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PubMed Central (PMC3 - NLM DTD) (2,730,265 recursos)
Archive of life sciences journal literature at the U.S. National Institutes of Health (NIH), developed and managed by NIH's National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) in the National Library of Medicine (NLM).

American Journal of Physiology - Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology

Mostrando recursos 1 - 20 de 809

1. Purinergic receptor X7 is a key modulator of metabolic oxidative stress-mediated autophagy and inflammation in experimental nonalcoholic steatohepatitis - Das, Suvarthi; Seth, Ratanesh Kumar; Kumar, Ashutosh; Kadiiska, Maria B.; Michelotti, Gregory; Diehl, Anna Mae; Chatterjee, Saurabh
Recent studies indicate that metabolic oxidative stress, autophagy, and inflammation are hallmarks of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) progression. However, the molecular mechanisms that link these important events in NASH remain unclear. In this study, we investigated the mechanistic role of purinergic receptor X7 (P2X7) in modulating autophagy and resultant inflammation in NASH in response to metabolic oxidative stress. The study uses two rodent models of NASH. In one of them, a CYP2E1 substrate bromodichloromethane is used to induce metabolic oxidative stress and NASH. Methyl choline-deficient diet feeding is used for the other NASH model. CYP2E1 and P2X7 receptor gene-deleted mice are...

2. Evidence for and against epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition in the liver - Xie, Guanhua; Diehl, Anna Mae
The outcome of liver injury is determined by the success of repair. Liver repair involves replacement of damaged liver tissue with healthy liver epithelial cells (including both hepatocytes and cholangiocytes) and reconstruction of normal liver structure and function. Current dogma posits that replication of surviving mature hepatocytes and cholangiocytes drives the regeneration of liver epithelium after injury, whereas failure of liver repair commonly leads to fibrosis, a scarring condition in which hepatic stellate cells, the main liver-resident mesenchymal cells, play the major role. The present review discusses other mechanisms that might be responsible for the regeneration of new liver epithelial...

3. Dietary fat sources differentially modulate intestinal barrier and hepatic inflammation in alcohol-induced liver injury in rats - Zhong, Wei; Li, Qiong; Xie, Guoxiang; Sun, Xiuhua; Tan, Xiaobing; Sun, Xinguo; Jia, Wei; Zhou, Zhanxiang
Endotoxemia is a causal factor in the development of alcoholic liver injury. The present study aimed at determining the interactions of ethanol with different fat sources at the gut-liver axis. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were pair fed control or ethanol liquid diet for 8 wk. The liquid diets were based on a modified Lieber-DeCarli formula, with 30% total calories derived from corn oil (rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids). To test the effects of saturated fats, corn oil in the ethanol diet was replaced by either cocoa butter (CB, rich in long-chain saturated fatty acids) or medium-chain triglycerides (MCT, exclusively medium-chain saturated...

4. Modulation of NF-κB and Nrf2 control of inflammatory responses in FHs 74 Int cell line is tocopherol isoform-specific - Elisia, Ingrid; Kitts, David D.
The present study investigates the relative ability of α-, γ-, and δ-tocopherol (Toc) to modulate cell signaling events that are associated with inflammatory responses in fetal-derived intestinal (FHs 74 Int) cells. Secretion of the proinflammatory cytokine IL-8 in FHs 74 Int cells was stimulated in the following order: α-Toc < γ-Toc < δ-Toc. A similar proinflammatory response was observed when inflammation was induced in FHs 74 Int cells. Modulation of IL-8 expression by Toc corresponded to an isoform-specific modulation of NF-κB and nuclear factor-erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) cell signaling pathways involved in expression of proinflammatory cytokines and antioxidant enzymes,...

5. Increased PDE5 activity and decreased Rho kinase and PKC activities in colonic muscle from caveolin-1−/− mice impair the peristaltic reflex and propulsion - Mahavadi, Sunila; Bhattacharya, Sayak; Kumar, Divya P.; Clay, Chereena; Ross, Gracious; Akbarali, Hamid I.; Grider, John R.; Murthy, Karnam S.
Caveolae are specialized regions of the plasma membrane that concentrate receptors and associated signaling molecules critical in regulation of cellular response to transmitters and hormones. We have determined the effects of caveolin-1 (Cav-1) deletion, caveolin-1 siRNA, and caveolar disruption in mice on the signaling pathways that mediate contraction and relaxation in colonic smooth muscle and on the components of the peristaltic reflex in isolated tissue and propulsion in intact colonic segments. In Cav-1−/− mice, both relaxation and contraction were decreased in smooth muscle cells and muscle strips, as well as during both phases of the peristaltic reflex and colonic propulsion....

6. Increased plasma corticosterone contributes to the development of alcoholic fatty liver in mice - Sun, Xiuhua; Luo, Weijun; Tan, Xiaobing; Li, Qiong; Zhao, Yantao; Zhong, Wei; Sun, Xinguo; Brouwer, Cory; Zhou, Zhanxiang
Ethanol ingestion increases endogenous glucocorticoid levels in both humans and rodents. The present study aimed to define a mechanistic link between the increased glucocorticoids and alcoholic fatty liver in mice. Plasma corticosterone levels were not affected in mice on a 2-wk ethanol diet regimen but significantly increased upon 4 wk of ethanol ingestion. Accordingly, hepatic triglyceride levels were not altered after 2 wk of ethanol ingestion but were elevated at 4 wk. Based on the observation that 2 wk of ethanol ingestion did not significantly increase endogenous corticosterone levels, we administered exogenous glucocorticoids along with the 2-wk ethanol treatment to...

7. Reduced funding and sequestration impact young biomedical researchers - Carulli, Alexis J.

8. Strain-specific suppression of microRNA-320 by carcinogenic Helicobacter pylori promotes expression of the antiapoptotic protein Mcl-1 - Noto, Jennifer M.; Piazuelo, M. Blanca; Chaturvedi, Rupesh; Bartel, Courtney A.; Thatcher, Elizabeth J.; Delgado, Alberto; Romero-Gallo, Judith; Wilson, Keith T.; Correa, Pelayo; Patton, James G.; Peek, Richard M.
Helicobacter pylori is the strongest risk factor for gastric cancer, and strains harboring the cag pathogenicity island, which translocates the oncoprotein CagA into host cells, further augment cancer risk. We previously reported that in vivo adaptation of a noncarcinogenic H. pylori strain (B128) generated a derivative strain (7.13) with the ability to induce adenocarcinoma, providing a unique opportunity to define mechanisms that mediate gastric carcinogenesis. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small noncoding RNAs that regulate expression of oncogenes or tumor suppressors and are frequently dysregulated in carcinogenesis. To identify miRNAs and their targets involved in H. pylori-mediated carcinogenesis, miRNA microarrays were performed...

9. Intravenous fish oil lipid emulsion promotes a shift toward anti-inflammatory proresolving lipid mediators - Kalish, Brian T.; Le, Hau D.; Fitzgerald, Jonathan M.; Wang, Samantha; Seamon, Kyle; Gura, Kathleen M.; Gronert, Karsten; Puder, Mark
Parenteral nutrition (PN)-associated liver disease (PNALD) is a life-threatening complication of the administration of PN. The development of PNALD may be partly due to the composition of the lipid emulsion administered with PN: soybean oil-based lipid emulsions (SOLE) are associated with liver disease, while fish oil-based lipid emulsions (FOLE) are associated with prevention and improvement of liver disease. The objective of this study was to determine how the choice of lipid emulsion modified the production of bioactive lipid mediators (LMs). We utilized a mouse model of steatosis to study the differential effect of FOLE and SOLE. We subsequently validated these...

10. Reduced hepatic mitochondrial respiration following acute high-fat diet is prevented by PGC-1α overexpression - Morris, E. Matthew; Jackman, Matthew R.; Meers, Grace M. E.; Johnson, Ginger C.; Lopez, Jordan L.; MacLean, Paul S.; Thyfault, John P.
Changes in substrate utilization and reduced mitochondrial respiratory capacity following exposure to energy-dense, high-fat diets (HFD) are putatively key components in the development of obesity-related metabolic disease. We examined the effect of a 3-day HFD on isolated liver mitochondrial respiration and whole body energy utilization in obesity-prone (OP) rats. We also examined if hepatic overexpression of peroxisomal proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator-1α (PGC-1α), a master regulator of mitochondrial respiratory capacity and biogenesis, would modify liver and whole body responses to the HFD. Acute, 3-day HFD (45% kcal) in OP rats resulted in increased daily energy intake, energy balance, weight gain, and adiposity,...

11. HMGB1 recruits hepatic stellate cells and liver endothelial cells to sites of ethanol-induced parenchymal cell injury - Seo, Yeon S.; Kwon, Jung H.; Yaqoob, Usman; Yang, Liu; De Assuncao, Thiago M.; Simonetto, Douglas A.; Verma, Vikas K.; Shah, Vijay H.
Hepatic stellate cells (HSC) and liver endothelial cells (LEC) migrate to sites of injury and perpetuate alcohol-induced liver injury. High-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) is a protein released from the nucleus of injured cells that has been implicated as a proinflammatory mediator. We hypothesized that HMGB1 may be released from ethanol-stimulated liver parenchymal cells and contribute to HSC and LEC recruitment. Ethanol stimulation of rat hepatocytes and HepG2 cells resulted in translocation of HMGB1 from the nucleus as assessed by Western blot. HMGB1 protein levels were increased in the supernatant of ethanol-treated hepatocytes compared with vehicle-treated cells. Migration of both...

12. Mechanisms of STAT3 activation in the liver of FXR knockout mice - Li, Guodong; Zhu, Yan; Tawfik, Ossama; Kong, Bo; Williams, Jessica A.; Zhan, Le; Kassel, Karen M.; Luyendyk, James P.; Wang, Li; Guo, Grace L.
Farnesoid X receptor (FXR, Nr1h4) is a ligand-activated transcription factor belonging to the nuclear receptor superfamily. FXR is essential in maintaining bile acid (BA) homeostasis, and FXR−/− mice develop cholestasis, inflammation, and spontaneous liver tumors. The signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) is well known to regulate liver growth, and STAT3 is feedback inhibited by its target gene, the suppressor of cytokine signaling 3 (SOCS3). Strong activation of STAT3 was detected in FXR−/− mouse livers. However, the mechanism of STAT3 activation with FXR deficiency remains elusive. Wild-type (WT) and FXR−/− mice were used to detect STAT3 pathway activation...

13. Reduced colonic microbial diversity is associated with colitis in NHE3-deficient mice - Larmonier, Claire B.; Laubitz, Daniel; Hill, Faihza M.; Shehab, Kareem W.; Lipinski, Leszek; Midura-Kiela, Monica T.; McFadden, Rita-Marie T.; Ramalingam, Rajalakshmy; Hassan, Kareem A.; Golebiewski, Marcin; Besselsen, David G.; Ghishan, Fayez K.; Kiela, Pawel R.
Chronic inflammation and enteric infections are frequently associated with epithelial Na+/H+ exchange (NHE) inhibition. Alterations in electrolyte transport and in mucosal pH associated with inflammation may represent a key mechanism leading to changes in the intestinal microbial composition. NHE3 expression is essential for the maintenance of the epithelial barrier function. NHE3−/− mice develop spontaneous distal chronic colitis and are highly susceptible to dextran sulfate (DSS)-induced mucosal injury. Spontaneous colitis is reduced with broad-spectrum antibiotics treatment, thus highlighting the importance of the microbiota composition in NHE3 deficiency-mediated colitis. We herein characterized the colonic microbiome of wild-type (WT) and NHE3−/− mice housed...

14. Glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide regulates dipeptide absorption in mouse jejunum - Coon, Steven D.; Schwartz, John H.; Rajendran, Vazhaikkurichi M.; Jepeal, Lisa; Singh, Satish K.
Glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) secreted from jejunal mucosal K cells augments insulin secretion and plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of obesity and Type 2 diabetes mellitus. In recent studies, we have shown GIP directly activates Na-glucose cotransporter-1 (SGLT1) and enhances glucose absorption in mouse jejunum. It is not known whether GIP would also regulate other intestinal nutrient absorptive processes. The present study investigated the effect of GIP on proton-peptide cotransporter-1 (PepT1) that mediates di- and tripeptide absorption as well as peptidomimetic drugs. Immunohistochemistry studies localized both GIP receptor (GIPR) and PepT1 proteins on the basolateral and apical membranes...

15. Loss of NHE3 alters gut microbiota composition and influences Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron growth - Engevik, Melinda A.; Aihara, Eitaro; Montrose, Marshall H.; Shull, Gary E.; Hassett, Daniel J.; Worrell, Roger T.
Changes in the intestinal microbiota have been linked to diabetes, obesity, inflammatory bowel disease, and Clostridium difficile (C. difficile)-associated disease. Despite this, it remains unclear how the intestinal environment, set by ion transport, affects luminal and mucosa-associated bacterial composition. Na+/H+-exchanger isoform 3 (NHE3), a target of C. difficile toxin B, plays an integral role in intestinal Na+ absorption. Thus the NHE3-deficient mouse model was chosen to examine the effect of pH and ion composition on bacterial growth. We hypothesized that ion transport-induced change in the intestinal environment would lead to alteration of the microbiota. Region-specific changes in ion composition and...

16. Helicobacter pylori impedes acid-induced tightening of gastric epithelial junctions - Marcus, Elizabeth A.; Vagin, Olga; Tokhtaeva, Elmira; Sachs, George; Scott, David R.
Gastric infection by Helicobacter pylori is the most common cause of ulcer disease and gastric cancer. The mechanism of progression from gastritis and inflammation to ulcers and cancer in a fraction of those infected is not definitively known. Significant acidity is unique to the gastric environment and is required for ulcer development. The interplay between gastric acidity and H. pylori pathogenesis is important in progression to advanced disease. The aim of this study was to characterize the impact of acid on gastric epithelial integrity and cytokine release and how H. pylori infection alters these responses. Human gastric epithelial (HGE-20) cells...

17. Degradation of cIAPs contributes to hepatocyte lipoapoptosis - Akazawa, Yuko; Guicciardi, Maria Eugenia; Cazanave, Sophie C.; Bronk, Steven F.; Werneburg, Nathan W.; Kakisaka, Keisuke; Nakao, Kazuhiko; Gores, Gregory J.
Hepatocyte apoptosis is a hallmark of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis. We have previously observed that the saturated free fatty acids (FFAs) induce hepatocyte apoptosis in part via a death receptor 5 (DR5)-mediated signaling pathway. Cellular inhibitor of apoptosis protein 1 and 2 (cIAP-1 and cIAP-2) proteins are potent inhibitors of death receptor-mediated apoptosis. However, the role of the cIAPs in FFA-mediated hepatocyte apoptosis is unexplored. Our aim was to determine whether cIAPs are dysregulated during hepatocyte lipoapoptosis. cIAP proteins underwent rapid cellular elimination following treatment with the saturated FFAs palmitate (PA) and stearate. In contrast, PA did not decrease cIAP-1 and cIAP-2...

18. Acyl chain length, saturation, and hydrophobicity modulate the efficiency of dietary fatty acid absorption in adult humans - McKimmie, Ryan L.; Easter, Linda; Weinberg, Richard B.
Intestinal fat absorption is known to be, overall, a highly efficient process, but much less is known about the efficiency with which individual dietary fatty acids (FA) are absorbed by the adult small intestine. We therefore measured the absorption efficiency of the major dietary FA using sucrose polybehenate (SPB) as a nonabsorbable marker and analyzed how it is modulated by acyl chain physicochemical properties and polymorphisms of proteins involved in chylomicron assembly. Dietary FA absorption efficiency was measured in 44 healthy subjects fed a standard diet containing 35% fat and 5% SPB. FA and behenic acid (BA) were measured in...

19. Combined genetic and pharmacological inhibition of TRPV1 and P2X3 attenuates colorectal hypersensitivity and afferent sensitization - Kiyatkin, Michael E.; Feng, Bin; Schwartz, Erica S.; Gebhart, G. F.
The ligand-gated channels transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) and P2X3 have been reported to facilitate colorectal afferent neuron sensitization, thus contributing to organ hypersensitivity and pain. In the present study, we hypothesized that TRPV1 and P2X3 cooperate to modulate colorectal nociception and afferent sensitivity. To test this hypothesis, we employed TRPV1-P2X3 double knockout (TPDKO) mice and channel-selective pharmacological antagonists and evaluated combined channel contributions to behavioral responses to colorectal distension (CRD) and afferent fiber responses to colorectal stretch. Baseline responses to CRD were unexpectedly greater in TPDKO compared with control mice, but zymosan-produced CRD hypersensitivity was absent in TPDKO...

20. Maturation of upstream and downstream esophageal reflexes in human premature neonates: the role of sleep and awake states - Jadcherla, Sudarshan R.; Chan, Chin Yee; Fernandez, Soledad; Splaingard, Mark
We tested the hypothesis that the sensory-motor characteristics of aerodigestive reflexes are dependent on stimulus type and volumes, sleep or awake states, and maturation. Thirteen neonates were studied at 33.6 ± 0.5 wk (time 1) and 37.3 ± 0.5 wk (time 2) postmenstrual age using multimodal provocative esophageal manometry concurrent with video polysomnography. Effects of graded volumes (399 infusions at time 1, 430 infusions at time 2) of midesophageal stimulation with air, water, and apple juice on the sensory thresholds and recruitment frequency of upper esophageal sphincter (UES), esophageal body, and lower esophageal sphincter (LES) reflexes were investigated during sleep...

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