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PubMed Central (PMC3 - NLM DTD) (2.977.438 recursos)

Archive of life sciences journal literature at the U.S. National Institutes of Health (NIH), developed and managed by NIH's National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) in the National Library of Medicine (NLM).

American Journal of Physiology - Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology

Mostrando recursos 1 - 20 de 976

  1. Loss of HGF activator inhibits foveolar hyperplasia induced by oxyntic atrophy without altering gastrin levels

    Yamagata, Yukinori; Aikou, Susumu; Fukushima, Tsuyoshi; Kataoka, Hiroaki; Seto, Yasuyuki; Esumi, Hiroyasu; Kaminishi, Michio; Goldenring, James R.; Nomura, Sachiyo
    Spasmolytic polypeptide/trefoil family factor 2 expressing metaplasia (SPEM) is induced by oxyntic atrophy and is known as a precancerous or paracancerous lesion. We now have sought to determine whether hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) influences the development of SPEM and oxyntic atrophy. DMP-777, a parietal cell ablating reagent, was administered to HGF activator (HGFA)-deficient mice and wild-type mice. Gastric mucosal lineage changes were analyzed in the DMP-777 treatment phase and recovery phase. Both wild-type and HGFA knockout mice showed SPEM, and there was no difference in SPEM development. However, after cessation of DMP-777, HGFA-deficient mice showed delayed recovery from SPEM compared...

  2. Gastric dysregulation induced by microinjection of 6-OHDA in the substantia nigra pars compacta of rats is determined by alterations in the brain-gut axis

    Toti, Luca; Travagli, R. Alberto
    Idiopathic Parkinson's disease (PD) is a late-onset, chronic, and progressive motor dysfunction attributable to loss of nigrostriatal dopamine neurons. Patients with PD experience significant gastrointestinal (GI) issues, including gastroparesis. We aimed to evaluate whether 6-hydroxy-dopamine (6-OHDA)-induced degeneration of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc) induces gastric dysmotility via dysfunctions of the brain-gut axis. 6-OHDA microinjection into the SNpc induced a >90% decrease in tyrosine hydroxylase-immunoreactivity (IR) on the injection site. The [13C]-octanoic acid breath test showed a delayed gastric emptying 4 wk after the 6-OHDA treatment. In control rats, microinjection of the indirect sympathomimetic, tyramine, in the...

  3. Schlafen 3 induction by cyclic strain regulates intestinal epithelial differentiation

    Yuan, Lisi; Yu, Yingjie; Sanders, Matthew A.; Majumdar, Adhip P. N.; Basson, Marc D.
    The intestinal epithelium is subjected to repetitive deformation during normal gut function by peristalsis and villous motility. In vitro, cyclic strain promotes intestinal epithelial proliferation and induces an absorptive phenotype characterized by increased dipeptidyl dipeptidase (DPPIV) expression. Schlafen 3 is a novel gene recently associated with cellular differentiation. We sought to evaluate whether Schlafen 3 mediates the effects of strain on the differentiation of intestinal epithelial cell (IEC)-6 in the absence or presence of cyclic strain. Strain increased Schlafen 3 mRNA and protein. In cells transfected with a control-nontargeting siRNA, strain increased DPPIV-specific activity. However, Schlafen 3 reduction by siRNA...

  4. The small molecule ferristatin II induces hepatic hepcidin expression in vivo and in vitro

    Alkhateeb, Ahmed A.; Buckett, Peter D.; Gardeck, Andrew M.; Kim, Jonghan; Byrne, Shaina L.; Fraenkel, Paula G.; Wessling-Resnick, Marianne
    Previous studies have shown that administration of ferristatin II to rats is associated with decreased serum iron, reduced transferrin saturation, and increased hepatic hepcidin expression. BMP and IL-6 signaling act via Smad and Stat3 transcription factors, respectively, to increase expression of hepcidin, the master regulator of iron metabolism. In this study, we aimed to explore the underlying mechanism of ferristatin II action on hepcidin production. We found that ferristatin II greatly increased hepcidin expression both in vivo and in vitro. In the rat liver, ferristatin II treatment decreased expression of Smad downstream targets Smad7 and Id1 and increased expression of...

  5. Decreased melatonin secretion is associated with increased intestinal permeability and marker of endotoxemia in alcoholics

    Swanson, Garth R.; Gorenz, Annika; Shaikh, Maliha; Desai, Vishal; Forsyth, Christopher; Fogg, Louis; Burgess, Helen J.; Keshavarzian, Ali
    Chronic heavy alcohol use is known to cause gut leakiness and alcoholic liver disease (ALD), but only 30% of heavy drinkers develop increased intestinal permeability and ALD. The hypothesis of this study was that disruption of circadian rhythms is a potential risk factor in actively drinking alcoholics for gut leakiness and endotoxemia. We studied 20 subjects with alcohol use disorder (AD) and 17 healthy controls (HC, 6 day workers, 11 night workers). Subjects wore a wrist actiwatch for 7 days and underwent a 24-h dim light phase assessment and urine collection for intestinal permeability. The AD group had significantly less...

  6. Human esophageal myofibroblasts secrete proinflammatory cytokines in response to acid and Toll-like receptor 4 ligands

    Gargus, Matthew; Niu, Chao; Vallone, John G.; Binkley, Jana; Rubin, Deborah C.; Shaker, Anisa
    The pathophysiology of esophageal injury, repair, and inflammation in gastroesophageal reflux-disease (GERD) is complex. Whereas most studies have focused on the epithelial response to GERD injury, we are interested in the stromal response. We hypothesized that subepithelial esophageal myofibroblasts in GERD secrete proinflammatory cytokines in response to injurious agents encountered via epithelial barrier breaches or through dilated epithelial intercellular spaces. We determined the percentage of myofibroblasts [α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA)+vimentin+CD31−] in the subepithelial GERD and normal esophageal stroma by immunomorphologic analysis. We performed α-SMA coimmunostaining with IL-6 and p65. We established and characterized primary cultures of α-SMA+vimentin+CD31−CD45− human esophageal myofibroblasts...

  7. Nature of extracellular signal that triggers RhoA/ROCK activation for the basal internal anal sphincter tone in humans

    Rattan, Satish; Singh, Jagmohan; Kumar, Sumit; Phillips, Benjamin
    The extracellular signal that triggers activation of rho-associated kinase (RhoA/ROCK), the major molecular determinant of basal internal anal sphincter (IAS) smooth muscle tone, is not known. Using human IAS tissues, we identified the presence of the biosynthetic machineries for angiotensin II (ANG II), thromboxane A2 (TXA2), and prostaglandin F2α (PGF2α). These end products of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) (ANG II) and arachidonic acid (TXA2 and PGF2α) pathways and their effects in human IAS vs. rectal smooth muscle (RSM) were studied. A multipronged approach utilizing immunocytochemistry, Western blot analyses, and force measurements was implemented. Additionally, in a systematic analysis of the...

  8. Kupffer cell depletion protects against the steatosis, but not the liver damage, induced by marginal-copper, high-fructose diet in male rats

    Song, Ming; Schuschke, Dale A.; Zhou, Zhanxiang; Zhong, Wei; Zhang, Jiayuan; Zhang, Xiang; Wang, Yuhua; McClain, Craig J.
    High-fructose feeding impairs copper status and leads to low copper availability, which is a novel mechanism in obesity-related fatty liver. Copper deficiency-associated hepatic iron overload likely plays an important role in fructose-induced liver injury. Excess iron in the liver is distributed throughout hepatocytes and Kupffer cells (KCs). The aim of this study was to examine the role of KCs in the pathogenesis of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease induced by a marginal-copper high-fructose diet (CuMF). Male weanling Sprague-Dawley rats were fed either a copper-adequate or a marginally copper-deficient diet for 4 wk. Deionized water or deionized water containing 30% fructose (wt/vol)...

  9. β-Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide acts at prejunctional adenosine A1 receptors to suppress inhibitory musculomotor neurotransmission in guinea pig colon and human jejunum

    Wang, Guo-Du; Wang, Xi-Yu; Liu, Sumei; Xia, Yun; Zou, Fei; Qu, Meihua; Needleman, Bradley J.; Mikami, Dean J.; Wood, Jackie D.
    Intracellular microelectrodes were used to record neurogenic inhibitory junction potentials in the intestinal circular muscle coat. Electrical field stimulation was used to stimulate intramural neurons and evoke contraction of the smooth musculature. Exposure to β-nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (β-NAD) did not alter smooth muscle membrane potential in guinea pig colon or human jejunum. ATP, ADP, β-NAD, and adenosine, as well as the purinergic P2Y1 receptor antagonists MRS 2179 and MRS 2500 and the adenosine A1 receptor agonist 2-chloro-N6-cyclopentyladenosine, each suppressed inhibitory junction potentials in guinea pig and human preparations. β-NAD suppressed contractile force of twitch-like contractions evoked by electrical field stimulation...

  10. Chronic ethanol consumption disrupts diurnal rhythms of hepatic glycogen metabolism in mice

    Udoh, Uduak S.; Swain, Telisha M.; Filiano, Ashley N.; Gamble, Karen L.; Young, Martin E.; Bailey, Shannon M.
    Chronic ethanol consumption has been shown to significantly decrease hepatic glycogen content; however, the mechanisms responsible for this adverse metabolic effect are unknown. In this study, we examined the impact chronic ethanol consumption has on time-of-day-dependent oscillations (rhythms) in glycogen metabolism processes in the liver. For this, male C57BL/6J mice were fed either a control or ethanol-containing liquid diet for 5 wk, and livers were collected every 4 h for 24 h and analyzed for changes in various genes and proteins involved in hepatic glycogen metabolism. Glycogen displayed a robust diurnal rhythm in the livers of mice fed the control...

  11. Activation of the renin-angiotensin system stimulates biliary hyperplasia during cholestasis induced by extrahepatic bile duct ligation

    Afroze, Syeda H.; Munshi, Md Kamruzzaman; Martínez, Allyson K.; Uddin, Mohammad; Gergely, Maté; Szynkarski, Claudia; Guerrier, Micheleine; Nizamutdinov, Damir; Dostal, David; Glaser, Shannon
    Cholangiocyte proliferation is regulated in a coordinated fashion by many neuroendocrine factors through autocrine and paracrine mechanisms. The renin-angiotensin system (RAS) is known to play a role in the activation of hepatic stellate cells and blocking the RAS attenuates hepatic fibrosis. We investigated the role of the RAS during extrahepatic cholestasis induced by bile duct ligation (BDL). In this study, we used normal and BDL rats that were treated with control, angiotensin II (ANG II), or losartan for 2 wk. In vitro studies were performed in a primary rat cholangiocyte cell line (NRIC). The expression of renin, angiotensin-converting enzyme, angiotensinogen,...

  12. CXC chemokine receptor-4 signaling limits hepatocyte proliferation after hepatic ischemia-reperfusion in mice

    Wilson, Gregory C.; Freeman, Christopher M.; Kuethe, Joshua W.; Quillin, Ralph C.; Nojima, Hiroyuki; Schuster, Rebecca; Blanchard, John; Edwards, Michael J.; Caldwell, Charles C.; Lentsch, Alex B.
    The role of stromal cell-derived factor-1 (SDF-1 or CXCL12) and its receptor CXC chemokine receptor-4 (CXCR4) in ischemic liver injury and recovery has not been studied. Some reports suggest that this chemokine may aid in liver regeneration, but others suggest that it may be profibrotic through its activation of hepatic stellate cells. In this study we sought to elucidate the role of SDF-1 and its receptor CXCR4 during liver injury, recovery, and regeneration after ischemia-reperfusion (I/R). A murine model of partial (70%) I/R was used to induce liver injury and study the reparative and regenerative response. CXCR4 was expressed constitutively...

  13. Validation of a rapid, semiautomatic image analysis tool for measurement of gastric accommodation and emptying by magnetic resonance imaging

    Banerjee, Sreerup; Dixit, Sudeepa; Fox, Mark; Pal, Anupam
    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has advantages for the assessment of gastrointestinal structures and functions; however, processing MRI data is time consuming and this has limited uptake to a few specialist centers. This study introduces a semiautomatic image processing system for rapid analysis of gastrointestinal MRI. For assessment of simpler regions of interest (ROI) such as the stomach, the system generates virtual images along arbitrary planes that intersect the ROI edges in the original images. This generates seed points that are joined automatically to form contours on each adjacent two-dimensional image and reconstructed in three dimensions (3D). An alternative thresholding approach...

  14. Human and mouse tissue-engineered small intestine both demonstrate digestive and absorptive function

    Grant, Christa N.; Mojica, Salvador Garcia; Sala, Frederic G.; Hill, J. Ryan; Levin, Daniel E.; Speer, Allison L.; Barthel, Erik R.; Shimada, Hiroyuki; Zachos, Nicholas C.; Grikscheit, Tracy C.
    Short bowel syndrome (SBS) is a devastating condition in which insufficient small intestinal surface area results in malnutrition and dependence on intravenous parenteral nutrition. There is an increasing incidence of SBS, particularly in premature babies and newborns with congenital intestinal anomalies. Tissue-engineered small intestine (TESI) offers a therapeutic alternative to the current standard treatment, intestinal transplantation, and has the potential to solve its biggest challenges, namely donor shortage and life-long immunosuppression. We have previously demonstrated that TESI can be generated from mouse and human small intestine and histologically replicates key components of native intestine. We hypothesized that TESI also recapitulates...

  15. Fibroblast growth factor 10 alters the balance between goblet and Paneth cells in the adult mouse small intestine

    Al Alam, Denise; Danopoulos, Soula; Schall, Kathy; Sala, Frederic G.; Almohazey, Dana; Fernandez, G. Esteban; Georgia, Senta; Frey, Mark R.; Ford, Henri R.; Grikscheit, Tracy; Bellusci, Saverio
    Intestinal epithelial cell renewal relies on the right balance of epithelial cell migration, proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis. Intestinal epithelial cells consist of absorptive and secretory lineage. The latter is comprised of goblet, Paneth, and enteroendocrine cells. Fibroblast growth factor 10 (FGF10) plays a central role in epithelial cell proliferation, survival, and differentiation in several organs. The expression pattern of FGF10 and its receptors in both human and mouse intestine and their role in small intestine have yet to be investigated. First, we analyzed the expression of FGF10, FGFR1, and FGFR2, in the human ileum and throughout the adult mouse small...

  16. Inflammasomes in pancreatic physiology and disease

    Hoque, Rafaz; Mehal, Wajahat Z.
    In this review we summarize the role of inflammasomes in pancreatic physiology and disease with a focus on acute pancreatitis where much recent progress has been made. New findings have identified inducers of and cell specificity of inflammasome component expression in the pancreas, the contribution of inflammasome-regulated effectors to pancreatitis, and metabolic regulation of inflammasome activation, which are strong determinants of injury in pancreatitis. New areas of pancreatic biology will be highlighted in the context of our evolving understanding of gut microbiome- and injury-induced inflammasome priming, pyroptosis, and innate immune-mediated regulation of cell metabolism.

  17. Effects of obesity on severity of colitis and cytokine expression in mouse mesenteric fat. Potential role of adiponectin receptor 1

    Sideri, Aristea; Stavrakis, Dimitris; Bowe, Collin; Shih, David Q.; Fleshner, Phillip; Arsenescu, Violeta; Arsenescu, Razvan; Turner, Jerrold R.; Pothoulakis, Charalabos; Karagiannides, Iordanes
    In inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), obesity is associated with worsening of the course of disease. Here, we examined the role of obesity in the development of colitis and studied mesenteric fat-epithelial cell interactions in patients with IBD. We combined the diet-induce obesity with the trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS) colitis mouse model to create groups with obesity, colitis, and their combination. Changes in the mesenteric fat and intestine were assessed by histology, myeloperoxidase assay, and cytokine mRNA expression by real-time PCR. Medium from human mesenteric fat and cultured preadipocytes was obtained from obese patients and those with IBD. Histological analysis showed...

  18. Role of SM22 in the differential regulation of phasic vs. tonic smooth muscle

    Rattan, Satish; Ali, Mehboob
    Preliminary proteomics studies between tonic vs. phasic smooth muscles identified three distinct protein spots identified to be those of transgelin (SM22). The latter was found to be distinctly downregulated in the internal anal sphincter (IAS) vs. rectal smooth muscle (RSM) SMC. The major focus of the present studies was to examine the differential molecular control mechanisms by SM22 in the functionality of truly tonic smooth muscle of the IAS vs. the adjoining phasic smooth muscle of the RSM. We monitored SMC lengths before and after incubation with pFLAG-SM22 (for SM22 overexpression), and SM22 small-interfering RNA. pFLAG-SM22 caused concentration-dependent and significantly...

  19. Apolipoprotein A-V deficiency enhances chylomicron production in lymph fistula mice

    Zhang, Linda S.; Xu, Min; Yang, Qing; Ryan, Robert O.; Howles, Philip; Tso, Patrick
    Apolipoprotein A-V (apoA-V), a liver-synthesized apolipoprotein discovered in 2001, strongly modulates fasting plasma triglycerides (TG). Little is reported on the effect of apoA-V on postprandial plasma TG, an independent predictor for atherosclerosis. Overexpressing apoA-V in mice suppresses postprandial TG, but mechanisms focus on increased lipolysis or clearance of remnant particles. Unknown is whether apoA-V suppresses the absorption of dietary lipids by the gut. This study examines how apoA-V deficiency affects the steady-state absorption and lymphatic transport of dietary lipids in chow-fed mice. Using apoA-V knockout (KO, n = 8) and wild-type (WT, n = 8) lymph fistula mice, we analyzed...

  20. Human Clostridium difficile infection: altered mucus production and composition

    Engevik, Melinda A.; Yacyshyn, Mary Beth; Engevik, Kristen A.; Wang, Jiang; Darien, Benjamin; Hassett, Daniel J.; Yacyshyn, Bruce R.; Worrell, Roger T.
    The majority of antibiotic-induced diarrhea is caused by Clostridium difficile (C. difficile). Hospitalizations for C. difficile infection (CDI) have tripled in the last decade, emphasizing the need to better understand how the organism colonizes the intestine and maintain infection. The mucus provides an interface for bacterial-host interactions and changes in intestinal mucus have been linked host health. To assess mucus production and composition in healthy and CDI patients, the main mucins MUC1 and MUC2 and mucus oligosaccharides were examined. Compared with healthy subjects, CDI patients demonstrated decreased MUC2 with no changes in surface MUC1. Although MUC1 did not change at...

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