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PubMed Central (PMC3 - NLM DTD) (3.020.751 recursos)

Archive of life sciences journal literature at the U.S. National Institutes of Health (NIH), developed and managed by NIH's National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) in the National Library of Medicine (NLM).

American Journal of Physiology - Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology

Mostrando recursos 1 - 20 de 1.006

  1. Suppression of fibrogenic signaling in hepatic stellate cells by Twist1-dependent microRNA-214 expression: Role of exosomes in horizontal transfer of Twist1

    Chen, Li; Chen, Ruju; Kemper, Sherri; Charrier, Alyssa; Brigstock, David R.
    A hallmark of liver fibrosis is the activation of hepatic stellate cells (HSC), which results in their production of fibrotic molecules, a process that is largely regulated by connective tissue growth factor (CCN2). CCN2 is increasingly expressed during HSC activation because of diminished expression of microRNA-214 (miR-214), a product of dynamin 3 opposite strand (DNM3os) that directly suppresses CCN2 mRNA. We show that an E-box in the miR-214 promoter binds the basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor, Twist1, which drives miR-214 expression and results in CCN2 suppression. Twist1 expression was suppressed in HSC of fibrotic livers or in cultured HSC undergoing activation...

  2. Ranolazine inhibits voltage-gated mechanosensitive sodium channels in human colon circular smooth muscle cells

    Neshatian, Leila; Strege, Peter R.; Rhee, Poong-Lyul; Kraichely, Robert E.; Mazzone, Amelia; Bernard, Cheryl E.; Cima, Robert R.; Larson, David W.; Dozois, Eric J.; Kline, Crystal F.; Mohler, Peter J.; Beyder, Arthur; Farrugia, Gianrico
    Human jejunum smooth muscle cells (SMCs) and interstitial cells of Cajal (ICCs) express the SCN5A-encoded voltage-gated, mechanosensitive sodium channel NaV1.5. NaV1.5 contributes to small bowel excitability, and NaV1.5 inhibitor ranolazine produces constipation by an unknown mechanism. We aimed to determine the presence and molecular identity of Na+ current in the human colon smooth muscle and to examine the effects of ranolazine on Na+ current, mechanosensitivity, and smooth muscle contractility. Inward currents were recorded by whole cell voltage clamp from freshly dissociated human colon SMCs at rest and with shear stress. SCN5A mRNA and NaV1.5 protein were examined by RT-PCR and...

  3. The gastrin-releasing peptide analog bombesin preserves exocrine and endocrine pancreas morphology and function during parenteral nutrition

    Pierre, Joseph F.; Neuman, Joshua C.; Brill, Allison L.; Brar, Harpreet K.; Thompson, Mary F.; Cadena, Mark T.; Connors, Kelsey M.; Busch, Rebecca A.; Heneghan, Aaron F.; Cham, Candace M.; Jones, Elaina K.; Kibbe, Carly R.; Davis, Dawn B.; Groblewski, Guy E.; Kudsk, Kenneth A.; Kimple, Michelle E.
    Stimulation of digestive organs by enteric peptides is lost during total parental nutrition (PN). Here we examine the role of the enteric peptide bombesin (BBS) in stimulation of the exocrine and endocrine pancreas during PN. BBS protects against exocrine pancreas atrophy and dysfunction caused by PN. BBS also augments circulating insulin levels, suggesting an endocrine pancreas phenotype. While no significant changes in gross endocrine pancreas morphology were observed, pancreatic islets isolated from BBS-treated PN mice showed a significantly enhanced insulin secretion response to the glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) agonist exendin-4, correlating with enhanced GLP-1 receptor expression. BBS itself had no effect...

  4. Rhesus rotavirus VP4 sequence-specific activation of mononuclear cells is associated with cholangiopathy in murine biliary atresia

    Walther, Ashley; Mohanty, Sujit K.; Donnelly, Bryan; Coots, Abigail; Lages, Celine S.; Lobeck, Inna; Dupree, Phylicia; Meller, Jaroslaw; McNeal, Monica; Sestak, Karol; Tiao, Greg
    Biliary atresia (BA), a neonatal obstructive cholangiopathy, remains the most common indication for pediatric liver transplantation in the United States. In the murine model of BA, Rhesus rotavirus (RRV) VP4 surface protein determines biliary duct tropism. In this study, we investigated how VP4 governs induction of murine BA. Newborn mice were injected with 16 strains of rotavirus and observed for clinical symptoms of BA and mortality. Cholangiograms were performed to confirm bile duct obstruction. Livers and bile ducts were harvested 7 days postinfection for virus titers and histology. Flow cytometry assessed mononuclear cell activation in harvested cell populations from the...

  5. Sodium butyrate stimulates NHE8 expression via its role on activating NHE8 basal promoter activity

    Xu, Hua; McCoy, Anthony; Li, Jing; Zhao, Yang; Ghishan, Fayez K.
    Butyrate is a major metabolite in colonic lumen. It is produced from bacterial fermentation of dietary fiber. Butyrate has been shown to stimulate electroneutral sodium absorption through its regulation on sodium/hydrogen exchanger 3 (NHE3). Although NHE8, the newest addition of intestinal NHE family, is involved in sodium absorption in the intestinal tract, whether butyrate modulates NHE8 expression in the intestinal epithelial cells is not known. In the current study, we showed that butyrate treatment strongly induced NHE8 protein and NHE8 mRNA expression in human intestinal epithelial cells. Transfection with the human NHE8 promoter reporter constructs showed that butyrate treatment stimulated...

  6. Bimodal effect of oxidative stress in internal anal sphincter smooth muscle

    Singh, Jagmohan; Kumar, Sumit; Rattan, Satish
    Changes in oxidative stress may affect basal tone and relaxation of the internal anal sphincter (IAS) smooth muscle in aging. We examined this issue by investigating the effects of the oxidative stress inducer 6-anilino-5,8-quinolinedione (LY-83583) in basal as well as U-46619-stimulated tone, and nonadrenergic, noncholinergic (NANC) relaxation in rat IAS. LY-83583, which works via generation of reactive oxygen species in living cells, produced a bimodal effect in IAS tone: lower concentrations (0.1 nM to 10 μM) produced a concentration-dependent increase, while higher concentrations (50–100 μM) produced a decrease in IAS tone. An increase in IAS tone by lower concentrations was...

  7. Parkin regulates mitophagy and mitochondrial function to protect against alcohol-induced liver injury and steatosis in mice

    Williams, Jessica A.; Ni, Hong-Min; Ding, Yifeng; Ding, Wen-Xing
    Alcoholic liver disease claims two million lives per year. We previously reported that autophagy protected against alcohol-induced liver injury and steatosis by removing damaged mitochondria. However, the mechanisms for removal of these mitochondria are unknown. Parkin is an evolutionarily conserved E3 ligase that is recruited to damaged mitochondria to initiate ubiquitination of mitochondrial outer membrane proteins and subsequent mitochondrial degradation by mitophagy. In addition to its role in mitophagy, Parkin has been shown to have other roles in maintaining mitochondrial function. We investigated whether Parkin protected against alcohol-induced liver injury and steatosis using wild-type (WT) and Parkin knockout (KO) mice...

  8. Impact of ursodeoxycholic acid on a CCK1R cholesterol-binding site may contribute to its positive effects in digestive function

    Desai, Aditya J.; Dong, Maoqing; Harikumar, Kaleeckal G.; Miller, Laurence J.
    Dysfunction of the type 1 cholecystokinin (CCK) receptor (CCK1R) as a result of increased gallbladder muscularis membrane cholesterol has been implicated in the pathogenesis of cholesterol gallstones. Administration of ursodeoxycholic acid, which is structurally related to cholesterol, has been shown to have beneficial effects on gallstone formation. Our aims were to explore the possible direct effects and mechanism of action of bile acids on CCK receptor function. We studied the effects of structurally related hydrophobic chenodeoxycholic acid and hydrophilic ursodeoxycholic acid in vitro on CCK receptor function in the setting of normal and elevated membrane cholesterol. We also examined their...

  9. Circular and longitudinal muscles shortening indicates sliding patterns during peristalsis and transient lower esophageal sphincter relaxation

    Patel, Nirali; Jiang, Yanfen; Mittal, Ravinder K.; Kim, Tae Ho; Ledgerwood, Melissa; Bhargava, Valmik
    Esophageal axial shortening is caused by longitudinal muscle (LM) contraction, but circular muscle (CM) may also contribute to axial shortening because of its spiral morphology. The goal of our study was to show patterns of contraction of CM and LM layers during peristalsis and transient lower esophageal sphincter (LES) relaxation (TLESR). In rats, esophageal and LES morphology was assessed by histology and immunohistochemistry, and function with the use of piezo-electric crystals and manometry. Electrical stimulation of the vagus nerve was used to induce esophageal contractions. In 18 healthy subjects, manometry and high frequency intraluminal ultrasound imaging during swallow-induced esophageal contractions...

  10. Impact of SCP-2/SCP-x gene ablation and dietary cholesterol on hepatic lipid accumulation

    Klipsic, Devon; Landrock, Danilo; Martin, Gregory G.; McIntosh, Avery L.; Landrock, Kerstin K.; Mackie, John T.; Schroeder, Friedhelm; Kier, Ann B.
    While a high-cholesterol diet induces hepatic steatosis, the role of intracellular sterol carrier protein-2/sterol carrier protein-x (SCP-2/SCP-x) proteins is unknown. We hypothesized that ablating SCP-2/SCP-x [double knockout (DKO)] would impact hepatic lipids (cholesterol and cholesteryl ester), especially in high-cholesterol-fed mice. DKO did not alter food consumption, and body weight (BW) gain decreased especially in females, concomitant with hepatic steatosis in females and less so in males. DKO-induced steatosis in control-fed wild-type (WT) mice was associated with 1) loss of SCP-2; 2) upregulation of liver fatty acid binding protein (L-FABP); 3) increased mRNA and/or protein levels of sterol regulatory element binding...

  11. Vitamin D receptor pathway is required for probiotic protection in colitis

    Wu, Shaoping; Yoon, Sonia; Zhang, Yong-Guo; Lu, Rong; Xia, Yinglin; Wan, Jiandi; Petrof, Elaine O.; Claud, Erika C.; Chen, Di; Sun, Jun
    Low expression of vitamin D receptor (VDR) and dysfunction of vitamin D/VDR signaling are reported in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD); therefore, restoration of VDR function to control inflammation in IBD is desirable. Probiotics have been used in the treatment of IBD. However, the role of probiotics in the modulation of VDR signaling to effectively reduce inflammation is unknown. We identified a novel role of probiotics in activating VDR activity, thus inhibiting inflammation, using cell models and VDR knockout mice. We found that the probiotics Lactobacillus rhamnosus strain GG (LGG) and Lactobacillus plantarum (LP) increased VDR protein expression in...

  12. Animal Models of Gastrointestinal and Liver Diseases. The difficulty of animal modeling of pancreatic cancer for preclinical evaluation of therapeutics

    Logsdon, Craig D.; Arumugam, Thiruvengadam; Ramachandran, Vijaya
    Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is relatively rare but extremely lethal. Standard cytotoxic therapeutics provide little benefit. To date, newer targeted therapeutics have also not been highly successful. Often novel therapeutics that have appeared to perform well in preclinical models have failed in the clinic. Many factors contribute to these failures, but the one most often attributed is the shortcomings of the preclinical models. A plethora of animal models now exist for PDAC, including cell line xenografts, patient-derived xenografts, a wide variety of genetic mouse models, and syngeneic xenografts. These models have generated a tremendous amount of information useful for the...

  13. Inflammation-induced abnormalities in the subcellular localization and trafficking of the neurokinin 1 receptor in the enteric nervous system

    Poole, Daniel P.; Lieu, TinaMarie; Pelayo, Juan Carlos; Eriksson, Emily M.; Veldhuis, Nicholas A.; Bunnett, Nigel W.
    Activated G protein-coupled receptors traffic to endosomes and are sorted to recycling or degradative pathways. Endosomes are also a site of receptor signaling of sustained and pathophysiologically important processes, including inflammation. However, the mechanisms of endosomal sorting of receptors and the impact of disease on trafficking have not been fully defined. We examined the effects of inflammation on the subcellular distribution and trafficking of the substance P (SP) neurokinin 1 receptor (NK1R) in enteric neurons. We studied NK1R trafficking in enteric neurons of the mouse colon using immunofluorescence and confocal microscopy. The impact of inflammation was studied in IL10−/−-piroxicam and...

  14. Functional characteristics of L1156F-CFTR associated with alcoholic chronic pancreatitis in Japanese

    Kondo, Shiho; Fujiki, Kotoyo; Ko, Shigeru B. H.; Yamamoto, Akiko; Nakakuki, Miyuki; Ito, Yasutomo; Shcheynikov, Nikolay; Kitagawa, Motoji; Naruse, Satoru; Ishiguro, Hiroshi
    Although cystic fibrosis is rare in Japanese, measurement of sweat Cl− has suggested mild dysfunction of cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) in some patients with chronic pancreatitis. In the present study, we have investigated the association of CFTR variants and chronic pancreatitis in Japanese and the functional characteristics of a Japanese- and pancreatitis-specific CFTR variant, L1156F. Seventy patients with alcoholic chronic pancreatitis, 18 patients with idiopathic chronic pancreatitis, and 180 normal subjects participated. All exons and their boundaries and promoter region of the CFTR gene were sequenced. Human embryonic kidney-293 cells were transfected with three CFTR variants (M470V, L1156F,...

  15. Simulation studies of circular muscle contraction, longitudinal muscle shortening, and their coordination in esophageal transport

    Kou, Wenjun; Pandolfino, John E.; Kahrilas, Peter J.; Patankar, Neelesh A.
    On the basis of a fully coupled active musculomechanical model for esophageal transport, we aimed to find the roles of circular muscle (CM) contraction and longitudinal muscle (LM) shortening in esophageal transport, and the influence of their coordination. Two groups of studies were conducted using a computational model. In the first group, bolus transport with only CM contraction, only LM shortening, or both was simulated. Overall features and detailed information on pressure and the cross-sectional area (CSA) of mucosal and the two muscle layers were analyzed. In the second group, bolus transport with varying delay in CM contraction or LM...

  16. Therapeutic targeting of bile acids

    Camilleri, Michael; Gores, Gregory J.
    The first objectives of this article are to review the structure, chemistry, and physiology of bile acids and the types of bile acid malabsorption observed in clinical practice. The second major theme addresses the classical or known properties of bile acids, such as the role of bile acid sequestration in the treatment of hyperlipidemia; the use of ursodeoxycholic acid in therapeutics, from traditional oriental medicine to being, until recently, the drug of choice in cholestatic liver diseases; and the potential for normalizing diverse bowel dysfunctions in irritable bowel syndrome, either by sequestering intraluminal bile acids for diarrhea or by delivering...

  17. Hepatic TLR4 signaling in obese NAFLD

    Sharifnia, Torfay; Antoun, Joseph; Verriere, Thomas G. C.; Suarez, Giovanni; Wattacheril, Julia; Wilson, Keith T.; Peek, Richard M.; Abumrad, Naji N.; Flynn, Charles R.
    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease occurs frequently in the setting of metabolic syndrome, but the factors leading to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) are not fully understood. This study investigated Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) signaling in human liver with the goal of delineating whether activation of this pathway segregates those with nonalcoholic fatty liver from those with NASH. Experiments were performed using liver biopsy tissue obtained from class III obese subjects undergoing bariatric surgery, and extended to an immortalized human hepatocyte HepaRG cell line and primary human hepatocytes. The bacterial endotoxin lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and total free fatty acid levels were significantly increased in...

  18. Mitochondrial STAT3 contributes to transformation of Barrett's epithelial cells that express oncogenic Ras in a p53-independent fashion

    Yu, Chunhua; Huo, Xiaofang; Agoston, Agoston T.; Zhang, Xi; Theiss, Arianne L.; Cheng, Edaire; Zhang, Qiuyang; Zaika, Alexander; Pham, Thai H.; Wang, David H.; Lobie, Peter E.; Odze, Robert D.; Spechler, Stuart J.; Souza, Rhonda F.
    Metaplastic epithelial cells of Barrett's esophagus transformed by the combination of p53-knockdown and oncogenic Ras expression are known to activate signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3). When phosphorylated at tyrosine 705 (Tyr705), STAT3 functions as a nuclear transcription factor that can contribute to oncogenesis. STAT3 phosphorylated at serine 727 (Ser727) localizes in mitochondria, but little is known about mitochondrial STAT3's contribution to carcinogenesis in Barrett's esophagus, which is the focus of this study. We introduced a constitutively active variant of human STAT3 (STAT3CA) into the following: 1) non-neoplastic Barrett's (BAR-T) cells; 2) BAR-T cells with p53 knockdown; and...

  19. Adult zebrafish intestine resection: a novel model of short bowel syndrome, adaptation, and intestinal stem cell regeneration

    Schall, K. A.; Holoyda, K. A.; Grant, C. N.; Levin, D. E.; Torres, E. R.; Maxwell, A.; Pollack, H. A.; Moats, R. A.; Frey, M. R.; Darehzereshki, A.; Al Alam, D.; Lien, C.; Grikscheit, T. C.
    Loss of significant intestinal length from congenital anomaly or disease may lead to short bowel syndrome (SBS); intestinal failure may be partially offset by a gain in epithelial surface area, termed adaptation. Current in vivo models of SBS are costly and technically challenging. Operative times and survival rates have slowed extension to transgenic models. We created a new reproducible in vivo model of SBS in zebrafish, a tractable vertebrate model, to facilitate investigation of the mechanisms of intestinal adaptation. Proximal intestinal diversion at segment 1 (S1, equivalent to jejunum) was performed in adult male zebrafish. SBS fish emptied distal intestinal...

  20. A gamma variate model that includes stretched exponential is a better fit for gastric emptying data from mice

    Bajzer, Željko; Gibbons, Simon J.; Coleman, Heidi D.; Linden, David R.; Farrugia, Gianrico
    Noninvasive breath tests for gastric emptying are important techniques for understanding the changes in gastric motility that occur in disease or in response to drugs. Mice are often used as an animal model; however, the gamma variate model currently used for data analysis does not always fit the data appropriately. The aim of this study was to determine appropriate mathematical models to better fit mouse gastric emptying data including when two peaks are present in the gastric emptying curve. We fitted 175 gastric emptying data sets with two standard models (gamma variate and power exponential), with a gamma variate model...

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