DIALNET OAI Articles
Dialnet (Difusión de Alertas en la Red) es una plataforma de recursos y servicios documentales, cuyo objetivo fundamental se centra en mejorar la visibilidad y el acceso a la literatura científica hispana a través de Internet.
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A corpus study of Italian proverbs: implications for lexicographical description - Cignoni, Laura; Coffey, Stephen
In this paper we look at the way in which proverbs were found to behave in a corpus of contemporary
written Italian. We comment especially on the types of formal variation they were found to undergo,
whether in terms of alternative citation forms or context related changes. We also comment on the more
significant relationships between variation and textual function. Our findings would suggest that proverbs
are far from being invariable units, and that lexicographical description of proverbs could be more complete
than it usually is, especially as regards formal variation and syntactic flexibility. We acknowledge
the need to compare our findings with data regarding proverb...
Zur Verwendung und Übersetzung von Prädikatsausdrücken im Rahmen der Lexikongrammatik - Seelbach, Dieter
In diesem Beitrag werden die Grundzüge der Lexikongrammatik vorgestellt und einige morphosyntaktische
Typen von Prädikatsausdrücken (Operators) aus kontrastiver Sicht Französisch - Deutsch
behandelt. Dabei werden prototypische Entsprechungen von formal unterschiedlichen Ausdrücken,
Mehrfachverwendungen oder Polysemien sowie schließlich Verbindungen von Operatoren mit den für
sie typischen Adverbialen untersucht, die morpho-syntaktische Varianten und zielsprachliche Entsprechungen
in Form von Mehrwortausdrücken oder Komposita haben können. Der im Rahmen der Lexikongrammatik,
für den Sprachvergleich und für die Übersetzung zentrale Begriff der Verwendung von
Prädikatsausdrücken wird anhand zahlreicher Beispiele erläutert.
Towards a theoretically-motivated general public dictionary of semantic derivations and collocations for French - Polguère, Alain
We present two twin-projects aimed at the description of French semantic derivations and collocations:
the DiCo, a formal database whose encoding methodology borrows heavily from explanatory combinatorial
lexicology (postulated by Meaning-Text theory), and the "Lexique actif du français" (LAF, "Active
lexicon of French"), which accounts for the same phenomena but is tailored for use by the general public.
The LAF is generated entirely from the content of the DiCo, thereby ensuring a rigorous basis to its "popularized"
descriptions. Section 1 introduces the general goals of our projects and defines the concepts of
semantic derivation and collocation. Section 2 is an example-based presentation of the DiCo; this...
Phraseology and early English dictionaries: the growth of tradition - Moon, Rosamund
This paper examines the ways in which idioms and other phraseological items were treated in English
dictionaries, from their first appearances in the 16th century up until the publication of Johnson's "Dictionary"
of 1755. In particular, it observes a continuity of tradition in the case of bilingual dictionaries,
stretching from earliest times to the present day, which shows keen awareness of the phraseological structure
of English and of the languages with which it is being paired. In contrast, it observes a discontinuity
between pre-Johnsonian monolingual dictionaries and their growing awareness of phraseological phenomena,
and many post-Johnsonian dictionaries which have tended towards more atomistic notions of
Specialized lexical combinations: should they be described as collocations or in terms of selectional restrictions? - L'Homme, Marie-Claude; Bertrand, Claudine
This paper is an attempt to show that specialized lexical combinations (word groups used in special
languages) - even though they share some similarities with collocations (word groups used in general
language) - do not behave exactly like them. Thus, they should not be described using the apparatuses
lexicographers usually resort to. We will demonstrate that, in most specialized lexical combinations,
co-occurrents can combine with small or large groups of terminological units and that these terms can
easily be grouped within larger semantic classes. This demonstration is based on a study conducted at
the University of Montreal [Bertrand 1999].
Combination, collocation and multi-word units - Cermák, Frantisek
There is a profusion of labels used for the phenomenon of multiword units (MU's), yet they are notoriously
underrepresented in handbooks of both grammatical and dictionary type alike. After an illustration
of both, problems of criteria which delimit MU's are raised up, together with an number of open issues
and necessity of a functional approach is stressed. As three major issues, stableness, typicality and potentiality
are discussed. A number of urgent questions waiting for a systematic solutions is listed and a
final plea for a more balanced selection and approach is made.
Formalised representation of collocations in a Danish computational lexicon - Braasch, Anna; Olsen, Sussi
In natural language processing one of the most interesting tasks is the treatment of complex lexical
units. In this paper we focus on a specific collocation type and deal with a formalised, pattern-based
description of collocations for a Danish computational lexicon, an extension of the PAROLE lexicon.
We first describe our methodological approach to collocations from the NLP point of view. Secondly, we
analyse a selection of frequent collocations found in our corpus and discuss a few selected morphological
and syntactic constraints that apply to verbal collocations (our term). Published dictionaries are used to
verify our findings.We then sum up the constraint types to which the...
Critères heuristiques pour l'encodage des collocations au moyen de fonctions lexicales - Alonso Ramos, Margarita
Lexical functions (LFs), as developed by I. Mel'¡cuk in the Meaning-Text Theory are a formal means for
the representation of collocations. LFs allow for a fine-grained description of collocations with respect
to their syntactic and semantic characteristics. However, it has repeatedly been pointed out that the definition
of LFs is far from being transparent for linguists and lexicographers not trained in this theoretical
framework. Especially problematic from this perspective is the combinatorial capacity of LFs. In this
paper, we suggest some criteria for the encoding of collocations in terms of LFs. These criteria draw
on LF definitions, i.e., both the syntactic and semantic properties of LFs....
Training terminographers: the sociocognitive approach - Temmermann, Rita
Teaching sociocognitive terminography implies introducing students to some basic insights of cognitive
semantics, confronting them with various methods for the analysis of units of understanding and
introducing them to flexible templates for the description of terms.
Existing terminology manuals are of two types. Those of the first type (Felber, 1984; Picht & Draskau,
1985; W5; Wüster, 1991) limit terminography to the standardisation-oriented approach (section 1.1).
Those of the second type take aboard ideas developed in linguistics, philosophy of science, psychology
and artificial intelligence, but they lack guidelines on how to analyse a textual corpus for a real terminography
In sociocognitive terminology training, students are first familiarised with...
Teaching lexicography - Magay, Tamás
Teaching lexicography and lexicology in a country where the language spoken is one of the lesser known
languages (i.e. Hungarian), and where, for various reasons, lexicography and lexicology has not yet been
taught as an academic subject at university level are treated from the point of view of the main components
of a dictionary, viz. word (lexis, lexicology), grammar (morphology, syntax), meaning (semantics),
as well as pronunciation (phonology), and multi-word units (phraseology). The author addresses how to
organize courses in lexicology and lexicography as one subject and curricula thereof. A proposal is made
to create a pool of curricula in lexicography and lexicology.
The information in general purpose language dictionaries - Battaner Arias, María Paz; Alsina Keith, Victoria; DeCesaris, Janet Ann
This paper summarizes a research project funded by the Spanish Ministry of Education (PB96-0305)
on the information present in general purpose language dictionaries. We found that both monolingual
and bilingual dictionaries were weak on pragmatic information concerning use. Entries in bilingual dictionaries
were frequently not well organized in terms of order of equivalents or sense distinctions from
a bilingual perspective, thus resulting in needless repetition of the same equivalent. Electronic editions
of dictionaries were used to study the lexical semantics of specific affixes (the verbal prefix re- and the
adjective suffix -oso), and their use was critical in establishing the semantics of the affixes. Finally, the
Core, subsense and the "New Oxford Dictionary of English" (NODE): on how meanings hang together, and not separately - Meer, Geart van der
The "New Oxford English Dictionary" [NODE, 1998] tries to describe meaning in a way which shows how
the various meanings of a word are related. It tries to do so by distinguishing core senses and subsenses,
derived from the core senses. Modern layout techniques are used to highlight the various senses. This
paper intends to examine what NODE is in fact attempting and how well it has succeeded. Particular
attention is paid to the treatment of figurative use. The conclusion is that NODE's laudable aims do not
quite square with its practice.
Providing lexicographic support for SL vocabulary acquisition: what kind, under what conditions, for whom, and why? - Swanepoel, Piet
Although a number of the latest dictionaries for the SL market have been praised for their innovative
design features, learners and users do, and lexicographers and metalexicographers should, concern themselves
with the functional quality (FQ) of the dictionary products they provide for the market. The FQ
of dictionaries and its scientific assessment forms the topic of this paper. FQ is defined in Section 1,
and current approaches to assessing FQ in the field of lexicography are discussed in Section 2. Section
3 provides an outline and demonstration of a methodology which makes theoretically-driven empirical
assessment of the FQ of dictionaries possible.
User-sensitive lexical databases: a case of lexical knowledge management - Kalliokuusi, Virpi; Varantola, Krista
This article focuses on the user-friendliness of lexical information sources. Whereas our previous study
on user-friendliness (Euralex 1998) emphasized the context-sensitive needs of dictionary users, our
present study goes one step further and suggests that it would be possible to compile interactive lexical
databases that would be both context- and user-sensitive. We approach the function of lexical databases
from two perspectives: from their role as primary information sources and from their role as lexical interfaces
to other knowledge bases. Our approach is generally based on frame-semantics.We apply semantic
frames to capture the different ways of conceptualization used when searching a knowledge base for
social and health care...
Morphosyntactic structure of terms in Basque for automatic terminology extraction - Urízar Enbeitia, Rubén; Ezeiza Ramos, Nerea; Alegría Loinaz, Iñaki
This paper describes the morphosyntactic patterns of technical terms in Basque and presents an architecture
for a term-extracting tool. As Basque is a highly inflected agglutinative language, part-of-speech
information is not enough to define term patterns. The use of morphological and syntactic information
is essential to reduce considerably the number of structures. For example, a noun, an adverbial, a postpositive
adjectival, the nominal form of a verb and even a determiner in the genitive case may work
as a prepositive adjective; however, they all share the same syntactic function. Therefore, for the termextracting
tool to perform properly, the texts must be morphosyntactically analysed and disambiguated.
Empirical implications on lexical association measures - Krenn, Brigitte
An empirical study is presented showing how factors such as co-occurrence frequency, linguistic constraints
in the candidate data and type of collocation to be identified influence the identification accuracy
achieved, on the one hand, by a mere frequency-based approach and, on the other hand, by well known
statistical association measures such as mutual information, Dice coefficient, relative entropy and loglikelihood
statistics. The empirical results confirm the weakness of the statistical measures with respect to
identifying collocations from data with a high proportion of low frequency data, and reveal differences
between the individual association measures depending on the class of collocations to be identified,
whether they are applied...
Extracting phraseology for content analysis and document retrieval - Fontenelle, Thierry
This paper describes a program which identifies the topic of a text by extracting the most relevant key
words and phraseological sequences. The various factors taken into account to generate this list of terms
and expressions are described (frequency of occurrence, classification as a function of the number of
elements, processing of abbreviations, use of customisable stop lists. . . ). The output can then be used
by powerful search engines to retrieve topic-related texts which are believed to display a high degree of
repetitivity, an essential criterion for building translation memory databases.
Benefiting from multidomain corpora to extract terminologically relevant multiword lexical units - Lopes, José Gabriel Pereira; Dias, Gaël Harry; Guilloré, Sylvie
The acquisition of terminology for particular domains has long been a significant problem in Natural
Language Processing requiring a great deal of manual effort. In order to provide terminologists with
powerful tools for the creation, the maintenance and the upgrade of terminological data collections,
we present the SENTA software that retrieves, from naturally occurring text, terminologically relevant
multiword lexical units. SENTA is a statistical system that conjugates a new association measure based
on the concept of normalised expectation, the Mutual Expectation, with a new acquisition process based
on an algorithm of local maxima, the LocalMaxs. The results obtained by applying SENTA to the IJSELAN
Slovene-English parallel corpus...
Word manager and banking terminology: industrial application of a general system - Zappatore, Daniela; Ten Hacken, Pius
In practice, the use of specialized terminology in a firm's internal documents is often perceived as an obstacle
to correct understanding of a text. With the emergence of intranet communication, the possibility
arises of making available on-line explanations of terms used in a document. A condition for the success
of such an enterprise is that terms are recognized also when they occur in inflected forms or when they
consist of more than one word.Word Manager (WM) is a system for reusable morphological dictionaries
which is optimally suited to these conditions. In addition it offers a user-friendly environment for the
specification and maintenance of a database, and...