Recursos de colección

The KnowledgeBank at OSU (76.105 recursos)

Knowledge Bank contains collections of presentations, publications and reports related to Ohio State University.

Biomedical Sciences

Mostrando recursos 1 - 20 de 37

  1. Treatment of Traumatic Brain Injury Using Methylene Blue Infusion

    Moussa, Daniel
    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a significant epidemic worldwide. Our lab has shown that methylene blue (MB), a known anti-inflammatory compound, reduces acute inflammatory and behavioral deficits after TBI. Nevertheless, a single dose of MB was unable to significantly improve functional recovery following TBI. Here, we examined the neuroprotective effects of multiple doses of MB on functional recovery up to 7 days after TBI and LPS-mediated immune challenge one month after TBI. Adult BALB/c mice (2-3 mo) received a moderate, diffuse midline fluid percussion injury and were administered intravenous MB 15 min, 12 h, and 24 h after injury. MB...

  2. The Hedgehog Pathway in Triple Negative Breast Cancer

    Kaffenberger, Thomas
    Triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) is a common subtype of breast cancer comprising about 15% of the 230,000 new breast cancer cases every year. TNBC is named due to the lack of three common receptors that are prevalent in most breast cancer: Estrogen Receptorα (ERα), Progesterone Receptor (PR), and Human Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (HER2). Many breast tumors are induced through estrogen and ERα, but these can be treated with endocrine therapy which inhibits ERα. The lack of ERα and the other receptors limit drug options to chemotherapy regiments which tumors often develop resistance against. Consequently, it is important to...

  3. Measuring Infant Learning: A Novel Paradigm Utilizing End-Point Controlled Movements

    Driskill, Madelaine
    Introduction: The rate of preterm births is increasing and with developments in neonatal and obstetric care, more preterm infants are surviving. These infants are at risk for both motor and cognitive delays. With earlier diagnosis, earlier interventions can be performed to mediate problems in the preterm infant population. Motor and cognitive disorders, however, are difficult to diagnose in infancy. Currently, the Mobile Paradigm (MP) is used to test infant learning. This paradigm uses spontaneous movements to assess infant learning. The goal of this project is to develop a new method of testing infant learning and memory that uses end-point controlled...

  4. In vitro Anti-Tumor Efficacy of Trimeric in Head and Neck Cancer

    Ivancic, Ryan
    In this project, we will determine the anti-tumor activity of trimeric in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) cells. Trimeric is a novel formulation consisting of three natural products with known anti-cancer activity. The goal of the study was to assess the efficacy of trimeric, as a standard of chemotherapeutic care, to inhibit the viability of HNSCC in vitro. Two established HNSCC cell lines, CAL27 and UMSCC-47, and non-tumorigenic human keratinocytes (HaCaT) were treated with trimeric for 24-72 h and dose response curves were generated. The IC50 values for each treatment regimen for HNSCC cells and HaCaT cells were...

  5. The Neuroprotective Role Of Vitamin D On Neurons In A Central Nervous System Autoimmune Disease

    Selhorst, Amanda
    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an autoimmune inflammatory disease of the central nervous system (CNS). Childhood vitamin D insufficiency is a known risk factor of MS. However, it remains unclear how vitamin D levels before adolescence affect the susceptibility to disease. We hypothesize that vitamin D increases IL-34 production, which directs microglia into an anti-inflammatory phenotype, preventing neurodegeneration in a developing CNS. We observed an increased expression of IL-34 mRNA in primary neurons and neurons derived from a mouse Neuroblastoma (N2a) cell line after treating with calcitriol, the biologically active form of vitamin D. Additionally, immortalized murine microglia (BV-2) and primary...

  6. A Novel Paradigm for the Sex Differences in Response to Ultraviolet Radiation Exposure

    Sommer, Evan
    Skin cancer is the most common cancer in the world. Its main cause is chronic ultraviolet (UV) radiation exposure, responsible for initiation of DNA damage and cancer-enhancing inflammation. Relative to females, males are up to three times more likely to develop skin cancer and seventy percent more likely to die from it once affected. Our goal is to find causes of these significant sex differences. Given data from previous studies that demonstrates sex differences in the levels of inflammatory markers and immune cells, we hypothesize that sex differences in the inflammatory response to UV radiation is the causative factor of...

  7. Transgenic Expression of CXCR3 Worsens the Inadequate Response to Leishmania major Parasites by BALB/c Mice

    Stock, James
    CXCR3 is a chemokine receptor present on mature Th1 cells and has been shown to be critical in the immune response to Leishmania major by C57BL/6 mice. Recent studies have demonstrated that when stimulated, T cells from susceptible BALB/c mice do not increase expression of CXCR3 as quickly or efficiently as resistant C57BL/6 mice. In light of these findings, this study sought to determine how transgenic overexpression of CXCR3 on T cells affects susceptibility to L. major infection in BALB/c mice. Contrary to our hypothesis, CXCR3-transgenic mice were more susceptible to L. major and did not resolve their infections. These...

  8. Investigating the Pathways Leading to Ventricular Remodeling

    Zang, Kara
    95% of Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) patients develop cardiomyopathy, and 25% of those patients go on to develop end-stage of heart failure. Our clinically relevant mouse model of DMD, called dko mice, also develops functional and histological indicators of heart failure. Regardless of the initial cause of heart failure, all pathways lead to the same end-stage markers of a failed heart. Failed hearts are weak, fibrotic, and thin-walled due to a series of molecular and histological changes, together termed ventricular remodeling. One of the known molecular changes that occurs in heart failure is the upregulation of matrix-metalloproteinases (MMPs), enzymes that...

  9. Molecular Mechanisms of anti-carcinogenic Flavonoids

    Brahimaj, Bledi
    Plant-derived agents, such as flavonoids, have been known to possess beneficial health properties. One such flavonoid, apigenin has been shown to scavenge free radicals as well as posses anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and anti-carcinogenic properties. We previously showed that apigenin inhibits the production of proinflammatory cytokines by down-modulating the transcriptional activity of NF-B in stimulated monocytes and in a mouse model of acute inflammation. However, the molecular mechanism of apigenin action and its cellular targets remain unknown. Studies in our lab using a phage-display with next-generation sequencing identified targets of apigenin. Interestingly, some of these targets are involved in mRNA metabolism. To...

  10. Correlation of Bone Quality to Biomechanical Response: Large-Scale Study Methodology

    Draper, Amie J.
    It has been previously shown that the quality of human bone can affect its fragility. This can have important implications in the field of injury biomechanics, in which attempts are made to elucidate the conditions under which fractures may occur. To understand the results of such research, we must establish what constitutes a “normal” bone quality and how bone quality relates to biomechanical response. Prior work has shown that bone microstructure of bilateral rib pairs varies significantly between individuals but does not vary within an individual. This implies that bilateral rib pairs can be used to examine the relationship between...

  11. A Role for Regulatory T helper Type 1 Cells in Interferon Beta Therapy for Multiple Sclerosis

    Jarjour, Nicholas
    Multiple Sclerosis (MS) is a chronic disease of the Central Nervous System (CNS) characterized by inflammatory demyelination. The resulting effects on neuronal conduction lead to functional deficits affecting gait, vision, muscular function, and other basic processes, which occur in a relapsing/remitting or progressive manner. A number of the most effective treatments for MS are formulations of the human signaling molecule Interferon-β (IFN-β). However, these treatments’ mechanism of action in the context of MS is not well established. We have previously identified a population of effector CD-4+ T cells that self-regulates via up-regulation of the immunosuppressive cytokine interleukin-10 (IL-10) in a...

  12. Functional analysis of DcpS as a candidate cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma susceptibility gene

    Gray, Kelsey
    DCPS is a candidate cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) susceptibility gene as determined by allelic imbalance mapping of paired SCC and genomic blood DNA samples. DCPS shows no protein expression in 23% of human SCCs on a tissue microarray, and reduced protein expression in another 30%. This is in contrast to strong staining for DCPS in 100% of normal tissue samples. DCPS, a decapping scavenger enzyme, influences the pool of available cap-binding proteins and, in turn, impacts aspects of mRNA metabolism like pre-mRNA splicing and decay. The hypothesis driving this research is that DCPS acts as a tumor suppressor. To...

  13. Circadian Variation of Locomotor Ability Mediated by Nitric Oxide in the Cerebellum

    Spieldenner, James M.
    Previous research has revealed circadian differences in locomotor ability corresponding to improved performance during active period. Nitric oxide (NO) production by the enzyme neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) exhibits circadian variation in the cerebellum. Considering the distribution and circadian variation of nNOS in the cerebellum, I hypothesized that NO could mediate daily rhythms in motor learning. The present study used the compound 7-nitroindazole (7-NI) to selectively inhibit nNOS during only times of investigative interest to circumvent the possibility for developmental compensatory mechanisms in nNOS knock-out (nNOS-/-) mice which lack nNOS throughout life. Mice were given intraperitoneal injections of either vehicle...

  14. Investigation of Novel Curcumin Analogs as Antimalarials

    Cason, Emily
    There are over two hundred million cases of malaria each year. Although there are effective treatments, drug resistant strains are emerging that make discovery of new antimalarials an important goal. We have developed a semi-automated assay platform to screen novel compounds for their ability to kill Plasmodium falciparum, the parasite that causes the most deadly form of human malaria. This assay was used to screen novel analogs of curcumin, a component of the spice turmeric, which is known to have antimalarial activity. Several of these analogs were found to inhibit parasite growth at low-micromolar to sub-micromolar concentrations. The compounds in...

  15. IFITM3 as a Potential Mechanism for Cyr61 Mediated Inhibition of Oncolytic Virotherapy

    Boone, Sean
    Oncolytic virus therapy (OV therapy) exploits naturally occurring or genetically modified viruses to kill cancer cells by lytic destruction. Cysteine-rich protein 61 (Cyr61) has been found to be upregulated by OV infection. Cyr61 was found to inhibit OV infection when using a transient transfection model and when using a tetracycline inducible Cyr61 expression model. In vivo studies using the tetracycline inducible cell lines have shown an inhibition of infection with both subcutaneous and intracranial models. Expression was verified in vitro and in vivo using Western blot. Interferon-induced transmembrane protein 3 (IFITM3) was found to be upregulated in the presence of...

  16. Consequences of disease-causing small heat shock protein mutations on ARE-mediated mRNA decay

    Naiman, Nicole E.
    Motor neuron diseases (MNDs) are neurodegenerative diseases that involve loss of motor neurons in the brain and spinal cord. MNDs are debilitating and often fatal. Distal hereditary motor neuropathies (dHMNs) are a category of MND characterized by progressive, distal weakness without loss of sensation. The primary focus of our laboratory is to understand the functional consequences of mutations in small heat shock proteins (sHSPs) that result in dHMN. sHSPs comprise a family of 10 homologous proteins that are characterized by a central alpha-crystallin domain, are expressed ubiquitously, serve neuroprotective functions, and are upregulated by cell stress. To date, mutations in...

  17. Ets1 as a Target of MicroRNA-1 in Cutaneous Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    Gable, Dustin
    Cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) is the second most common form of skin cancer in the United States. Using microarrays, we identified lower levels of microRNA-1 (miR-1) expression in skin from mice that are susceptible to chemically-induced skin cancer, compared to skin from resistant mice. Murine SCC cell lines show reduced levels of miR-1 compared to normal skin. We hypothesize that the decreased expression of miR-1 in susceptible mice and SCC cell lines suggests a possible role of miR-1 as a tumor suppressor in skin. To test our hypothesis, we transfected a miR-1 precursor into a murine SCC cell line,...

  18. ANALYSIS OF STIFFNESS CALCULATION METHODS FOR BIOMECHANICAL TESTING WHEN LOADING AND MEASUREMENT ARE NOT COINCIDENT SPATIALLY

    Dooley, Chris
    Side impact automobile collisions are a frequent cause of serious injury. In recent years, the amount of attention being paid to these kinds of accidents has increased as evidenced by the implementation of side airbags in most commercial vehicles. Approximately one third of all occurrences of side impact automobile accidents occur in intersections when vehicles travelling at around 30 mph strike vehicles travelling around 15 mph.1 Impacts of this variety create a loading environment with the primary force of impact at an oblique angle to the passengers. Having the capability to reduce the threat to passengers from these types of...

  19. The effect of altered running form on overuse injury risk factors

    Glendon, Christine
    Running is a popular sport with more competitive participants every year. This rise in popularity has contributed to a rise in prevalence of overuse injuries such as patellofemoral pain, iliotibial band syndrome, and tibial stress fractures. While it is widely believed by coaches and runners that running form, which includes core control and position, plays an important role in injury prevention, little quantitative data exists to support these claims. The impact of altering running form on biomechanical loadings, as well as the best method to achieve changes, is unknown. Previous studies have explored the association of biomechanical loadings with particular...

  20. NF-κB independent Cell Survival Regulation in Differentiated Skeletal Muscle

    Hill, Eric M.
    The transcription factor NF-κB has been shown to inhibit the differentiation of skeletal muscle cells via numerous molecular mechanisms and is believed to play an integral role in several skeletal myopathies. NF-κB has also been shown to play a vital role in inhibiting programmed cell death by up-regulating specific anti-apoptotic genes following a stressful stimulus. Interestingly, it has been reported that terminally differentiated skeletal muscle cells devoid of NF-κB activity do not undergo apoptosis when treated with the inflammatory cytokines interferon-γ and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα). In this study, we examine the reported phenomenon using TNFα, an extrinsic signal...

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