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DSpace at MIT (104.280 recursos)

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Health Sciences and Technology - Master's degree

Mostrando recursos 1 - 20 de 144

  1. The Disque Platform for the investigation of islet differentiation to study, treat, and cure Type 1 Diabetes

    Jones, Peter Anthony S.M. Massachusetts Institute of Technology
    There is a critical health care need to generate large numbers of beta cells for transplantation. In Type 1 Diabetes (T1D), insulin-producing beta cells in the islets of Langerhans within the pancreas, which support glucose homeostasis, are destroyed in an autoimmune attack. The ensuing loss of glycemic control leads to serious complications, requiring life-long insulin injections and close monitoring, while shortening lifespan by 11-13 years. In the face of a three percent annual increase in T1D incidence, there is a grave lack of transplantable material, and very few patients are able to receive an islet transplant each year. Recent advances...

  2. The Disque Platform for the investigation of islet differentiation to study, treat, and cure Type 1 Diabetes

    Jones, Peter Anthony S.M. Massachusetts Institute of Technology
    There is a critical health care need to generate large numbers of beta cells for transplantation. In Type 1 Diabetes (T1D), insulin-producing beta cells in the islets of Langerhans within the pancreas, which support glucose homeostasis, are destroyed in an autoimmune attack. The ensuing loss of glycemic control leads to serious complications, requiring life-long insulin injections and close monitoring, while shortening lifespan by 11-13 years. In the face of a three percent annual increase in T1D incidence, there is a grave lack of transplantable material, and very few patients are able to receive an islet transplant each year. Recent advances...

  3. Can the phased array stimulation strategy be implemented using the advanced bionics cochlear implant?

    Crema, Matthew V
    Cochlear implants are devices that aim to restore a measure of hearing to the deaf by converting acoustic signals to electric stimuli delivered to electrodes implanted in the inner ear. Theoretically, the phased array stimulation strategy described by van den Honert and Kelsall (2007) provides much better control over the neural excitation patters elicited by electric stimulation by taking advantage of potential field superposition in the implanted cochlea, to construct stimuli for optimally selective excitation of auditory nerve fibers. If the phased array strategy can be implemented using a commonly-implanted commercial cochlear implant system, the strategy could be effectively evaluated...

  4. Phonological working memory and finiteness marking in typical development

    Ostrovskaya, Irina
    The goal of this work was to characterize the maturational trajectory of two core developmental language functions: phonological working memory (PWM) as indexed on nonword repetition (NWR) tasks, and finiteness-related grammatical processing, as indexed by grammaticality judgment. These fundamental language abilities make particularly alluring candidates for investigation due to their central role in language development and academic achievement as well as their theoretical basis. Moreover, PWM and finiteness-marking appear to have genetic bases (e.g., Bishop, Adams, & Norbury, 2006) are powerful markers of language impairment (Conti-Ramsden, Botting, & Faragher, 2001), highlighting the clinical significance of these abilities. PWM, the capacity...

  5. Single-molecule visualization of conformational changes in the SecA ATPase

    Sargent, Jacob D. (Jacob Daniel)
    The need for new antibiotics is great as bacterial strains with single and multiple drug resistance have continued to grow more prevalent since the 1980's. At the same time, the rate of approval of new antibiotics has dropped precipitously. Existing antibiotics commonly target the bacterial ribosome. A or cell wall synthetic pathways: two targets that are essential for bacterial survival. However, another option is to target a pathway which is more intimately connected to bacterial pathogenesis: protein secretion. In bacteria, most secreted polypeptides are pushed across the membrane, via the SecYEG channel, by the SecA ATPase. Relatively little is understood...

  6. Use of wearable ambulatory monitor in the classification of movement states in Parkinson's disease

    Klapper, David A. (David Asher), 1966-
    For Parkinson's patients to function at their best, their medications need to be optimally adjusted to the diurnal variation of symptoms. For this to occur, it is important for the managing clinician to have an accurate picture of how the patient's bradykinesia/hypokinesia and dyskinesia fluctuate throughout the normal daily activities. This thesis proposes the use of wearable accelerometers coupled with machine learning and statistical techniques in order to classify the movement states of Parkinson's patients and to provide a timeline of how the patients fluctuate throughout the day. A pilot study was performed using 2 patients with the goal of...

  7. Novel endoscopes for microscopic assessment of airway clearance using micro-optical coherence tomography

    Unglert, Carolin Isabella
    The health of the human respiratory system depends critically on airway clearance via motile hair-like structures (cilia), which transport and eliminate unwanted particles trapped within mucus. Impairment of mucociliary clearance (MCC) can lead to life-threatening airway narrowing and lung infections, and is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with cystic fibrosis, primary ciliary dyskinesia and chronic obstructive lung disease. However, no tool for microscopic in-vivo visualization of ciliary function is currently available, limiting studies of disease pathogenesis, refined diagnosis and phenotyping, and the development of novel therapeutics. In this thesis, a novel, 1-pm resolution, optical interferometric imaging...

  8. Evidence of inner-ear mechanisms in bone conduction in chinchillas

    Chhan, David
    While much is known about the process of how airborne sound is conducted to the inner-ear via the outer ear and middle ear, so-called air conduction (AC), the mechanisms by which vibrations of the head and body, so-called bone conduction (BC), produce an auditory response are not well understood. It is clear that the inner ear is the sensory site of auditory stimulation by bone conduction, and that the resultant activation of the inner ear has many features in common with air-conduction stimulation; however, bone conduction is known to stimulate the inner ear through multiple pathways. The relative significance and...

  9. Retrieval mechanisms in sentence comprehension

    Whitlock, Jordan Ashley
    This work investigates the nature of the memory mechanisms utilized in language comprehension. Through the use of the Speed Accuracy Tradeoff (SAT) paradigm (Wickelgren, 1977), healthy young adults were studied for the use of parallel or serial search mechanisms to understand syntactically complex sentences with multiple embeddings. Systematically designed sentence stimuli tested whether the relevant memory mechanism differs when reanalysis is required. Results indicated that sentence length and syntactic ambiguity affected overall accuracy of sentence comprehension. The rate in which information was retrieved did not vary for most sentence types, but may have been affected by length in one type...

  10. The contribution of disease focused nonprofits to biomedical research and development

    Polis Schutz, Jordanna
    Patient-centered, disease-focused nonprofits are playing an increasingly prominent role in accelerating the development of new diagnostics, drugs, and therapies. They are engaging in a variety of complex venture philanthropic activities as they seek to bridge the "valley of death" gap between basic and clinical research. Examples of such activities include developing preclinical research tools, supporting clinical trials infrastructure, and investing in private biotechnology companies. In this thesis, 1: 1) quantify the financial contribution of US-based nonprofits to biomedical research and development (R&D) and the allocation to therapeutic areas; and 2) propose a framework for understanding the core functions of biomedical...

  11. A contrast agent for MRI of calcifications in breast cancer

    Marmurek, Jonathan
    Clinical x-ray mammography cannot delineate between hydroxyapatite and calcium oxalate, the respective forms of calcification in malignant and benign breast tumors. The water-poor nature of solid calcifications makes them difficult to image by conventional MRI. Recently, ultra-short echo time (UTE) MRI has enabled detection of solid calcified structures, but it is not specific to the underlying chemical composition. This thesis presents a hydroxyapatite-targeted gadolinium contrast agent for UTE MRI of calcification in malignant breast cancer. The hydroxyapatite-targeted contrast agent was synthesized by conjugating a bisphosphonate, pamidronate, to a gadolinium chelate. Binding specificity was tested by UTE MRI of the contrast...

  12. Synthesis of composite hydrogels incorporating D,L-cyclic peptide nanotubes as a platform for materials engineering

    Tay, Pei Kun Richie
    Composite hydrogels find increasing use as biomaterials because the addition of a filler often improves on the material properties of the original matrix, or provides new optical, magnetic, conductive or bioactive functionalities not inherent to the hydrogel. In this work we synthesized nanocomposite gelatin methacrylate (GelMA) hydrogels that incorporate D,L-cyclic peptide nanotubes. These nanotubes are biocompatible, stiff and their physical and chemical properties can be tailored simply by changing the amino acid sequence of the peptide. We show that the nanotubes successfully integrated into the hydrogel matrix and provided some mechanical reinforcement, without affecting hydrogel porosity or hydration characteristics. We...

  13. Disease marketing and patient coping : a research study

    Lau, Hew Mun
    BACKGROUND: There is a high prevalence of disease marketing actions in the United States that are targeted towards patients with chronic illness. However, no study has assessed the direct effects of these marketing actions on patient coping attitudes and behaviors. OBJECTIVES: This study aims to investigate whether the mere presence of disease marketing impacts patient coping and if so, how do they affect patients' coping attitudes and behaviors. METHODS: We conducted a controlled experiment using online questionnaires to assess the disease perceptions, coping decisions and disease disclosure behaviors of 108 subjects. The subjects were divided into two groups where the...

  14. From bench to bedside : impact of conflict-of-interest restrictions at academic medical centers on clinical trials

    Campbell, Elyssa Sarah
    Successful translation of scientific discovery into new medicines is most successful with collaboration between academics - scientists and physicians - and industry. In recent years, there has been increasing concern at academic medical centers about the impact of relationships with industry on patient care and student education. This has generally resulted in more stringent conflict-of-interest rules. This paper seeks to better understand the impact of these conflict-of-interest rules. In the first part, it explores research to-date on the importance of relationships between industry and academia and discusses some of the concerns that have arisen. In the second part, this relationship...

  15. Opportunities and challenges in oncology targeted drug development : an assessment of the use of prevalence and companion diagnostic performance thresholds to guide clinical trial strategies

    Vital, Heather Stacey Tomkinson
    Targeted, especially stratified or biomarker-guided, therapies offer significant advantages over traditional oncology therapies in certain settings. Selecting patients most likely to respond to a drug increases the therapeutic efficacy while reducing toxicities and may accelerate regulatory approval since smaller clinical trials are needed to demonstrate benefit. Several drugs, including vemurafenib and crizotinib have demonstrated these benefits along with commercial success. However, significant risk exists for the drug developer since approval may be threatened if they fail to meet unclear and differing yet parallel requirements for both the drug and the required companion diagnostic. Tumor biology is also increasingly complex since...

  16. Market incentives for pandemic influenza vaccines

    Preis, Julia Kay
    It has been estimated that 100 million plus individuals could perish if a virulent influenza pandemic were to occur. In wake of the 2009-10 H1N1 pandemic and in an era of economic austerity, however, industry lacks clear incentives to invest in vaccines for other high-risk strains. The cyclic nature of pandemics also means we can expect another influenza pandemic within the next 20 years. In this environment, design of incentive mechanisms for funding development of vaccines against strains with known pandemic potential, but for whom vaccine technology is currently lacking, would be welcomed. This research explores which novel incentive mechanisms...

  17. Economic potential of a point-of-care CD4+ T cell count diagnostic in Mexico : a case study for low-end disruption diagnostics in middle of the pyramid Latin America

    Camargo Támara, Mauricio
    Disruptive models of innovation are starting to appear in healthcare. In the US, for instance, retail medicine clinics are changing the way in which patients satisfy their basic medical needs. In Mexico, similar retail medicine models (e.g. Farmacias Similares) are also disrupting healthcare delivery for basic medical needs. Disruptive innovations, however, are not limited to healthcare delivery, but also change the face of devices and diagnostics markets. A low CD4+ T cell count is the primary clinical indicator for HIV/AIDS disease progression, and thus is used as the primary trigger to initiate antiretroviral therapy. An entire diagnostic industry has emerged...

  18. Assessment of the appropriateness and market opportunity of a point-of-care diagnostic solution for hepatitis C in the United States

    Rocker, Charlotte (Charlotte Amanda Lucy)
    Hepatitis C (HCV) is the most common bloodborne infection in the United States. Although the incidence of HCV is declining, the burden of the disease is rising, driven by the increasing rates of end-stage liver disease and other consequences of advanced HCV infection. According to a 2009 report, the number of patients with advanced liver disease will quadruple over the next 20 years; in that time, total medical costs for patients with HCV infection are expected nearly to triple, from $30 billion to more than $85 billion. Given the limitations of current treatments and diagnostic technologies, HCV often goes undiagnosed...

  19. Understanding the drivers of value creation for biopharmaceuticals around the time of drug launch

    You, Sung Min
    The purpose of this research is to investigate potential strategic variables that executives at small to mid-sized biopharmaceutical companies should consider during the period of a drug launch. Bringing a product to market is a critical event for any biopharmaceutical company. It marks a major turning point within the biopharmaceutical's lifecycle and the company that can successfully launch a product will be viewed as a different asset class. Therefore, it is critical to understand potential drivers of the value and to encourage executives to raise probing questions when they are considering the next round of financing or whether to provide...

  20. Pricing and reimbursement challenges for fixed dose combination cardiovascular drugs and intravenous oncologies

    Cronin-Fine, Drew
    Over the past ten years there has been increasing public concern regarding the rising costs of pharmaceuticals. Drug expenditure is the fastest growing sector of healthcare costs in the United States. The structure of the U.S. healthcare system allows pharmaceutical companies to freely price their drugs. Then payers decide whether and how to cover these drugs. Payers have at their disposal several utilization management tools, such as tiering and prior authorizations, to steer their members to less costly drugs. However, the ability of payers to implement these tools varies significantly depending on whether the drug is covered under the pharmaceutical...

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