NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
The NTRS is a valuable resource for students, educators, researchers, and the public for access to NASA's current and historical technical literature since it was first released in 1994. NTRS provides access to approximately 500K aerospace related citations, 90K full-text online documents, and 111K images and videos. NTRS numbers continues to grow over time as new scientific and technical information (STI) is created or funded by NASA. The type of information found in NTRS include: conference papers, images, journal articles, photos, meeting papers, movies, patents, research reports, and technical videos.
Multi-Tone Millimeter-Wave Frequency Synthesizer for Atmospheric Propagation Studies - Simons, Rainee N.; Wintucky, Edwin G.
This paper presents the design and test results of a multi-tone millimeter-wave frequency synthesizer, based on a solid-state frequency comb generator. The intended application of the synthesizer is in a space-borne transmitter for radio wave atmospheric studies at Q-band (37 to 43 GHz). These studies would enable the design of robust high data rate space-to-ground satellite communication links.
Project Assessment Framework through Design (PAFTD) - A Project Assessment Framework in Support of Strategic Decision Making - Balint, Tibor S.; Depenbrock, Brett T.; Sheehy, Jeffrey A.
Research and development organizations that push the innovation edge of technology frequently encounter challenges when attempting to identify an investment strategy and to accurately forecast the cost and schedule performance of selected projects. Fast moving and complex environments require managers to quickly analyze and diagnose the value of returns on investment versus allocated resources. Our Project Assessment Framework through Design (PAFTD) tool facilitates decision making for NASA senior leadership to enable more strategic and consistent technology development investment analysis, beginning at implementation and continuing through the project life cycle. The framework takes an integrated approach by leveraging design principles of...
The Evolution of System Safety at NASA - Everett, Chris; Groen, Frank; Dezfuli, Homayoon
The NASA system safety framework is in the process of change, motivated by the desire to promote an objectives-driven approach to system safety that explicitly focuses system safety efforts on system-level safety performance, and serves to unify, in a purposeful manner, safety-related activities that otherwise might be done in a way that results in gaps, redundancies, or unnecessary work. An objectives-driven approach to system safety affords more flexibility to determine, on a system-specific basis, the means by which adequate safety is achieved and verified. Such flexibility and efficiency is becoming increasingly important in the face of evolving engineering modalities and...
Simulations of the Mid-Pliocene Warm Period Using Two Versions of the NASA-GISS ModelE2-R Coupled Model - Chandler, M. A.; Sohl, L. E.; Dowsett, H. J.; Jonas, J. A.; Kelley, M.
The mid-Pliocene Warm Period (mPWP) bears many similarities to aspects of future global warming as projected by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC, 2007). Both marine and terrestrial data point to high-latitude temperature amplification, including large decreases in sea ice and land ice, as well as expansion of warmer climate biomes into higher latitudes. Here we present our most recent simulations of the mid-Pliocene climate using the CMIP5 version of the NASAGISS Earth System Model (ModelE2-R). We describe the substantial impact associated with a recent correction made in the implementation of the Gent-McWilliams ocean mixing scheme (GM), which has...
Stationarity of the Tropical Pacific Teleconnection to North America in CMIP5 PMIP3 Model Simulations - Smerdon, Jason E.; Coats, Sloan; Seager, Richard; Cook, Benjamin I.
The temporal stationarity of the teleconnection between the tropical Pacific Ocean and North America (NA) is analyzed in atmosphere-only, and coupled last-millennium, historical, and control runs from the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 data archive. The teleconnection, defined as the correlation between December-January-February (DJF) tropical Pacific sea surface temperatures (SSTs) and DJF 200 mb geopotential height, is found to be nonstationary on multidecadal timescales. There are significant changes in the spatial features of the teleconnection over NA in continuous 56-year segments of the last millennium and control simulations. Analysis of atmosphere-only simulations forced with observed SSTs indicates that atmospheric...
Intensification of North American Megadroughts through Surface and Dust Aerosol Forcing - Seager, Richard; Cook, Benjamin I.; Miller, Ron L.; Mason, Joseph A
Tree-ring-based reconstructions of the Palmer drought severity index (PDSI) indicate that, during the Medieval Climate Anomaly (MCA), the central plains of North America experienced recurrent periods of drought spanning decades or longer. These megadroughts had exceptional persistence compared to more recent events, but the causes remain uncertain. The authors conducted a suite of general circulation model experiments to test the impact of sea surface temperature (SST) and land surface forcing on the MCA megadroughts over the central plains. The land surface forcing is represented as a set of dune mobilization boundary conditions, derived from available geomorphological evidence and modeled as...
The Discovery of Pulsating Hot Subdwarfs in NGC 2808 - Sweigert, Allen V.; Landsman, Wayne B.; Lanz, Thierry; Randall, Suzanna K.; Brown, Thomas M.
We present the results of a Hubble Space Telescope program to search for pulsating hot subdwarfs in the core of NGC 2808. These observations were motivated by the recent discovery of such stars in the outskirts of Omega Cen. Both NGC 2808 and Cen are massive globular clusters exhibiting complex stellar populations and large numbers of extreme horizontal branch stars. Our far-UV photometric monitoring of over 100 hot evolved stars has revealed six pulsating subdwarfs with periods ranging from 85 to 149 s and UV amplitudes of 2.0%-6.8%. In the UV color-magnitude diagram of NGC 2808, all six of these...
A Single-column Model Ensemble Approach Applied to the TWP-ICE Experiment - Hume, T.; DelGenio, A.; Song, X.; Davies, L.; Lin, Y.; Cheung, K.; Keane, R. J.; Plant, R. S.; Hill, A.; Larson, V. E.; Wang, W.; Wolf, A.; Jakob, C.; Petch, J.; Zhang, G.; Singh, M. S.; Whithall, M. A.; Xie, S.; Nielsen, B. J.; Shi, X.; Liu, X.; Komori, T.
Single-column models (SCM) are useful test beds for investigating the parameterization schemes of numerical weather prediction and climate models. The usefulness of SCM simulations are limited, however, by the accuracy of the best estimate large-scale observations prescribed. Errors estimating the observations will result in uncertainty in modeled simulations. One method to address the modeled uncertainty is to simulate an ensemble where the ensemble members span observational uncertainty. This study first derives an ensemble of large-scale data for the Tropical Warm Pool International Cloud Experiment (TWP-ICE) based on an estimate of a possible source of error in the best estimate product....
Amino Acids Generated from Hydrated Titan Tholins: Comparison with Miller-Urey Electric Discharge Products - Callahan, Michael P.; Neish, Catherine; Parker, Eric; Dworkin, Jason P.; Fernandez, Facundo M.; Cleaves, H. James, II
Various analogues of Titan haze particles (termed tholins) have been made in the laboratory. In certain geologic environments on Titan, these haze particles may come into contact with aqueous ammonia (NH3) solutions, hydrolyzing them into molecules of astrobiological interest. A Titan tholin analogue hydrolyzed in aqueous NH3 at room temperature for 2.5 years was analyzed for amino acids using highly sensitive ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled with fluorescence detection and time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UHPLC-FDToF-MS) analysis after derivatization with a fluorescent tag. We compare here the amino acids produced from this reaction sequence with those generated from room temperature Miller-Urey (MU)...
Comparison of Spectral Radiance Calibration Techniques Used for Backscatter Ultraviolet Satellite Instruments - Kowalewski, Matthew G.; Janz, Scott
Methods for determining the absolute radiometric calibration sensitivities of backscatter ultraviolet (BUV) satellite instruments are compared as part of an effort to minimize pre-launch calibration errors. An internally illuminated integrating sphere source has been used for the Shuttle Solar BUV (SSBUV), Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS), Ozone Mapping Instrument (OMI), and Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment 2 (GOME-2) using standardized procedures traceable to national standards. These sphere-based sensitivities agree to within three percent [k equals 2] relative to calibrations performed using an external diffuser illuminated by standard irradiance sources, the customary radiance calibration method for BUV instruments. The uncertainty for these...
Tracking the Momentum Flux of a CME and Quantifying Its Influence on Geomagnetically Induced Currents at Earth - Vourlidas, A.; Nieves-Chinchilla, T.; Pulkkinen, A.; Lavraud, B.; Savani, N. P.; Owens, M. J.
We investigate a coronal mass ejection (CME) propagating toward Earth on 29 March 2011. This event is specifically chosen for its predominately northward directed magnetic field, so that the influence from the momentum flux onto Earth can be isolated. We focus our study on understanding how a small Earth-directed segment propagates. Mass images are created from the white-light cameras onboard STEREO which are also converted into mass height-time maps (mass J-maps). The mass tracks on these J-maps correspond to the sheath region between the CME and its associated shockfront as detected by in situ measurements at L1. A time series...
Enhanced Deep Blue Aerosol Retrieval Algorithm: The Second Generation - Hansell, R.; Seftor, C. S.; Sayer, A. M.; Bettenhausen, C.; Hsu, N. C.; Huang, J.; Jeong, M.-J.; Tsay, S.-C.
The aerosol products retrieved using the MODIS collection 5.1 Deep Blue algorithm have provided useful information about aerosol properties over bright-reflecting land surfaces, such as desert, semi-arid, and urban regions. However, many components of the C5.1 retrieval algorithm needed to be improved; for example, the use of a static surface database to estimate surface reflectances. This is particularly important over regions of mixed vegetated and non- vegetated surfaces, which may undergo strong seasonal changes in land cover. In order to address this issue, we develop a hybrid approach, which takes advantage of the combination of pre-calculated surface reflectance database and...
Influence of Ice Particle Surface Roughening on the Global Cloud Radiative Effect - Mlawer, Eli J.; Liou, Kuo-Nan; Yi, Bingqi; LEcuyer, Tristan; Yang, Ping; Baum, Bryan A.; Heymsfield, Andrew J.; Oreopoulos, Lazaros
Ice clouds influence the climate system by changing the radiation budget and large-scale circulation. Therefore, climate models need to have an accurate representation of ice clouds and their radiative effects. In this paper, new broadband parameterizations for ice cloud bulk scattering properties are developed for severely roughened ice particles. The parameterizations are based on a general habit mixture that includes nine habits (droxtals, hollow/solid columns, plates, solid/hollow bullet rosettes, aggregate of solid columns, and small/large aggregates of plates). The scattering properties for these individual habits incorporate recent advances in light-scattering computations. The influence of ice particle surface roughness on the...
Microorganism Utilization for Synthetic Milk Production - Hummerick, Mary; Richards, Jeffrey; Birmele, Michele; Spencer, Lashelle; Wheeler, Ray; Morford, Megan; Khodadad, Christina; Caro, Janicce; Strayer, Richard
A desired architecture for long duration spaceflight, such as aboard the International Space Station (ISS) or for future missions to Mars, is to provide a supply of fresh food crops for the astronauts. However, some crops can create a high proportion of inedible plant waste. The main goal of this project was to produce the components of milk (sugar, lipid, protein) from inedible plant waste by utilizing microorganisms (fungi, yeast, bacteria). Of particular interest was utilizing the valuable polysaccharide, cellulose, found in plant waste, to naturally fuel- through microorganism cellular metabolism- the creation of sugar (glucose), lipid (milk fat), and...
Visible-Light Responsive Catalysts Using Quantum Dot-Modified TiO2 for Air and Water Purification - Coutts, Janelle L.; Hintze, Paul E.; Clausen, Christian A.; Richards, Jeffrey T.
Photocatalysis, the oxidation or reduction of contaminants by light-activated catalysts, utilizing titanium dioxide (TiO2) as the catalytic substrate has been widely studied for trace contaminant control in both air and water applications. The interest in this process is due primarily to its low energy consumption and capacity for catalyst regeneration. Titanium dioxide requires ultraviolet light for activation due to its relatively large band gap energy of 3.2 eV. Traditionally, Hg-vapor fluorescent light sources are used in PCO reactors; however, the use of mercury precludes the use of this PCO technology in a spaceflight environment due to concerns over crew Hg...
Design and Control of Compliant Tensegrity Robots Through Simulation and Hardware Validation - Despraz, Jeremie; Schrauwen, Benjamin; Caluwaerts, Ken; Bruce, Jonathan; Iscen, Atil; Sabelhaus, Andrew P.; Sunspiral, Vytas
To better understand the role of tensegrity structures in biological systems and their application to robotics, the Dynamic Tensegrity Robotics Lab at NASA Ames Research Center has developed and validated two different software environments for the analysis, simulation, and design of tensegrity robots. These tools, along with new control methodologies and the modular hardware components developed to validate them, are presented as a system for the design of actuated tensegrity structures. As evidenced from their appearance in many biological systems, tensegrity ("tensile-integrity") structures have unique physical properties which make them ideal for interaction with uncertain environments. Yet these characteristics, such...
Simulation Evaluation of Controller-Managed Spacing Tools under Realistic Operational Conditions - Callantine, Todd J.; Hunt, Sarah M.; Prevot, Thomas
Controller-Managed Spacing (CMS) tools have been developed to aid air traffic controllers in managing high volumes of arriving aircraft according to a schedule while enabling them to fly efficient descent profiles. The CMS tools are undergoing refinement in preparation for field demonstration as part of NASA's Air Traffic Management (ATM) Technology Demonstration-1 (ATD-1). System-level ATD-1 simulations have been conducted to quantify expected efficiency and capacity gains under realistic operational conditions. This paper presents simulation results with a focus on CMS-tool human factors. The results suggest experienced controllers new to the tools find them acceptable and can use them effectively in...
Human Factors of Remotely Piloted Aircraft - Hobbs, Alan Neville
The civilian use of remotely piloted, or unmanned aircraft is expected to increase rapidly in the years ahead. Despite being referred to as unmanned some of the major challenges confronting this emerging sector relate to human factors. As unmanned aircraft systems (UAS) are introduced into civil airspace, a failure to adequately consider human factors could result in preventable accidents that may not only result in loss of life, but may also undermine public confidence in remotely piloted operations. Key issues include pilot situational awareness, collision avoidance in the absence of an out-the-window view, the effects of time delays in communication...
The Development of Human Factor Guidelines for Unmanned Aircraft System Control Stations - Hobbs, Alan
Despite being referred to as unmanned some of the major challenges confronting unmanned aircraft systems (UAS) relate to human factors. NASA is conducting research to address the human factors relevant to UAS access to non-segregated airspace. This work covers the issues of pilot performance, interaction with ATC, and control station design. A major outcome of this research will be recommendations for human factors design guidelines for UAS control stations to support routine beyond-line-of-sight operations in the US national airspace system (NAS). To be effective, guidelines must be relevant to a wide range of systems, must not be overly prescriptive, and...