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DIALNET OAI Articles (813.783 recursos)

Dialnet (Difusión de Alertas en la Red) es una plataforma de recursos y servicios documentales, cuyo objetivo fundamental se centra en mejorar la visibilidad y el acceso a la literatura científica hispana a través de Internet.


Mostrando recursos 1 - 20 de 13.831

  1. Dynamic simulation of a furnace of steam reforming of natural gas

    Acuña, A.; Fuentes, C.; Smith, C. A.
    Steam reforming of natural gas is a very important industrial process in refineries and ammonia and methanol plants. Hydrogen is produced by reforming methane with steam. This hydrogen is essential in the hydrotreating process in the refineries thus, it is important to supervise and control the performance of the hydrogen plant. Mathematical models of refineries and chemical plants are used to simulate the behavior of the process units. However, the models especially of reactors like reformers, are not very reliable. This paper presents a dynamic model of a furnace reactor. The simulation results are validated with industrial data.

  2. Heavy hydrocarbon-coal surfactant-water-CCTA mixture technology: Semi-industrial evaluation

    Leal Echevarría, Gonzalo; Grosso, Jorge Luis; Suárez, O. J.; Guérin, F.; Forero, M.; Vidales, Humberto; Barrero, Rigoberto; Guzmán, E. K.; Afanador, Luz Edelmira; Corredor, J.
    Using low viscosity inverse emulsion (o/w) technology of fuel oil in water, developed at the Instituto Colombiano del Petróleo, ICP, a synergy with the Coal-Surfactant-Water (CCTA) systems was established, yielding a new fuel mixture caled CCTA, Coal-Fuel Oil-Surfactant-Water. This triple system holds microscopic droplets of fuel oil and solid coal powder particles (up to 30% in weight) in suspension, in a water continuum medium. In the study performed, the stability during storage and pipeline transport at a semi-industrial scale of the CCTA systems was evaluated at two temperature ranges. The results show stability of over 30 days under testing conditions....

  3. Design and evaluation of oxygen transference processes in wastewater treatment

    Forero, Jorge Enrique; Picon, Hector Julio; Blandón, V. R.; Guzmán, E. K.; Díaz González, Javier
    Aprocess of air injection to bodies of water was developed and evaluated. The system is composed of ejectors operated by pressurized water (where atmospheric air is drawn in), a network of contact and distribution pipelines (tubing), and a dispersion system. The influence and importance of each of these parts, especially the ejectors, was studied in order to create a model system that was compared with the most common types of aerators (oxygenators) used in industrial processes for water treatment. The energy efficiency (expressed as kilograms of oxygen transferred per kilowatt/ hour consumed) is used as the unit of comparison of...

  4. Diseño de un nuevo sistema de flotación para tratamiento de aguas industriales

    Forero, Jorge Enrique; Díaz González, Javier; Blandón, V. R.
    The air flotation is a process of physical separation for the industrial wastewater treatment, that removes oils and suspended solids. Although methods different from flotation have been used in petroleum industry, their application is subjected to numerous operational and economic limitations. In this work some comparisons of these flotation techniques are discussed and, a new system for the treatment of residual waters by flotation is the developed. This system is the result of several years of research both in laboratory and in pilot plants. The new design uses characteristics from other techniques, it is based on a modification of a...

  5. Microbiological oxidation of sulfides present in refinery sour waters by fixed bed reactors

    Restrepo, A. S.; Caicedo, N. H.; Celis Cornejo, Carlos Mauricio
    Agroup of native bacteria with a sulfide oxidation capacity was isolated at the Instituto Colombiano del Petróleo (ICP). The bacteria were immobilized in an inert inorganic support of sintered glass that was used to evaluate a fixed packed column system working in batches as well as in a continuous mode. The experiments carried out in real wastewater and in refinery sour water show high sulfide removal percentages (over 90%) both in low and high sulfide concentrations. The appropriate operation pH is in the alkaline range (8.0 to 9.0) and it decreases as the reaction proceeds. The ability of the microbial...

  6. Índices de contaminación para caracterización de aguas continentales y vertimientos: Formulaciones

    Ramírez, Nubia E.; Restrepo, R.; Cardeñosa, M.
    Contamination indexes (ICO) for characterization of natural water bodies and industrial discharges have been formulated in previous works by Ramirez, et al, 1 997. In this work, complementary indexes not correlated with other ICOs previously developed are established thus resulting in a complementary tool to be applied in the interpretation and characterization on continental surface water bodies. First, a pH index (ICOpH) is obtained to determine pH incidence on water quality interpretation. A temperature index (ICOTEM) is also obtained to evaluate effluent incidence on receiving water bodies. ICOTEM is based on temperature difference of the wastewater discharge and the water...

  7. Evaluación ecotoxicológica de la influencia de los vertimientos del campo de producción la Cira-Infantas (GCO) sobre dos cuerpo receptore

    Serrano, Martín; Restrepo, R.; Villa, G.
    Application of a methodology to determine acute toxicity and toxic charge of the six effluents of Ecopetrol's production field La Cira-lnfantas, as well as to assess water quality of receptor streams (La Cira and Reposo), through toxicity test with three native organisms from the region: an algae (Scenedesmus subspicatus), a macrophite (Lemna aequinoctialis) a cladoceran (Moinodaphnia macleayi) and Daphnia pu/ex as the reference organism. The toxic potential of the effluents, by conducting additional bioassays with (BaC+2 y NaCI), was also determined since high concentrations of (Ba+2 and Cl-;) are present in the effluents. All tested organisms showed sensitivity to the...

  8. Materiales compuestos orgánicos utilizados como refuerzo de tuberías de conducción de fluidos

    Latorre, Guillermo; Vargas Galvis, Fabio
    This paper presents the experimental test and the results of the development of a composite organic material (MCO) for the reinforcement and covering of pipelines. MCO is desinged to be applied to pipelines with external, damages such as dents or gauges or with surface damages caused by corrosion. The product can recover transport lines with 65% thickness losses due to corrosion in lenghts of less than 0,2 m. The system developed by Ecopetrol-ICP can stop progressive picking corrosion, it has an excellent capillary, good adhesion, good resistance in cathodic protection, and mechanical strength that can support the operational pressure of...

  9. Development of infill drilling recovery models for carbonate reservoirs using neural networks and multivariate statistical as a novel method

    Soto, Rodolfo; Wu, C. H.; Bubela, A. M.
    This work introduces a novel methodology to improve reservoir characterization models. In this methodology we integrated multivariate statistical analyses, and neural network models for forecasting the infill drilling ultimate oil recovery from reservoirs in San Andres and Clearfork carbonate formations in West Texas. Development of the oil recovery forecast models help us to understand the relative importance of dominant reservoir characteristics and operational variables, reproduce recoveries for units included in the database, forecast recoveries for possible new units in similar geological setting, and make operational (infill drilling) decisions. The variety of applications demands the creation of multiple recovery forecast models....

  10. Pressure control in vacuum towers

    Carrillo, J. A.; Pantoja, F.; Barrios, H.; Estrada, C.; Quecano, C.; Alvarez, N.; Chinchilla, M.
    The increase in severity of visbreaking relates to an increase in olefin concentration in the visbreaking pitches. To conditions of the recovery of gas oils in the vacuum distillation tower, these olefins undergo oligomerization reactions, which produce sludge/polymers. The oligomerization reactions are favored by high temperatures, increment in the times of residence, free radicals and metals that can act as catalysts. The polymers are deposited in the Glitsch meshes and they become traps for the asphalt that are carried by the vapor currents. As a consequence of this process, the free area of the meshes is decreased and the linear...

  11. A practical implementation of acoustic full waveform inversion on graphical processing units

    Abreo Carrillo, Sergio Alberto; Ramírez Silva, Ana Beatriz; Reyes, Oscar; Abreo Carrillo, David Leonardo; González Alvarez, Herling
    Recently, Full Waveform Inversion (FWI) has gained more attention in the exploration geophysics community as a data fitting method that provides high-resolution seismic velocity models. Some of FWI essential components are a cost function to measure the misfit between observed and modeled data, a wave propagator to compute the modeled data and an initial velocity model that is iteratively updated until an acceptable decrease of the cost function is reached. Since FWI is a wave equation based method, the computational costs are elevated. In this paper, it is presented a fast Graphical Processing Unit (GPU) FWI implementation that uses a...

  12. Ethyl acetate oxidation over MnOx-CoOx: Relationship between oxygen and catalytic activity

    Castaño Robayo, María Haidy; Molina, Rafael; Moreno, Sonia
    Catalytic oxidation is an alternative for the transformation of volatile organic compounds. Mn and Co catalysts are the most active in oxidation reactions because of their redox properties and oxygen mobility. Co-precipitation is one of the methods most used to prepare metal oxides. In this regard and in order to understand the relationship between oxygen species and the activity of the catalysts, in this work mixed oxides of Co-Mn-Mg-Al were prepared by the co-precipitation method. The catalysts were characterized by XRD, surface area, temperature-programmed desorption of oxygen, oxygen storage capacity, 18O/16O isotopic exchange; and the catalytic activity was evaluated in...

  13. Supercritical transesterification of beef tallow for biodiesel production in a batch reactor

    Marulanda Buitrago, Paola Andrea; Marulanda Cardona, Víctor Fernando
    Supercritical transesterification experiments of beef tallow with ethanol were carried out in a batch reactor in order to assess the effect of temperature (350 - 400°C), reactant molar ratio (9:1 - 15:1) and reaction time (8 - 40 min). Composition of the produced biofuel was assessed in terms of the percentage of peak area of the long chain Fatty Acid Ethyl Esters (FAEEs) identified, including also the decomposition products generated as a result of thermal cracking or cis-trans isomerization reactions. Thermal decomposition of FAEEs produced from beef tallow included short chain ethyl esters (C8 - C13), ethyl pentadecanoate (C15:0), heptadecanoate...

  14. Relationship between the mud organic matter content and the maximum height of diapiric domes using analog models

    González Morales, Olivia; Rodríguez Madrid, Alfonso Luis; Ríos, Carlos Alberto; Ojeda, Germán Y.
    Mud diapirs are sedimentary structures produced by mud intrusion through a host rock. In this study, analog models of mud diapirism showed that gas generated from decomposition of organic matter contained in diapiric mud plays a fundamental role in the generation of these structures. This study is aimed to test the hypothesis that a relationship exists between the mud organic matter content (TOC) and the maximum height of diapiric domes. Our experiments were performed using sand boxes 20 x 20 x 16 cm in size, using nine mud combinations with TOC values that ranged between 1.6 and 4.3%, repeated 5...

  15. Synthesis and characterization of nanostructured materials based on Fe50Co50 and Fe75Co25

    Caamaño De Ávila, Zulia Isabel; Consuegra Peña, María Angélica; Baró, M. D.; Suriñach, Santiago
    Nowadays, nanostructured magnetic materials are of great interest both in basic research on magnetism and in technological applications. The interest lies in the nanometric particle size, which affects their magnetic properties. Nanostructured magnetic materials based on FeCo have relevant soft magnetic properties, useful in potential applications in information storage equipment and devices. In this paper, nanostructured materials based on Fe50Co50 and Fe75Co25 were synthesized using the mechanical alloying method. The influence that the composition and milling time have on the morphology, structure and magnetic properties of nanostructured powders was studied by means of X-ray diffraction, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and...

  16. Operating conditions influence on VMD and SGMD for ethanol recovery from aqueous solutions

    Cotamo De la Espriella, Ricardo Javier; Barón Núñez, Fredy W.; Muvdi Nova, Carlos Jesús
    This work focuses on Vacuum Membrane Distillation (VMD) and Sweeping Gas Membrane Distillation (SGMD) as a separating technique of ethanol from aqueous solutions. VMD was studied at moderate temperature (30, 40 and 50°C) and pressure (0.11, 0.20 and 0.30 atm) conditions, whereas SGMD was studied at different temperatures (50 and 70°C) and air-flow rates (10x10-6 and 20x10-6 m³·min-1). These techniques were experimentally studied using prepared ethanol-water solutions and fermented broths, with ethanol at 10% w/w. Under these operating conditions and using prepared ethanol-water solutions, an average total flux of 22.61 and 1.6 kg·m-2·h-1, and concentration factors of 2.3 and 1.7...

  17. Mediator system to increase the delignification of sugarcane residues with fungal enzymes

    Flórez Pardo, Luz Marina; Parra Paz, Angela Sofía; López Galán, Jorge Enrique; Figueroa Oviedo, Jersson Ivan
    Industrial residues are resources that generate regional energy security but they have not been sufficiently valued. In southern Colombia, the sugar cane sector produces approximately 9'000 000 T/year of residues, mostly represented by tops and leaves. Delignification is a critical step in the process of obtaining ethanol from these residues. The removal of lignin using extracellular enzyme extracts and mediators has not been widely studied. Therefore, a methodology was developed to extract, a cocktail of enzymes consisting of laccase, manganese peroxidase (MnP) and lignoperoxidase (LiP) from Pleurotus ostreatus, which was cultivated by solid substrate fermentation. The extracts with two mediators:...

  18. Well screening for matrix stimulation treatments

    Saavedra, Nestor Fernando; Solano, R.; Gidley, J.; Reyes, C. A.; Rodriguez, P.; Kondo, Fukuo; Hernández, J.
    Matrix acidizing is a stimulation technique only applicable to wells with surrounding damage. It is therefore very important to differentiate the real formation damage from the damage caused by flow dynamic effects. The mechanical damage corresponds to flow restrictions caused by partial penetration, poor perforation as well as to reduced diameters of the production tubing. The dynamic effects are generated by inertia caused by high flow rates and high-pressure differentials. A common practice in our oil fields is to use a general formulation as acid treatment, most of the times without previous lab studies that guarantee the applicability of the...

  19. Determinación de las direcciones de paleocorrientes en el Campo Provincia, Valle Medio del Magdalena

    Rubiano, J. l.
    For the determination of the palaeocurrent directions in the Provinica Field, were took 2664 measurements of the dipmeter logs were taken to make the statistical analyses of the Formations that are between Umir and the Real Group (Maastrichtian and Miocene age). The palaeocurrent directions are defined based on statistics analyses, as the average (in azimuth) and its consistency ratio (CR). The paleocurrent directions are principally to the northeast for the Umir and the Lower Real Formations; to the east for the Lisama, Esmeraldas, Mugrosa, Colorado and Middle Real Formations, and in the southeast for the Upper Real Formation. In general,...

  20. Linearization of a generalized material balance equation for coalbed methane reservoirs

    Peñuela, Gherson; Ordoñez R., A.; Bejarano, A.
    A generalized material balance equation was presented at the Escuela de Petróleos de la Universidad Industrial de Santander for coal seam gas reservoirs based on Walsh 's method, who worked in an analogous approach for oil and gas conventional reservoirs (Walsh, 1 995). Our equation was based on twelve similar assumptions itemized by Walsh for his generalized expression for conventional reservoirs, it was started from the same volume balance consideration and was finally reorganized like Walsh (1 994) did. Because it is not expressed in terms of traditional (P/Z) plots, as proposed by King (1 990), it allows to perform...

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