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PubMed Central (PMC3 - NLM DTD) (2,690,101 recursos)
Archive of life sciences journal literature at the U.S. National Institutes of Health (NIH), developed and managed by NIH's National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) in the National Library of Medicine (NLM).

American Journal of Physiology - Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology

Mostrando recursos 1 - 20 de 779

1. Studies of mucus in mouse stomach, small intestine, and colon. II. Gastrointestinal mucus proteome reveals Muc2 and Muc5ac accompanied by a set of core proteins - Rodríguez-Piñeiro, Ana M.; Bergström, Joakim H.; Ermund, Anna; Gustafsson, Jenny K.; Schütte, André; Johansson, Malin E. V.; Hansson, Gunnar C.
The mucus that protects the surface of the gastrointestinal tract is rich in specialized O-glycoproteins called mucins, but little is known about other mucus proteins or their variability along the gastrointestinal tract. To ensure that only mucus was analyzed, we combined collection from explant tissues mounted in perfusion chambers, liquid sample preparation, single-shot mass spectrometry, and specific bioinformatics tools, to characterize the proteome of the murine mucus from stomach to distal colon. With our approach, we identified ∼1,300 proteins in the mucus. We found no differences in the protein composition or abundance between sexes, but there were clear differences in...

2. Genome-wide transcriptome analysis identifies novel gene signatures implicated in human chronic liver disease - Smalling, Rana L.; Delker, Don A.; Zhang, Yuxia; Nieto, Natalia; Mcguiness, Michael S.; Liu, Shuanghu; Friedman, Scott L.; Hagedorn, Curt H.; Wang, Li
The molecular mechanisms behind human liver disease progression to cirrhosis remain elusive. Nuclear receptor small heterodimer partner (SHP/Nr0b2) is a hepatic tumor suppressor and a critical regulator of liver function. SHP expression is diminished in human cirrhotic livers, suggesting a regulatory role in human liver diseases. The goal of this study was to identify novel SHP-regulated genes that are involved in the development and progression of chronic liver disease. To achieve this, we conducted the first comprehensive RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) analysis of Shp−/− mice, compared the results with human hepatitis C cirrhosis RNA-seq and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) microarray datasets, and...

3. Studies of mucus in mouse stomach, small intestine, and colon. I. Gastrointestinal mucus layers have different properties depending on location as well as over the Peyer's patches - Ermund, Anna; Schütte, André; Johansson, Malin E. V.; Gustafsson, Jenny K.; Hansson, Gunnar C.
Colon has been shown to have a two-layered mucus system where the inner layer is devoid of bacteria. However, a complete overview of the mouse gastrointestinal mucus system is lacking. We now characterize mucus release, thickness, growth over time, adhesive properties, and penetrability to fluorescent beads from stomach to distal colon. Colon displayed spontaneous mucus release and all regions released mucus in response to carbachol and PGE2, except the distal colon and domes of Peyer's patches. Stomach and colon had an inner mucus layer that was adherent to the epithelium. In contrast, the small intestine and Peyer's patches had a...

4. Studies of mucus in mouse stomach, small intestine, and colon. III. Gastrointestinal Muc5ac and Muc2 mucin O-glycan patterns reveal a regiospecific distribution - Holmén Larsson, Jessica M.; Thomsson, Kristina A.; Rodríguez-Piñeiro, Ana M.; Karlsson, Hasse; Hansson, Gunnar C.
The mouse intestinal mucus is mainly made up by the gel-forming Muc2 mucin and the stomach surface mucus Muc5ac, both extensively O-glycosylated. The oligosaccharide diversity provides a vast library of potential recognition sites for both commensal and pathogenic organisms. The mucin glycans are thus likely very important for the selection and maintenance of a stable intestinal flora. Here we have explored the O-glycan patterns of the mouse gastrointestinal tract mucins. The mucins from the mucus of the distal and proximal colon, ileum, jejunum, duodenum, and stomach of conventionally raised wild-type (C57BL/6) mice were separated by composite gel electrophoresis. The O-linked...

5. CXCL12 induces hepatic stellate cell contraction through a calcium-independent pathway - Saiman, Yedidya; Agarwal, Ritu; Hickman, DaShawn A.; Fausther, Michel; El-Shamy, Ahmed; Dranoff, Jonathan A.; Friedman, Scott L.; Bansal, Meena B.
Liver fibrosis, with subsequent development of cirrhosis and ultimately portal hypertension, results in the death of patients with end-stage liver disease if liver transplantation is not performed. Hepatic stellate cells (HSCs), central mediators of liver fibrosis, resemble tissue pericytes and regulate intrahepatic blood flow by modulating pericapillary resistance. Therefore, HSCs can contribute to portal hypertension in patients with chronic liver disease (CLD). We have previously demonstrated that activated HSCs express functional chemokine receptor, CXCR4, and that receptor engagement by its ligand, CXCL12, which is increased in patients with CLD, leads to further stellate cell activation in a CXCR4-specific manner. We...

6. Glucagon-like peptide-2 induces rapid digestive adaptation following intestinal resection in preterm neonates - Vegge, Andreas; Thymann, Thomas; Lund, Pernille; Stoll, Barbara; Bering, Stine B.; Hartmann, Bolette; Jelsing, Jacob; Qvist, Niels; Burrin, Douglas G.; Jeppesen, Palle B.; Holst, Jens J.; Sangild, Per T.
Short bowel syndrome (SBS) is a frequent complication after intestinal resection in infants suffering from intestinal disease. We tested whether treatment with the intestinotrophic hormone glucagon-like peptide-2 (GLP-2) increases intestinal volume and function in the period immediately following intestinal resection in preterm pigs. Preterm pigs were fed enterally for 48 h before undergoing resection of 50% of the small intestine and establishment of a jejunostomy. Following resection, pigs were maintained on total parenteral nutrition (TPN) without (SBS, n = 8) or with GLP-2 treatment (3.5 μg/kg body wt per h, SBS+GLP-2, n = 7) and compared with a group of...

7. Paradoxical regulation of ChAT and nNOS expression in animal models of Crohn's colitis and ulcerative colitis - Winston, John H.; Li, Qingjie; Sarna, Sushil K.
Morphological and functional changes in the enteric nervous system (ENS) have been reported in inflammatory bowel disease. We examined the effects of inflammation on the expression of choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) and nNOS in the muscularis externae of two models of colonic inflammation, trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS)-induced colitis, which models Crohn's disease-like inflammation, and DSS-induced colitis, which models ulcerative Colitis-like inflammation. In TNBS colitis, we observed significant decline in ChAT, nNOS, and protein gene product (PGP) 9.5 protein and mRNA levels. In DSS colitis, ChAT and PGP9.5 were significantly upregulated while nNOS levels did not change. The nNOS dimer-to-monomer ratio decreased...

8. Differential expression of multidrug resistance protein 5 and phosphodiesterase 5 and regulation of cGMP levels in phasic and tonic smooth muscle - Al-Shboul, Othman; Mahavadi, Sunila; Sriwai, Wimolpak; Grider, John R.; Murthy, Karnam S.
Previous studies have identified differences in the expression of proteins that regulate myosin light chain phosphorylation and contraction in tonic and phasic smooth muscle. cGMP plays a critical role in smooth muscle relaxation and is important for optimal function of phasic and tonic smooth muscle. The intracellular cGMP levels are regulated by its hydrolysis via phosphodiesterase 5 (PDE5) and efflux via novel multidrug resistance protein 5 (MRP5). In the present study we tested the hypothesis that the differences in the phasic and tonic behavior of smooth muscles may be related to differences in mechanisms that terminate cGMP signaling. Expression of...

9. Deletion of cationic amino acid transporter 2 exacerbates dextran sulfate sodium colitis and leads to an IL-17-predominant T cell response - Singh, Kshipra; Coburn, Lori A.; Barry, Daniel P.; Asim, Mohammad; Scull, Brooks P.; Allaman, Margaret M.; Lewis, Nuruddeen D.; Washington, M. Kay; Rosen, Michael J.; Williams, Christopher S.; Chaturvedi, Rupesh; Wilson, Keith T.
l-Arginine (l-Arg) is a semiessential amino acid that has altered availability in human ulcerative colitis (UC), a form of inflammatory bowel disease, and is beneficial in murine colitis induced by dextran sulfate sodium (DSS), a model with similarity to UC. We assessed the role of cationic amino acid transporter 2 (CAT2), the inducible transporter of l-Arg, in DSS colitis. Expression of CAT2 was upregulated in tissues from colitic mice and localized predominantly to colonic macrophages. CAT2-deficient (CAT2−/−) mice exposed to DSS exhibited worsening of survival, body weight loss, colon weight, and histological injury. These effects were associated with increased serum...

10. Neuropeptide Y inhibits biliary hyperplasia of cholestatic rats by paracrine and autocrine mechanisms - DeMorrow, Sharon; Meng, Fanyin; Venter, Julie; Leyva-Illades, Dinorah; Francis, Heather; Frampton, Gabriel; Pae, Hae Yong; Quinn, Matthew; Onori, Paolo; Glaser, Shannon; McDaniel, Kelly; Mancinelli, Romina; Gaudio, Eugenio; Alpini, Gianfranco; Franchitto, Antonio
Neuropeptide Y (NPY) exerts its functions through six subtypes of receptors (Y1–Y6). Biliary homeostasis is regulated by several factors through autocrine/paracrine signaling. NPY inhibits cholangiocarcinoma growth; however, no information exists regarding the autocrine/paracrine role of NPY on biliary hyperplasia during cholestasis. The aims of this study were to determine: 1) the expression of NPY and Y1–Y5 in cholangiocytes and 2) the paracrine/autocrine effects of NPY on cholangiocyte proliferation. Normal or bile duct ligation (BDL) rats were treated with NPY, neutralizing anti-NPY antibody, or vehicle for 7 days. NPY and NPY receptor (NPYR) expression was assessed in liver sections and isolated...

11. Mammalian colonocytes possess a carrier-mediated mechanism for uptake of vitamin B3 (niacin): studies utilizing human and mouse colonic preparations - Kumar, Jeyan S.; Subramanian, Veedamali S.; Kapadia, Rubina; Kashyap, Moti L.; Said, Hamid M.
Niacin (vitamin B3; nicotinic acid) plays an important role in maintaining redox state of cells and is obtained from endogenous and exogenous sources. The latter source has generally been assumed to be the dietary niacin, but another exogenous source that has been ignored is the niacin that is produced by the normal microflora of the large intestine. For this source of niacin to be bioavailable, it needs to be absorbed, but little is known about the ability of the large intestine to absorb niacin and the mechanism involved. Here we addressed these issues using the nontransformed human colonic epithelial NCM460...

12. Heparan sulfate on intestinal epithelial cells plays a critical role in intestinal crypt homeostasis via Wnt/β-catenin signaling - Yamamoto, Shuji; Nakase, Hiroshi; Matsuura, Minoru; Honzawa, Yusuke; Matsumura, Kayoko; Uza, Norimitsu; Yamaguchi, Yu; Mizoguchi, Emiko; Chiba, Tsutomu
Heparan sulfate (HS), a constituent of HS proteoglycans (HSPGs), is a linear polysaccharide present on the cell surface. HSPGs modulate functions of several growth factors and signaling molecules. We examined whether small intestinal epithelial HS plays some roles in crypt homeostasis using intestinal epithelium cell (IEC)-specific HS-deficient C57Bl/6 mice. Survival rate after total body irradiation was significantly reduced in HS-deficient mice due to profound intestinal injury. HS-deficient IECs exhibited Wnt/β-catenin pathway disruption, decreased levels of β-catenin nuclear localization, and reduced expression of Wnt target genes, including Lgr5 during crypt regeneration. Moreover, epithelial HS increased Wnt binding affinity of IECs, promoted...

13. Regulated traffic of anion transporters in mammalian Brunner's glands: a role for water and fluid transport - Collaco, Anne M.; Jakab, Robert L.; Hoekstra, Nadia E.; Mitchell, Kisha A.; Brooks, Amos; Ameen, Nadia A.
The Brunner's glands of the proximal duodenum exert barrier functions through secretion of glycoproteins and antimicrobial peptides. However, ion transporter localization, function, and regulation in the glands are less clear. Mapping the subcellular distribution of transporters is an important step toward elucidating trafficking mechanisms of fluid transport in the gland. The present study examined 1) changes in the distribution of intestinal anion transporters and the aquaporin 5 (AQP5) water channel in rat Brunner's glands following second messenger activation and 2) anion transporter distribution in Brunner's glands from healthy and disease-affected human tissues. Cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR), AQP5, sodium-potassium-coupled...

14. CTRP3 attenuates diet-induced hepatic steatosis by regulating triglyceride metabolism - Peterson, Jonathan M.; Seldin, Marcus M.; Wei, Zhikui; Aja, Susan; Wong, G. William
CTRP3 is a secreted plasma protein of the C1q family that helps regulate hepatic gluconeogenesis and is downregulated in a diet-induced obese state. However, the role of CTRP3 in regulating lipid metabolism has not been established. Here, we used a transgenic mouse model to address the potential function of CTRP3 in ameliorating high-fat diet-induced metabolic stress. Both transgenic and wild-type mice fed a high-fat diet showed similar body weight gain, food intake, and energy expenditure. Despite similar adiposity to wild-type mice upon diet-induced obesity (DIO), CTRP3 transgenic mice were strikingly resistant to the development of hepatic steatosis, had reduced serum...

15. Cicletanine stimulates eNOS phosphorylation and NO production via Akt and MAP kinase/Erk signaling in sinusoidal endothelial cells - Liu, Songling; Rockey, Don C.
The function of the endothelial isoform of nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) and production of nitric oxide (NO) is altered in a number of disease states. Pharmacological approaches to enhancing NO synthesis and thus perhaps endothelial function could have substantial benefits in patients. We analyzed the effect of cicletanine, a synthetic pyridine with potent vasodilatory characteristics, on eNOS function and NO production in normal (liver) and injured rat sinusoidal endothelial cells, and we studied the effect of cicletanine-induced NO on stellate cell contraction and portal pressure in an in vivo model of liver injury. Sinusoidal endothelial cells were isolated from normal...

16. Sulfate secretion and chloride absorption are mediated by the anion exchanger DRA (Slc26a3) in the mouse cecum - Whittamore, Jonathan M.; Freel, Robert W.; Hatch, Marguerite
Inorganic sulfate (SO42−) is essential for a multitude of physiological processes. The specific molecular pathway has been identified for uptake from the small intestine but is virtually unknown for the large bowel, although there is evidence for absorption involving Na+-independent anion exchange. A leading candidate is the apical chloride/bicarbonate (Cl−/HCO3−) exchanger DRA (down-regulated in adenoma; Slc26a3), primarily linked to the Cl− transporting defect in congenital chloride diarrhea. The present study set out to characterize transepithelial 35SO42− and 36Cl− fluxes across the isolated, short-circuited cecum from wild-type (WT) and knockout (KO) mice and subsequently to define the contribution of DRA. The...

17. Translational aspects of rectal evoked potentials: a comparative study in rats and humans - Nissen, Thomas Dahl; Brock, Christina; Graversen, Carina; Coen, Steven J.; Hultin, Leif; Aziz, Qasim; Lykkesfeldt, Jens; Drewes, Asbjørn Mohr
Inconsistencies between species has stunted the progress of developing new analgesics. To increase the success of translating results between species, improved comparable models are required. Twelve rats received rectal balloon distensions on 2 different days separated by 24.3 (SD 24.6) days. Rectal balloon distensions were also performed in 18 humans (mean age: 34 yr; range: 21–56 yr; 12 men) on two separate occasions, separated by 9.3 (SD 5.5) days. In rats, cerebral evoked potentials (CEPs) were recorded by use of implanted skull-electrodes to distension pressure of 80 mmHg. In humans surface electrodes and individualized pressure, corresponding to pain detection threshold,...

18. Paneth cells expand from newly created and preexisting cells during repair after doxorubicin-induced damage - King, Stephanie L.; Mohiuddin, Jahan J.; Dekaney, Christopher M.
Paneth cell numbers increase following intestinal damage, but mechanisms driving this process are not understood. We hypothesized that the increase in Paneth cell numbers is due to recruitment of cells from a preexisting pool of secretory progenitors. Mice were given a single injection of doxorubicin (Dox), and intestinal tissue was collected 0–168 h after treatment. Paneth, goblet, and intermediate cells were counted and evaluated for cell morphology. Quantitative RT-PCR was used to measure expression of various genes associated with Paneth cell allocation and maturation. Paneth cells were birth dated using incorporation of thymidine analogs given before or after Dox. Staining...

19. Role for intestinal CYP2E1 in alcohol-induced circadian gene-mediated intestinal hyperpermeability - Forsyth, Christopher B.; Voigt, Robin M.; Shaikh, Maliha; Tang, Yueming; Cederbaum, Arthur I.; Turek, Fred W.; Keshavarzian, Ali
We have shown that alcohol increases Caco-2 intestinal epithelial cell monolayer permeability in vitro by inducing the expression of redox-sensitive circadian clock proteins CLOCK and PER2 and that these proteins are necessary for alcohol-induced hyperpermeability. We hypothesized that alcohol metabolism by intestinal Cytochrome P450 isoform 2E1 (CYP2E1) could alter circadian gene expression (Clock and Per2), resulting in alcohol-induced hyperpermeability. In vitro Caco-2 intestinal epithelial cells were exposed to alcohol, and CYP2E1 protein, activity, and mRNA were measured. CYP2E1 expression was knocked down via siRNA and alcohol-induced hyperpermeability, and CLOCK and PER2 protein expression were measured. Caco-2 cells were also treated...

20. Induction of COX-2 expression by Helicobacter pylori is mediated by activation of epidermal growth factor receptor in gastric epithelial cells - Sierra, Johanna C.; Hobbs, Stuart; Chaturvedi, Rupesh; Yan, Fang; Wilson, Keith T.; Peek, Richard M.; Brent Polk, D.
Chronic infection of the gastric mucosa by Helicobacter pylori is associated with an increased risk of developing gastric cancer; however, the vast majority of infected individuals never develop this disease. One H. pylori virulence factor that increases gastric cancer risk is the cag pathogenicity island, which encodes a bacterial type IV secretion system. Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) expression is induced by proinflammatory stimuli, leading to increased prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) secretion by gastric epithelial cells. COX-2 expression is increased in gastric tissue from H. pylori-infected persons. H. pylori also activates the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) in gastric epithelial cells. We now demonstrate...

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