NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
The NTRS is a valuable resource for students, educators, researchers, and the public for access to NASA's current and historical technical literature since it was first released in 1994. NTRS provides access to approximately 500K aerospace related citations, 90K full-text online documents, and 111K images and videos. NTRS numbers continues to grow over time as new scientific and technical information (STI) is created or funded by NASA. The type of information found in NTRS include: conference papers, images, journal articles, photos, meeting papers, movies, patents, research reports, and technical videos.
Variation with Temperature of the Recombination of Oxygen Atoms on a Platinum Surface - Petrus, Helen M.; Fryburg, George C.
The development of vehicles capable of flight at high Mach speeds and at extreme altitudes has re-stimulated interest in the "catalytic efficiency" of metals for recombination of atomic species of hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen. Most of the work to date has been of an exploratory nature, comparing the relative efficiencies of the different metals.
Compositional and Microstructural Evolution of Olivine During Pulsed Laser Irradiation: Insights Based on a FIB/Field-Emission TEM Study - Baragiola, R. A.; Christoffersen, R.; Loeffler, M. J.; Dukes, C. A.
Introduction: The use of pulsed laser irradiation to simulate the short duration, high-energy conditions characteristic of micrometeorite impacts is now an established approach in experimental space weathering studies. The laser generates both melt and vapor deposits that contain nanophase metallic Fe (npFe(sup 0)) grains with size distributions and optical properties similar to those in natural impact-generated melt and vapor deposits. There remains uncertainty, however, about how well lasers simulate the mechanical work and internal (thermal) energy partitioning that occurs in actual impacts. We are currently engaged in making a direct comparison between the products of laser irradiation and experimental/natural hypervelocity...
Carbon and Oxygen Isotope Measurements of Ordinary Chondrite (OC) Meteorites from Antarctica Indicate Distinct Carbonate Species Using a Stepped Acid Extraction Procedure - Evans, Michael E.
The purpose of this study is to characterize the stable isotope values of terrestrial, secondary carbonate minerals from five Ordinary Chondrite (OC) meteorites collected in Antarctica. These samples were identified and requested from NASA based upon their size, alteration history, and collection proximity to known Martian meteorites. They are also assumed to be carbonate-free before falling to Earth. This research addresses two questions involving Mars carbonates: 1) characterize terrestrial, secondary carbonate isotope values to apply to Martian meteorites for isolating in-situ carbonates, and 2) increase understanding of carbonates formed in cold and arid environments with Antarctica as an analog for...
Astronaut Clothing for Exploration Missions - Schesinger, Thilini; Poritz, Darwin H.; Orndoff, Evelyne; Kaspranskiy, Rustem R.; Byrne, Vicky
Astronaut clothes for exploration missions beyond low Earth orbit need to satisfy several challenges not met by the currently-used mostly-cotton clothing. A laundering system is not expected to be available, and thus soiled garments must be trashed. Jettisoning waste does not seem feasible at this time. The cabin oxygen concentration is expected to be higher than standard, and thus fabrics must better resist ignition and burning. Fabrics need to be identified that reduce logistical mass, that can be worn longer before disposal, that are at least as comfortable as cotton, and that resist ignition or that char immediately after ignition....
Results from Carbon Dioxide Washout Testing Using a Suited Manikin Test Apparatus with a Space Suit Ventilation Test Loop - Kanne, Bryan; McMillin, Summer; Conger, Bruce; Swickrath, Mike; Chullen, Cinda; Vonau, Walt
NASA is developing an advanced portable life support system (PLSS) to meet the needs of a new NASA advanced space suit. The PLSS is one of the most critical aspects of the space suit providing the necessary oxygen, ventilation, and thermal protection for an astronaut performing a spacewalk. The ventilation subsystem in the PLSS must provide sufficient carbon dioxide (CO2) removal and ensure that the CO2 is washed away from the oronasal region of the astronaut. CO2 washout is a term used to describe the mechanism by which CO2 levels are controlled within the helmet to limit the concentration of...
Advanced Supported Liquid Membranes for Carbon Dioxide Control in Cabin Applications - Chullen, Cinda; Engel, Jeffrey R.; Gleason, Kevin J.; Wickham, David T.
The development of new, robust, life support systems is critical to NASA's continued progress in space exploration. One vital function is maintaining the carbon dioxide (CO2) concentration in the cabin at levels that do not impair the health or performance of the crew. The CO2 removal assembly (CDRA) is the current CO2 control technology on-board the International Space Station (ISS). Although the CDRA has met the needs of the ISS to date, the repeated cycling of the molecular sieve sorbent causes it to break down into small particles that clog filters or generate dust in the cabin. This reduces reliability...
U.S. Spacesuit Knowledge Capture Accomplishments in Fiscal Year 2015 - Chullen, Cinda; Oliva, Vladenka R.
The NASA U.S. Spacesuit Knowledge Capture (SKC) Program continues to capture, share, and archive significant spacesuit-related knowledge with engineers and other technical staff and invested entities. Since its 2007 inception, the SKC Program has hosted and recorded more than 65 events. By the end of Fiscal Year (FY) 2015, 40 of these were processed and uploaded to a publically accessible NASA Web site where viewers can expand their knowledge about the spacesuit's evolution, known capability and limitations, and lessons learned. Sharing this knowledge with entities beyond NASA can increase not only more people's understanding of the technical effort and importance...
Optical Breath Gas Extravehicular Activity Sensor for the Advanced Portable Life Support System - Casias, Miguel E.; Campbell, Colin; Wood, William R.; Chullen, Cinda; Pilgrim, Jeffrey S.
The function of the infrared gas transducer used during extravehicular activity (EVA) in the current space suit is to measure and report the concentration of carbon dioxide (CO2) in the ventilation loop. The next generation portable life support system (PLSS) requires highly accurate CO2 sensing technology with performance beyond that presently in use on the International Space Station extravehicular mobility unit (EMU). Further, that accuracy needs to be provided over the full operating pressure range of the suit (3 to 25 psia). Accommodation within space suits demands that optical sensors meet stringent size, weight, and power requirements. A laser diode...
Phobos Mobility Simulation - Bielski, Paul
Phobos, the larger of Mars' moons, provides a potential staging location for human exploration of the Martian surface. Its low gravity (about 1/200th of Earth) and lack of atmosphere makes it an attractive destination before a more complex human landing on Mars is attempted. While easier to approach and depart than Mars itself, Phobos provides unique challenges to visiting crews. It is irregularly shaped, so its local gravitational field does not always point straight down with respect to the visible horizon. It is very close to Mars and tidally locked, so the Martian gravity gradient and applied acceleration greatly affect...
Automated Point Cloud Correspondence Detection for Underwater Mapping Using AUVs - Mahajan, Aditya; Rock, Stephen; Clark, Ashley; Sharma, Sumant; Hammond, Marcus
An algorithm for automating correspondence detection between point clouds composed of multibeam sonar data is presented. This allows accurate initialization for point cloud alignment techniques even in cases where accurate inertial navigation is not available, such as iceberg profiling or vehicles with low-grade inertial navigation systems. Techniques from computer vision literature are used to extract, label, and match keypoints between "pseudo-images" generated from these point clouds. Image matches are refined using RANSAC and information about the vehicle trajectory. The resulting correspondences can be used to initialize an iterative closest point (ICP) registration algorithm to estimate accumulated navigation error and aid...
Processes Modifying Cratered Terrains on Pluto - Moore, J. M.
The July encounter with Pluto by the New Horizons spacecraft permitted imaging of its cratered terrains with scales as high as approximately 100 m/pixel, and in stereo. In the initial download of images, acquired at 2.2 km/pixel, widely distributed impact craters up to 260 km diameter are seen in the near-encounter hemisphere. Many of the craters appear to be significantly degraded or infilled. Some craters appear partially destroyed, perhaps by erosion such as associated with the retreat of scarps. Bright ice-rich deposits highlight some crater rims and/or floors. While the cratered terrains identified in the initial downloaded images are generally...
Geology of Pluto and Charon Overview - Moore, Jeffrey Morgan
Pluto's surface was found to be remarkably diverse in terms of its range of landforms, terrain ages, and inferred geological processes. There is a latitudinal zonation of albedo. The conspicuous bright albedo heart-shaped feature informally named Tombaugh Regio is comprised of several terrain types. Most striking is Texas-sized Sputnik Planum, which is apparently level, has no observable craters, and is divided by polygons and ovoids bounded by shallow troughs. Small smooth hills are seen in some of the polygon-bounding troughs. These hills could either be extruded or exposed by erosion. Sputnik Planum polygon/ovoid formation hypotheses range from convection to contraction,...
Unsteady Loss in the Stator Due to the Incoming Rotor Wake in a Highly-Loaded Transonic Compressor - Hah, Chunill
The present paper reports an investigation of unsteady loss generation in the stator due to the incoming rotor wake in an advanced GE transonic compressor design with a high-fidelity numerical method. This advanced compressor with high reaction and high stage loading has been investigated both experimentally and analytically in the past. The measured efficiency in this advanced compressor is significantly lower than the design intention/goal. The general understanding is that the current generation of compressor design/analysis tools miss some important flow physics in this modern compressor design. To pinpoint the source of the efficiency miss, an advanced test with a...
Enhanced Performance of Streamline-Traced External-Compression Supersonic Inlets - Slater, John W.
A computational design study was conducted to enhance the aerodynamic performance of streamline-traced, external-compression inlets for Mach 1.6. Compared to traditional external-compression, two-dimensional and axisymmetric inlets, streamline-traced inlets promise reduced cowl wave drag and sonic boom, but at the expense of reduced total pressure recovery and increased total pressure distortion. The current study explored a new parent flowfield for the streamline tracing and several variations of inlet design factors, including the axial displacement and angle of the subsonic cowl lip, the vertical placement of the engine axis, and the use of porous bleed in the subsonic diffuser. The performance was...
Small Business Innovation Research, Post-Phase II Opportunity Assessment - Nguyen, Hung D.; Steele, Gynelle C.
This report outlines current Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) Post-Phase II opportunity contract award results for the SBIR technology program from 2007 to 2011 for NASA's Aeronautics Research Mission Directorate (ARMD), Human Exploration and Operations Mission Directorate (HEOMD), Science Mission Directorate (SMD), and Space Technology Mission Directorate (STMD). The report provides guidelines for incorporating SBIR technology into NASA programs and projects and provides a quantitative overview of the post-Phase II award patterns that correspond with each mission directorate at NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC). In recent years, one of NASA's goals has been to not only transfer SBIR technologies to...
CFD Validation Experiment of a Mach 2.5 Axisymmetric Shock-Wave/Boundary-Layer Interaction - Davis, David Owen
Preliminary results of an experimental investigation of a Mach 2.5 two-dimensional axisymmetric shock-wave/ boundary-layer interaction (SWBLI) are presented. The purpose of the investigation is to create a SWBLI dataset specifically for CFD validation purposes. Presented herein are the details of the facility and preliminary measurements characterizing the facility and interaction region. These results will serve to define the region of interest where more detailed mean and turbulence measurements will be made.
Acoustic Database for Turbofan Engine Core-Noise Sources - Gordon, Grant
In this program, a database of dynamic temperature and dynamic pressure measurements were acquired inside the core of a TECH977 turbofan engine to support investigations of indirect combustion noise. Dynamic temperature and pressure measurements were recorded for engine gas dynamics up to temperatures of 3100 degrees Fahrenheit and transient responses as high as 1000 hertz. These measurements were made at the entrance of the high pressure turbine (HPT) and at the entrance and exit of the low pressure turbine (LPT). Measurements were made at two circumferential clocking positions. In the combustor and inter-turbine duct (ITD), measurements were made at two...
An Experimental Investigation of the Flow Physics Associated With End Wall Losses and Large Rotor Tip Clearances as Found in the Rear Stages of a High Pressure Compressor - Key, Nicole L.; Berdanier, Reid A.
The focus of this work was to characterize the fundamental flow physics and the overall performance effects due to increased rotor tip clearance heights in axial compressors. Data have been collected in the three-stage axial research compressor at Purdue University with a specific focus on analyzing the multistage effects resulting from the tip leakage flow. Three separate rotor tip clearance heights were studied with nominal tip clearance heights of 1.5%, 3.0%, and 4.0% based on a constant annulus height. Overall compressor performance was investigated at four corrected speedlines (100%, 90%, 80%, and 68%) for each of the three tip clearance...
Aura OMI Observations of Global SO2 and NO2 Pollution from 2005 to 2013 - Marchenko, Sergey; Krotkov, Nickolay; Fioletov, Vitali; Duncan, Bryan; McLinden, Chris; Dickerson, Russ; Lamsal, Lok; Celarier, Edward; Joiner, Joanna; Swartz, William H.; Li, Can; Bucsela, Eric; Bhartia, Pawan K.
The Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI), a NASA partnership with the Netherlands and Finland, flies on the NASA Aura satellite and uses reflected sunlight to measure the two critical atmospheric trace gases: nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and sulfur dioxide (SO2) characterizing daily air quality. Both gases and the secondary pollutants they produce (particulate matter, PM2.5, and tropospheric ozone) are USEPA designated criteria pollutants, posing serious threats to human health and the environment (e.g., acid rain, plant damage and reduced visibility). Our group at NASA GSFC has developed and maintained OMI standard SO2 and NO2 data products. We have recently released an updated...