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DSpace at MIT (104.280 recursos)

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Political Science - Master's degree

Mostrando recursos 1 - 20 de 113

  1. Great Basin opposition to the MX missile : a case of grassroots mobilization and political influence

    Wright, Nancy Elaine
    by Nancy Elaine Wright.

  2. The effort to cut out-of-pocket medical expenses and the political constraints : examples from the New Cooperative Medical Scheme in China

    Li, Shourou
    This master thesis examines the impact of the New Cooperative Medical Scheme (NCMS) on rural residents' out-of-pocket medical expenses (OOP) in China. The thesis first uses quantitative methods to identify the statistical relationships between NCMS and rural OOP and finds that enrolling in NCMS is associated with higher OOP. Then, using the 2009 reform, also known as Healthy China 2020, as a starting point, the thesis further explores the factors behind the resistance to the reform efforts to cut down OOP. By utilizing two political science theories - institutional layering and policy feedback - the thesis finds that the 2009...

  3. Pension benefits and social cohesion

    Andronescu, Cristina Gabriela
    How does the expansion of social protection programs to the poor in developing democracies affect social cohesion? I address this question by examining Bolivia's central government run, non-contributory pension program, Renta Dignidad. Using a regression discontinuity design as well as a novel difference-in-discontinuities design, I find that recipients of pension benefits are overall more likely to display increased support for the central government and that in provinces where both territorial tensions and class tensions are most acute, support for the central government is significantly greater. This is consistent with a theoretical argument that expansion of social protection to the poor...

  4. Finding the swing voter : definitions and survey methods for voter classification

    Swasey, Charlotte (Charlotte A.)
    This thesis proposes a theory mapping emotional reactions to political information onto a theory of vote decisionmaking and then further onto measurable survey response. Using on-line processing based in emotion, voters form affective summaries about candidates, which store previous information as an emotional response. The act of voting is treated as a single realization of a probabilistic event, with the relative probabilities of each vote option being an expression of the affective summary. These summaries are expressed as warmness or feeling towards each candidate, which can be captured using the ANES Feeling Thermometer scales. A metric of the difference between...

  5. Racial, not rational : economic threat, symbolic racism, and affirmative action

    Shohfi, Kyle Daniel
    For decades, scholars have debated the determinants of whites' attitudes about racialized policies such as welfare, busing, and affirmative action. While some have argued that whites formulate their positions rationally according to perceived economic threat, others have asserted that such policy attitudes are the function of one's level of symbolic racism, with little to no influence from economic considerations. Using data from the 2012 Cooperative Congressional Elections Study and demographic data, I assess the effects of actual economic competition and an individual's other attitudes on white opposition to affirmative action. Furthermore, in order to identify the levels, if any, through...

  6. Viet Nam's strategic hamlet: development and denouement.

    Prentice, Leland Ernest
    Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Dept. of Political Science. Thesis. 1969. M.S.

  7. Coordinating science : White House Office of Science and Technology Policy (OSTP) influence in federal R&D budgets

    Halloran, John W., Jr
    This thesis examines the role of the White House OSTP in the nation's budgeting for science and technology activities. Interviews conducted by the researcher with members of the White House staff as well as federal agency officials are the primary empirical support, with analysis of annual priority memoranda and presidential budget requests reinforcing the findings. The original contribution of this research is to highlight limitations of responsive competence despite presidential attempts to coordinate the R&D bureaucracy. In science policy, presidents obtain responsive competence by hiring entrepreneurial OSTP staff members in the areas that most align with their priorities. The centralized...

  8. Policy legacies and child care politics in Australia and Canada

    Pasolli, Kelly E
    This study explores the puzzle of why Australia and Canada have followed significantly different paths in national-level child care policy despite their otherwise similar welfare state structures. Australia has developed a relatively generous system of public subsidies to support the provision of care for young children, while at the same time relying increasingly on the market to deliver child care. In contrast, Canada has extremely low levels of public spending and service provision, resulting in a less expansive system of regulated child care. I trace these divergent outcomes to the impact of post-WWII child care policy legacies in these countries...

  9. Electoral backlash against climate policy : a natural experiment on retrospective voting and local resistance to public policy

    Stokes, Leah C
    Retrospective voting studies typically examine policies where the public has common interests. By contrast, climate policy has broad public support but concentrated opposition in communities where costs are imposed. This spatial distribution of weak supporters and strong, local opponents mirrors opposition to other policies with diffuse public benefits and concentrated local costs. I use a natural experiment to investigate whether citizens living in proximity to wind energy projects retrospectively punished an incumbent government because of its climate policy. Using both fixed effects and instrumental variable estimators, I identify electoral losses for the incumbent party ranging from 4-10%, with the effect...

  10. Getting to the table : explaining the incidence of mediation in the insurgencies of Indonesia

    Tan, Keng Meng
    Indonesia has experienced six insurgencies since it declared independence in 1945. Of these insurgencies, three were resolved through negotiations. There is great variation in the manner the negotiations occurred. The state negotiated with Portugal over East Timor with the United Nations (UN) as mediator while negotiations with the Acehnese were first mediated by the Henry Dunant Centre for Humanitarian Dialogue (HDC) and later the Crisis Management Initiative (CMI). Finally, the state refused any mediators in the case of West Papua, where Indonesia's longest and bloodiest insurgency continues to take place. What explains the variation in the decision to have mediation...

  11. What do abortion policies accomplish? : understanding how abortion laws and court cases affect public opinion

    Hernandez, Cory D
    Abortion is a loaded, controversial, and divisive sociocultural and political term, concept, and debate. Yet little empirical research has been conducted to examine what effects abortion rights legislation and court cases have had on the public and our society. After analyzing a broad overview of the history of the abortion rights debate in the US, I conduct bivariate and multivariate regression analyses from 1972-2004 using NES and personally-collected data to see how these laws and court opinions in various states at the individual level influence public opinion of abortion rights and of the government. In the end, I conclude that,...

  12. Safe havens in Syria : missions and requirements for an air campaign

    Haggerty, Brian Thomas
    What if the United States had led its NATO allies to intervene in Syria's civil war in the midst of calls for humanitarian intervention in mid-2012? Despite the importance of this question for the study and evaluation of U.S. foreign policy, little exists in the way of systematic, open-source analysis of the military missions and material requirements for a possible Syrian intervention. This thesis assesses the scale, scope, and challenges of intervention in Syria at the time its proponents argue it would have been most effective. It does so through open-source analysis of a U.S.-led air campaign designed to mitigate...

  13. Strategy for international cooperation in planning the Chinese Space Station

    Foley, Jordan J. (Jordan James)
    After ten years of planning and pre-development, the Chinese government approved the space station project on September 25, 2010. In October 2010, the People's Republic of China (PRC) officially announced its independent space station construction project planned for successful completion by 2022 with an operation life of approximately ten years. The Chinese Space Station (CSS) is of particular interest to those who research the country's patterns of behavior in cooperative ventures. The future space station is being advertised as an international collaborative project on an unprecedented scale for China. However, inviting international partners in the process of constructing and operating...

  14. The regulation of irregular work in Japan : from collusion to conflict

    Cisneros, Nathan (Nathan Burley)
    Japan's labor markets are clearly segmented between regular and irregular workers. Regular workers enjoy employment stability, good wages and promotion, and access to good pensions and health plans. Irregular workers-contract, dispatch and part time workers-can be fired easily, are paid less, and don't have access to fringe benefits. In Japan irregular work contracts have been progressively liberalized since the 1980s, and the share of irregular employment over the same time period has more than doubled to over one third of all workers. However, there are important cases of re-regulation. How can we account for Japan's specific policy path in regard...

  15. Do the rich speak louder? : examining whether U.S. Senators differentially respond to their constituents by income across issues

    Heaps, Elisha W. (Elisha Windi)
    This thesis examines the relationship between public opinion and the way senators vote on specific issues, and how this "responsiveness" might vary across income groups. The independent variable of interest, state-level income group preference, is estimated using multilevel regression and post-stratification (MRP) analysis. This is an improvement over earlier methods, particularly when modeling income group level opinion where there are insufficient sample sizes in national surveys. Income group opinions are found to be distinct across issue areas and the top ten percent of the income bracket are found to hold different opinions when compared to a more inclusively defined high-income...

  16. Enlightened self-interest : how the national economy, ideology, and anti-Americanism influence public opinion on foreign investment

    Lawrence, Joyce (Joyce Marie)
    Despite the benefits of economic globalization, popular opposition to foreign investment continues to influence policy debates. What explains opposition to foreign investment? Standard political economy theories suggest that support for international trade, immigration, and investment all depend on the impact these policies have on potential earnings in the labor market. According to standard models, those who stand to benefit economically from international exchange are expected to be more supportive than those who will face increased competition and declining wages. An analysis of four cross-national surveys from 57 countries provides empirical evidence that public opinion on foreign investment is not determined...

  17. Broadcast news and abortion : the effects of conservative narratives on the reproductive health debate

    Jenssen, Mark (Mark Peter)
    How have changes in the elite discussion of reproductive health narratives affected the debate on abortion and influenced state legislation and popular opinion? Using analysis of broadcast transcripts from CNN and FOX News, I examine the arguments articulated by politicians, activists, and members of the media on issues concerning reproductive health. I argue that, beginning in 1996, conservatives used the venue provided by broadcast media to seize on changes to the political climate and frame debate to their advantage. Continually, conservatives forced liberals into reactionary positions through discussion of "partial-birth abortion," expansion of narratives, and-most recently-misinformation. By dictating the terms...

  18. China's policy towards US adversaries

    Swartz, Peter Goodings
    If the Chinese government is trying to reassure the US that China's rise is not threatening, why does China diplomatically support adversaries of the US such as Iran, Sudan, Libya, and Syria? This thesis shows that soft balancing against the US in concert with Russia best explains China's foreign policy towards these states. Economic interest and a number of other alternative theories, in contrast, do not explain the observed variation in China's policy. Critics of soft balancing have overstated their case; concrete instances of soft-balancing behavior are present in the international system.

  19. Population strategies to decrease sodium intake : a global cost-effectiveness analysis

    Webb, Michael William, S.M. Massachusetts Institute of Technology
    Excessive sodium consumption is both prevalent and very costly in many countries around the world. Recent research has found that more than 90% of the world's adult population live in countries with mean intakes exceeding the World Health Organization's recommendation, and that more than a million deaths every year may be attributable to excess sodium. This study uses a simulation model to estimate, for the first time, the cost-effectiveness of government interventions to reduce population sodium consumption in every country in the world. It reveals substantial heterogeneity in cost-effectiveness by country that has never before been identified, and illustrates, also...

  20. Japan's delayed antinuclear power mobilization after 3.11

    Teo, Lin Ern Charis
    The meltdown of Fukushima Daiichi's nuclear plant was one of three disasters that rocked Japan on 11 March 2011, a day often referred to as "3.11." This nuclear accident led to increased attention to and disapproval of nuclear power among the Japanese public. However, despite widespread antinuclear sentiment, the public did not mobilize into sustained mass protests until June 2012. Using historical and contemporary comparisons, this thesis shows that Japan's 15- month delay in antinuclear mobilization was unusual. Both the 1979 Three Mile Island and the 1986 Chernobyl accidents had been quickly followed by mobilized protests. Moreover, the 3.11 Fukushima...

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