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Dialnet (Difusión de Alertas en la Red) es una plataforma de recursos y servicios documentales, cuyo objetivo fundamental se centra en mejorar la visibilidad y el acceso a la literatura científica hispana a través de Internet.

Psicología y educación

Mostrando recursos 1 - 20 de 78.557

  1. Conductas de riesgo sexual y reproductivo en estudiantes universitarios en Huancayo

    Ríos Cataño, Claudia
    The aim was to determine the sexual and reproductive risk behaviour in Huancayo college students from a private institution. One is a research, cross-sectional, exploratory and descriptive, the sample nonprobabilistic was conform by 254 young students, the Self-efficacy test was used for AIDS (SEA27) that measures self-efficacy in risk behaviours for AIDS infect, thus also collected data on sexual attitude, knowledge and information acquisition in sexuality, data were digitates, stored and analyzed in SPSS statistical program. Results demonstrated about selfefficacy risk behaviours that masculine gender had one self-efficacy average under 43,6 %, whereas feminine gender showed to have one self-efficacy...

  2. Perfil Antropométrico, Composición Corporal y Somatotipo de Futbolistas brasileño de diferentes categorías y posiciones

    Herdy, Carlos Vinicius
    Objective: To identify and describe the anthropometric measurements, body composition and somatotype of Brazilian players in various categories and positions in the field. Method: The sample consisted of 1,115 male soccer players and divided into eight groups: Under 07 (n = 60); Sub-09 (n = 75); Sub 11 (n = 140); Sub 13 (n = 182); Sub 15 (n = 184); Under 17 (n = 166); U-20 (n = 144) and Professional (n = 164). Descriptive statistics (mean ± standard deviation) was used through SPSS, using v21 "one-way ANOVA", complementary "Bonferroni" significance test considering the value of p <0.05. Results:...

  3. Variation of glucocorticoid metabolite levels is associated with survival demands in immature and reproductive demands in adult wild black capuchins (Sapajus nigritus)

    Moreira, Caio M.; Peternelli dos Santos, Lucas; Cordeiro Sousa, Maria Bernardete; Izar, Patrícia
    According to the concept of allostasis and its association with energy mobilization, glucocorticoids (GCs) should parallel cumulative energy expenditure for animal survival and reproduction. Therefore, it is expected that seasonal food shortages might lead to increased levels of GCs. We tested this hypothesis by analyzing the intra-annual variation of fecal glucocorticoid metabolites (GCM) in 14 wild black capuchin monkeys (Sapajus nigritus) living in a social group in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest. We analyzed the association between GCM and social and environmental variables for the three age/sex classes (adult males, adult females and immatures [juveniles and infants]). Decreased fruit intake during...

  4. Consummatory Successive Negative Contrast in Mongolian Gerbil (Meriones unguiculatus)

    Pérez Acosta, Andrés Manuel; Martínez, Gladys S.; Corredor Páez, Karen Eliana; Vargas Irwin, Cristina; Méndez Pardo, Luisa Fernanda
    Successive Negative Contrast (SNC) is a phenomenon in which there is a sharp decrease in the rate of reinforced behavior immediately after a sudden reduction in quality or quantity of a habitual reinforcer. This phenomenon has become a solid experimental paradigm for the study of frustration in mammals but it has not been reported to date in the Mongolian gerbil (Meriones unguiculatus). This species is monogamous and biparental, and these differential characteristics make it interesting for comparative analysis. This work includes modifications to the SNC paradigm for this species, assessing its response to sudden changes in positive reinforcement and its...

  5. Do chimpanzees like alcohol?

    Thomsen, Ruth Maria; Zschoke, Anja
    In the last common ancestor of modern humans and the three living African ape species a genetic mutation occurred that increased the rate that alcohol was metabolized. This fact initially supports the "drunken monkey hypothesis" which states that natural selection should have favoured individuals that routinely incorporated alcohol- and thus energy-rich fruits into their diet. However, random observations from apes living in the wild do not provide evidence for such kind of choosey feeding behaviours. To investigate whether or not the living great apes have evolved a preference of alcohol-rich fruits over normal ripe fruits we performed a bioassay with...

  6. Social context modulates food hoarding in Syrian hamsters

    Montoya, Bibiana; Gutiérrez, Germán
    The effect of the presence of a con-specific in the temporal organization of food hoarding was studied in two varieties of Syrian hamster (Mesocricetus auratus): golden and long-haired. Four male hamsters of each variety were used. Their foraging behavior was observed during four individual and four shared trials in which animals were not competing for the same food source or territory. During individual trials, long-haired hamsters consumed food items directly from the food source, transporting and hoarding only remaining pieces. During shared trials, the long-haired variety hoarded food items before consumption, and increased the duration of hoarding trips, food handling...

  7. Assessing Symmetry by Comparing the Acquisition of Symmetric and Nonsymmetric Conditional Relations in a Capuchin Monkey

    Soares Filho, Paulo S. D.; Silva, Álvaro J. M.; Velasco, Saulo M.; Barros, Romariz S.; Tomanari, Gerson Yukio
    The present study presents a procedure to assess the property of symmetry by comparing the acquisition of conditional relations that are consistent and inconsistent with this property in a capuchin monkey (Sapajus spp.). One young male monkey underwent arbitrary matching-to-sample training. The experiment had four phases: Phase 1.1 (establishing A1B1 and A2B2 relations), Phase 1.2 (reinforcing B1A1 and B2A2 relations, consistent with the property of symmetry), Phase 2.1 (establishing A3B3 and A4B4 relations), and Phase 2.2 (reinforcing B3A4 and B4A3 relations, inconsistent with the property of symmetry). A comparison between Phase 1.2 (consistent) and Phase 2.2 (inconsistent) showed faster acquisition...

  8. Sex difference in choice of concealed or exposed refuge sites by preschool children viewing a model leopard in a playground simulation of antipredator behavior

    Coss, Richard G.
    The current study of preschool children characterizes a semi-natural extension of experimental questions on how human ancestors evaded predation when encountering dangerous felids.  In a pretend game on a playground, we presented full-size leopard and deer models to children (N = 39) in a repeated-measures experimental design.  Prior to viewing the model presented 15-m away, each child was instructed by the experimenter to go where she or he would feel safe.  The rationale for this study was based on the anthropological construct of “sexual dinichism,” positing that, during the Pliocene, smaller-bodied hominin females engaged in more arboreal behavior than larger-bodied...

  9. Studies of Sociosexual Interactions in Rats in an Externally Valid Procedure: Are They Relevant for Understanding Human Sexual Behavior?

    Chu, Xi; Ågmo, Anders
    When a prolonged observation of groups of rats in a seminatural environment is used as testing procedure, different behavioral patterns are shown compared with what observed in a pair housed in a small cage. Males and females copulate simultaneously, they show a promiscuously and random copulatory pattern. Females remain completely receptive from the first lordosis displayed in the period of behavioral estrus until the last. There is no reduction in paracopulatory behaviors and no increase in rejections towards the end of estrus. Female paracopulatory behavior and receptivity change in a most abrupt way at both initiation and termination of behavioral...

  10. An Animal Model of Human Gambling

    Zentall, Thomas R.
    Human gambling generally involves taking a risk on a low probability high outcome alternative over the more economically optimal high probability low outcome alternative (not gambling). Surprisingly, although optimal foraging theory suggests that animals should be sensitive to the overall probability of reinforcement, the results of many experiments suggest otherwise. For example, they do not prefer an alternative that 100% of the time provides them with a stimulus that always predicts reinforcement over an alternative that provides them with a stimulus that predicts reinforcement 50% of the time. This line of research leads to the conclusion that preference depends on...

  11. Dissociation of Procedural and Working Memory in Pigeons (Columba livia)

    Herbranson, Walter T.
    A new method was developed to concurrently investigate procedural memory and working memory in pigeons.  Pigeons performed a sequence of keypecks across 3 response keys in a serial response task, with periodic choice probes for the location of a recently produced response.  Procedural memory was operationally defined as decreasing response times to predictable cues in the sequence.  Working memory was reflected by accurate responses to the choice probes.  Changing the sequence of required keypecks to a random sequence interfered with procedural memory in the form of slowed response times, but did not prevent pigeons from effectively using working memory to...

  12. An overview of mice models: a key for understanding subtypes of mania

    Cuartas Arias, Jorge Mauricio; Diaz, Mariana; López Jaramillo, Carlos Alberto
    Animal models have been broadly used in the study of pathophysiology and molecular and neurochemical pathways in neuropsychiatric diseases. Different approaches have used both consanguineous and non-consanguineous mice models to model behavioral patterns associated with the maniac spectrum. However, the disadvantages of validating clinical and experimental protocols have hindered the replication of these studies. In this article, the advantages and disadvantages of using consanguineous lines and non-consanguineous stocks in mice animal models for the study of mania and its subtypes are discussed. Additionally, new experimental alternatives to advance the pathogenesis and pharmacogenetics of mania using animal models are proposed and...

  13. Patrón, piel, persona: una propuesta de educación saludable por medio de las artes

    Cueva Ramírez, Lorena
    Existen mucchas orientaciones en educación artística; más allá del desarrollo de destrezas, de la sexpresividad sin más, del lengiaje visual o incluso la cultura visual, de manera interdisciplinar proponemos una educación artísica capaz de desarrollar a la persoan y favorecer su salud. Se presenta "Patrón, piel, persona", una propuesta de educación integral y saludable, por medio de las artes.

  14. Alternative pathways: expressive arts in prision

    Duarte Santos, Graca; Barreiros, Mafalda
    Numerosas veces la inadaptación social culmina en medidas punitivas y restrictivas A menudo, estas no se centran en la posibilidad de escuchar a la expresión interna o en alternativa al desarrollo de estos individuos. A menudo, las estrechas puertas de las cárceles se convierten también en una oscuridad sin puertas. La experiencia de las artes (basado en los principios de la terapia de las artes expresivas) puede funcionar en estas personas como guía que conduzca al descubrimiento de los orígenes de la ira, y permitiéndoles ser activos y creativos en su propio proceso de recuperación. En este texto los autores tienen la intención de reflexionar sobre...

  15. Una revisión de las prácticas colaborativas, culturales y pedagógicas para la igualdad de género.

    Rey Somoza, Nuria; Pérez Alonso, María de las Nieves; Castillejo Higueras, Mar; Sánchez Álvarez, Laura
    The article pretends to reflect the socio-cultural panorama in terms of gender equality, presenting an objective point of view and within a collaborative frame. This essay it is the outcome of matching the gender issue and the cultural production, as a way of creating knowledge from an alternative pedagogy. This pedagogy is concerned about the individual, as well as, the group by itself. In this summary some artistic projects based on this method are included.

  16. Actividad física y discapacidad sensorial visual: Una propuesta didáctica con estudiantes del grado en ciencias de la actividad física y el deporte.

    Rodríguez Bies, Elisabet
    Attention to diversity is one of the basic principles of the Spanish education system. Diversity should be addressed by effective measures and of different types, and inclusive physical education is one of the areas that effectively contribute to the integral development of the person, maturation and inclusion in society. Through this article we present a didactic intervention from the own professional experience to work to promote awareness and attitudes of tolerance and respect for diversity in students of Science Degree in Physical Activity and Sport. With the proposed activities we seek that students have the opportunity to experience the limitations, body sensations and emotions that arise...

  17. Género y cultura gitana en el contexto escolar. Estudio de casos en la ciudad de Sevilla

    Cárdenas-Rodríguez, Rocío; Terrón Caro, María Teresa; Monreal Gimeno, María del Carmen

  18. Proyecto Conkal: clave para el desarrollo comunitario

    Heredia Soberanis, Norma Graciella; Méndez Ojeda, José Israel; López Gamboa, Galo Emanuel

  19. Significados y sentidos de la interacción comunitaria: Un estudio de casos

    Heredia Soberanis, Norma Graciella

  20. Investigación biográfica-narrativa con infancia en riesgo de exclusión: aportes para la mejora de la intervención socioeducativa

    Serrano Manzano, Bianca Fiorella

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