DIALNET OAI Articles
Dialnet (Difusión de Alertas en la Red) es una plataforma de recursos y servicios documentales, cuyo objetivo fundamental se centra en mejorar la visibilidad y el acceso a la literatura científica hispana a través de Internet.
Definición lexicográfica y orden de la información y de las palabras el: caso del euskera - Alberdi Larizgoitia, Xabier; García García de los Salmones, Julio; Ugarteburu Gastañares, Iñaki
The aim of this paper is to show how every language is determined by its syntactic structure when arranging information and words in lexicographic definitions. In the first two sections we analyze the difficulties we find in Basque with hyperonymic definitions of nouns: the informative structure. This kind of definition imposes goes from the general-hyperonym-to the particula-specific characteristics; but this order contrasts with the expansion of nominal nucleus modifiers towards the left, often found in Basque. Bearing in mind that Basque history regarding monolingual lexicography is very recent, in the third section we discuss and evaluate the solution to the...
On connotation, denotation and all that, or: why a nigger Is not a 'black person' - Meer, Geart van der
In my paper I intend to demonstrate that it is, in the case of monolingual dictionaries, preferable to incorporate usage labels like formal, vulgar etc. in the sense definitions themselves instead of making them almost invisible by hiding them in the margins of the entries. I will also argue that it should be attempted to make clear exactly why a lexical item is said to be e.g. humorous.
Les dictionnaires québécois et le probleme de la norme linguistique - Schafroth, Elmar
This paper deals with dictionaries of French in Quebec and the problem of language norm. In 2008, Quebec will celebrate its 400th anniversary. The publishing of the first Dictionary of Standard French in Quebec (Dictionnaire FRANQUS)-Français Québécois Usage Standard, announced as an online version for autumn 2008 and supposedly available in its printed version in 2009, will mark a new and important step in the history of Canadian French lexicography. It will be the fifth dictionary of French published within the last 20 years in Quebec, each of them conveying its own normative point of view. The article deals with...
Verb class-specific criteria for the differentiation of senses in dictionary entries - Proost, Kristel
This contribution deals with the representation of verbs with multiple meanings or senses in general monolingual dictionaries. Criteria for differentiating senses in dictionary entries have traditionally been formulated with respect to the vocabulary in general. This paper argues that, while some criteria do indeed apply to the entire lexicon, many of them are relevant only to specific semantic classes. This will be demonstrated considering two selected verb classes: speech-act verbs and perception verbs. Like verbs of other classes, speech-act verbs and perception verbs may be ambiguous in different but recurrent ways. Since recurrent patterns of ambiguity are always typical of...
Verbos que traban discurso: implicaciones lexicográficas para el DAELE - López Ferrero, Carmen; Torner Castells, Sergi
Our work falls within the framework of the Project for the Elaboration of a Dictionary for Learning Spanish as a Foreign Language-Diccionario de aprendizaje del español como lengua extranjera, ref. HUM2006-06982, in progress at the Universitat Pompeu Fabra. In particular we analyse the syntactic and discursive behaviour of five semantic classes (as set by Bosque 2004), since they amount to clusters of verbs which share both the same meaning in context as a grammatical behaviour is similar so it seems and there is a high frequency of use in each type of verb of the syntactic structures and patterns. These...
Verbal spect and the frame elements in the FrameNet for Polish - Linde-Usiekniewicz, Jadwiga; Derwojedowa, Magdalena; Zawislawska, Magdalena
This paper deals with theoretical and practical problems involved when describing a language from the morphological aspect within the FrameNet. In terms of aspect and in lexicographical description of the Polish language, there is a tendency to treat pairs where the aspectual distinction is marked by suffix as a single lexical unit. Where the aspectual distinction is marked by a prefix, pairs represent different units, e.g. kaszlnac (pf. to give a cough) -kaslac (impf.to cough repeatedly) vs. pisac (impf. to write, to be writing) �napisac (pf.to have written). More complex sense relations between perfective and imperfective verbs complicate matters even...
La place du métalangage dans la définition lexicographique: l'exemple des définitions des mots syncatégorématiques dans le TLF - Frassi, Paolo
The studies on lexicographic definitions connected with the French tradition take charge eminently of typology and leave aside the question of metalanguage. So, in lexicography, the metalinguistic definition is often considered in the typological frame. This is because the above-mentioned studies are mostly based upon definitions either of nouns or verbs. In my presentation I shall attempt to demonstrate, from defining statements of the syncategorematic words drawn from the Trésor de la langue française, that the metalinguistic definition is indeed a category of the definitions but that, when compared to the other categories, it requires a different criteria of analysi,...
Scale-free networks in dictionaries - Fóris, Ágota
The aim of this paper is to show, through the application of the mathematical model of scale-free networks, how the scale-free network of language is represented in the information contained in dictionaries. Research conducted in the last few decades has proven that every phenomenon of nature and society-the relations of so many various systems-is organised into a complex system of networks. Research has also proven that complex networks can be analysed with the help of a common network model, and that the application of this network theory allows us to discover features of the analysed system that are not observable...
Lexicographie historique, noms de métier, féminisation: quelle méthodologie? - Baider, Fabienne
This article investigates the way trade names in the feminine form are presented in the French etymological and historical lexicographic discourse. Several French decrees in 1986, 1994 and 2000 were issued to promote use of the feminine form of trade names in reference to women. Working from two different corpuses-one before the feminization policy and one after, the analysis establishes whether progress had been made in such usage: feminine forms have increased in the past 30 years, even though their presentation remains incomplete and sometimes even marginal. However, the study of the presence or absence of these feminine forms could...
Prepositions in dictionaries for foreign learners: a cognitive linguistic look - Adamska-Salaciak, Arleta
The paper is an attempt to look at the problems faced by lexicographers compiling prepositional entries in dictionaries for foreign learners, and to suggest ways in which these problems could be alleviated. After discussing some of the reasons why prepositions are difficult to deal with in a dictionary, and reporting on the results of metalexicographic studies examining the treatment of prepositions in monolingual English learners. dictionaries and in three bilingual English-Polish dictionaries, Cognitive Linguistics is suggested as a source of important insights which could be of assistance in solving practical lexicographic problems. Among those insights are: the idea that the...
Incomprehensible languages in idioms: functional equivalents and bilingual dictionaries - Wozniak, Monika
Phraseology is a source of interesting information on the speakers. world view and different fixed expressions are used in different languages when one does not understand the message. Lack of understanding of what is said or written is often associated with the inability to comprehend the language, which is proved by the use of idiomatic expressions containing names of different foreign languages considered to be particularly difficult in a given society. In this paper several bilingual dictionaries are consulted in order to: 1) find equivalents of some expressions of that kind in English, Polish and Spanish; 2) review their lexicographical...
SciE-Lex: a lexical database of collocations in scientific English for Spanish scientists - Verdaguer, Isabel; Poch, Anna; Laso, Natalia Judith; Giménez, Eva
As a result of the widespread use of English in science and scholarship, there is an increasing need of reference tools which provide accurate information to non-nativeespecially junior-researchers on the correct use of lexico-grammatical patterns of nontechnical words when writing their scientific papers in English and on the conventionalized phraseological characteristics of the genre. Our aim is to present SciE-Lex, a lexical database which provides information to help Spanish researchers to write research papers in English accurately. Whereas there are specialized monolingual and bilingual dictionaries with specific terminological information, there is a shortage of reference tools supplying information on the...
For an extended definition of lexical collocations - Tutin, Agnès
Restricted lexical collocations have now been studied and encoded in dictionaries for over twenty years, and stable definitions have been provided for this notion by numerous scholars working on collocations (e.g. Hausmann 1989, Mel'cuk 1998, Heid 1994). They are roughly defined as recurrent combinations of two linguistic elements which have a syntactic relationship. One of the elements of the collocation, called base, keeps its usual meaning-autosemantic words (Hausmann 2004)-while the other, the collocate, is dependent on the other-synsemantic words-and usually has a less transparent meaning. Even though such a definition is nevertheless operational for a large number of lexical associations,...
A multilingual electronic database of distributionally idiosyncratic items - Sailer, Manfred; Richter, Frank; Trawinski, Beata; Soehn, Jan-Philipp
We present a multilingual electronic database of lexical items with idiosyncratic occurrence patterns. Currently, our database consists of: (1) a collection of 444 bound words in German; (2) a collection of 77 bound words in English; (3) a collection of 58 negative polarity items in Romanian; (4) a collection of 84 negative polarity items in German; and (5) a collection of 52 positive polarity items in German. Our database is encoded in XML and is available via the Internet, offering dynamic and flexible access.
Aspectos de fraseografía bilingüe espanol-alemán: la equivalencia frente a la definición - Torrent-Lenzen, Aina
Aspects of bilingual phraseography Spanish-German-phraseological equivalence versus definition. In my paper I would like to discuss some problematic aspects of Spanish-German phraseography which frequently arise for both phraseologists and dictionary users. The document will focus, among other things, on the problems conveyed by the phraseological equivalents, the treatment that the contextual and partial phraseological equivalents should receive, and in some cases, the benefit of introducing definitions. In addition to this, it will also deal with how some verbal phraseological units of the German language should be mentioned if they constitute equivalents to units in Spanish. The practical experience that allows...
From subdomains and parameters to collocational patterns: on the analysis of Swedish medical collocations - Sköldberg, Emma; Toporowska Gronostaj, Maria
This paper presents a study on Swedish collocations in an electronic medical lexicon, currently under construction at the University of Gothenburg, Department of Swedish Language. There are two strands discussed in the paper. The first one is about a knowledge-based, onomasiological, approach to detecting and analysing medical collocations and their patterning. The second one deals with the representation of these collocations in both a general lexicon module and a collocational lexicon module. In the latter module, there are some advanced search options made available which enable selective access to the content of the lexicon. It is assumed that the onomasiological...
"Una bella esperienza, una buona prova": a corpus analysis of purely evaluative adjectives in Italian - Russo, Irene
It is questionable how much pragmatic information should be included in a dictionary entry. In a native-speaker's dictionary such information is considered unnecessary, but nevertheless, a certain amount of it could be included as multiword expressions - fixed and semi-fixed - that are regarded as holistic units rather than compositional strings. In this work a corpus analysis of two purely evaluative adjectives in Italian - bello, buono - will shed light on substitutability among them in noun phrases. Mutual Information (Church & Hanks1990) as a measure to compare and contrast the distribution of words in context highlights nouns for which...
Colocaciones léxicas en diccionarios generales monolingües del español - Romero Aguilera, Laura
The purpose of this paper is to describe the way some of the Spanish general monolingual dictionaries published during the last twelve years have dealt with lexical collocations, that is, those combinations of words that present certain combinatorial restrictions in the norm, basically semantic restrictions, imposed by usage (Corpas 1996). These have been the analyzed dictionaries: Diccionario Salamanca de la lengua española, directed by Juan Gutiérrez (1996); Diccionario del español actual, by Manuel Seco, Olimpia Andrés y Gabino Ramos (1999); RAE's Diccionario de la Lengua Española (2001); and Gran diccionario de uso del español actual. Basado en el Corpus Cumbre,...
Inclusión de los papeles semánticos de FrameNet en DiCE - Prieto González, Sabela
The aim of our project is to enrich the actantial information of the Diccionario de Colocaciones del Español (DiCE) with labels about semantic roles. Since there are other projects which follow this line of research-such as FrameNet, we decided to include the existing information in the DICE. Although our database focuses on collocations, it also identifies their actants and it compiles a wide-ranging corpus of predicates with their arguments. Therefore, the entry for each lexical unit contains the proposicional form or argumental structure where a semantic description of the actants is given. For instance, in the entry for the noun...