Managing tritium inventory and release with carbon materials in a fluoride salt-cooled high-temperature reactor

    Lam, Stephen Tsz Tang
    The Fluoride Salt-Cooled High-Temperature Reactor (FHR) is an advanced reactor concept, that uses molten-salt coolant and solid-uranium fuel composed of graphite and silicon carbide-encapsulated tri-structural isotropic (TRISO) particles. The primary coolant salt is known as flibe (7Li2BeF4), which was chosen for its desirable thermal-hydraulic and neutronic properties. Under irradiation, coolant salts containing lithium capture neutrons generating tritium in quantities that are several orders of magnitude larger than the amounts generated by existing light water reactors. Adsorption technology is proposed, using chemically compatible carbon materials for the capture and control of tritium in the FHR. Various nanoporous activated carbon, graphene and...

  4. A study of the fast fission effect for single natural uranium rod

    Kielkiewicz, Marian S
    by Marian S. Kielkiewicz.

  5. A critique and simplification of nuclear fuel cycle economics calculations

    Zimmermann, Mark W
    by Mark William Zimmermann.

  6. Quantifying the adhesion of noble metal foulants on structural materials in a Molten Salt Reactor

    Tanaka, Reid S
    As discovered during the Molten Salt Reactor (MSR) Experiment (MSRE), selected fission products deposited on the wetted surfaces throughout the reactor. Fission products such as molybdenum and ruthenium are noble with respect to the electrochemical potential of the fluoride fuel salt and therefore remain insoluble in their elemental forms rather than becoming ionic salts. Coalescing in the primary fluid, these noble metals then migrate and eventually deposit on internal reactor surfaces. Since the bulk of these noble metal fission products are also energetically unstable they bring not only physical fouling, but heat and radiation from decay as well. The adherence...

  7. Advanced thermal hydraulic simulations for human reliability assessment of nuclear power plants

    Dawson, Karen Margaret
    Human Risk Assessment (HRA) in the nuclear power industry has advanced in the last two decades. However, there is a lack of understanding of the magnitude of the effect of thermal hydraulic (TH) uncertainties upon the failure probabilities of the operator actions of nuclear units. I demonstrate in this work that there is an effect of TH uncertainties on the operating crew's probability of recognizing errors during a loss of coolant accident (LOCA) initiating event. The magnitude of the effect of the TH uncertainty on the operator's ability to recognize errors is dependent upon the size of the break, the...

  8. Achievable power uprates in pressurized water reactors using uranium nitride fuel

    Giudicelli, Guillaume
    This work aims at investigating the potential benefits of nitride fuel use in pressurized water reactors. The AP1000 is chosen as the reference power plant. Both oxide and nitride fuel are considered and compared using a steady state thermal hydraulics and mechanics parametric optimization study to achieve a maximal core power. A subsequent neutronics study determined the achievable energy extracted per fuel mass (burnup) and sets the core power that allows for an 18-months fuel cycle length. The impact of the change in the core operating temperature on the steam cycle efficiency is considered in order to provide a final...

  9. Conceptual design and performance characteristics of firebrick resistance-heated energy storage for industrial heat supply and variable electricity production

    Stack, Daniel Christopher
    Concerns of climate change and sustainable energy policy are driving the deployment of wind and solar energy towards the goal of reducing fossil fuel emissions. In liberalized (deregulated) markets, the large-scale deployment of wind or solar energy results in electricity price collapse at times of high wind or solar output to below the price of fossil fuels. This revenue collapse limits economic large-scale use of wind and solar and reduces the revenue for nuclear plants. The current electrical energy storage options are too expensive to be deployed in sufficient quantity to prevent the price collapse. A less expensive approach to...

  10. Optimizing chemical-vapor-deposition diamond for nitrogen-vacancy center ensemble magnetometry

    Alsid, Scott T
    The nitrogen-vacancy (NV) center in diamond has emerged as a promising platform for high-sensitivity, vector magnetic field detection and high spatial resolution magnetic-field imaging due to its unique combination of optical and spin properties. NV diamond magnetometry has enabled a wide array of applications from the noninvasive measurement of a single neuron action potential to the mapping [mu]T-fields in [mu]m-size meteorite grains. To further improve the magnetic sensitivity of an ensemble NV magnetometer, the growth and processing of the host diamond must be taken into account. This thesis presents a systematic study of the effects of diamond processing on bulk...

  11. Characterization and optimization of signal and background for the time-resolving magnetic recoil spectrometer on the National Ignition Facility

    Wink, Christopher William
    The evolution of fuel assembly, hot-spot formation, and nuclear burn in an Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) implosion at the National Ignition Facility (NIF) can be quantified through time-resolved measurements of the neutron spectrum. This information will be obtained with the next-generation Magnetic Recoil Spectrometer (MRSt) that will measure the neutron spectrum (12-16 MeV) with high accuracy (~5%), unprecedented energy resolution (~100 keV) and, for the first time ever, time resolution (~20 ps). To successfully implement the MRSt on the NIF for this measurement, the signal and background distributions at the MRSt detector must be characterized; the detector response to the...

  12. Investigation of performance of an ultrasonic flow meter for potential molten salt reactor applications

    Pantano, Michael (Michael Andrew)
    Molten salts for nuclear reactor applications are not a new idea, as these were investigated at Oak Ridge National Lab in the 1960s. However, the past decade or so has seen a large increase in the interest of these, with a variety of designs proposed. The high volumetric heat capacity is of great appeal, as is the low pressure operation with a several hundred degree Celsius margin to boiling. A wide range of passive safety features have also been proposed. However, no matter what the design, there is a need to measure the flow rate of the salt during operation....

  13. Investigation of performance of an ultrasonic flow meter for potential molten salt reactor applications

    Pantano, Michael (Michael Andrew)
    Molten salts for nuclear reactor applications are not a new idea, as these were investigated at Oak Ridge National Lab in the 1960s. However, the past decade or so has seen a large increase in the interest of these, with a variety of designs proposed. The high volumetric heat capacity is of great appeal, as is the low pressure operation with a several hundred degree Celsius margin to boiling. A wide range of passive safety features have also been proposed. However, no matter what the design, there is a need to measure the flow rate of the salt during operation....

  14. Neutron thermalization in crystalline media-calculation of fermi age to thermal energy

    Rothleder, Stephen David
    by Stephen David Rothleder.

  15. Change of magnetic moment inside mirror configuration

    Yoshikawa, Shōichi, 1934-
    by Sh⁻oichi Yoshikawa.

  16. Feasibility study of a convertor assembly for fusion blanket experiments.

    Pant, Aniket
    Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Dept. of Nuclear Engineering. Thesis. 1971. M.S.

  17. Improving heat transfer in spent nuclear fuel disposal packages using metallic void fillers

    Park, Yongsoo, S.M. Massachusetts Institute of Technology
    Disposal packages containing high heat generating spent nuclear fuels (SNF) require improved heat transfer to keep the peak cladding temperature from going above the tolerance limit. Filling the accessible void spaces between the container and the SNF with a high heat conducting metal is a potential solution. In metal casting, it is well known that a gap forms at the metal-mold interface due to solidification shrinkage and it significantly reduces heat transfer during cooling. This negative heat transfer effect is persistent for a disposal package since the filler stays in the container after solidification. The key to close the gap...

  18. Decarbonization of power systems : analyzing different technological pathways

    Sepulveda, Nestor A. (Sepulveda Morales)
    Climate change poses a major challenge to society. Different sectors of society will need to respond in different ways; for the power sector, the response will require the aggressive reduction of CO2 emissions to near zero by 2050. There is no unique pathway for achieving a given level of decarbonization, and different pathways will require greater or lesser resources. In general, as the degree of carbon mitigation increases, each additional unit of reduction will become more expensive. The world has limited resources, as do national economies. Thus, whether the solution to decarbonization is achieved through markets or through centralized planning,...

  19. Scale adaptive turbulence modeling for in-vessel sodium thermal hydraulics

    Acton, Michael (Michael John)
    Computational fluid dynamics is a powerful tool for the simulation of nuclear reactor coolant flows, such as in sodium fast reactors. In these reactors, the phenomenon of thermal striping -- characterized by oscillatory turbulent mixing of non-isothermal coolant flows -- has the potential to damage the structural integrity of reactor instrumentation and structural materials. At present, large eddy simulation is the only turbulence modeling approach which can sufficiently resolve and predict the mixing behavior of thermal striping, including temperature fluctuation and fluctuation frequencies. The extreme computational cost requirements of large eddy simulation application preclude the use of CFD for large...

  20. Scale adaptive turbulence modeling for in-vessel sodium thermal hydraulics

    Acton, Michael (Michael John)
    Computational fluid dynamics is a powerful tool for the simulation of nuclear reactor coolant flows, such as in sodium fast reactors. In these reactors, the phenomenon of thermal striping -- characterized by oscillatory turbulent mixing of non-isothermal coolant flows -- has the potential to damage the structural integrity of reactor instrumentation and structural materials. At present, large eddy simulation is the only turbulence modeling approach which can sufficiently resolve and predict the mixing behavior of thermal striping, including temperature fluctuation and fluctuation frequencies. The extreme computational cost requirements of large eddy simulation application preclude the use of CFD for large...

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