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PubMed Central (PMC3 - NLM DTD) (3.020.751 recursos)

Archive of life sciences journal literature at the U.S. National Institutes of Health (NIH), developed and managed by NIH's National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) in the National Library of Medicine (NLM).

American Journal of Physiology - Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology

Mostrando recursos 121 - 140 de 1.006

  1. Increased acid responsiveness in vagal sensory neurons in a guinea pig model of eosinophilic esophagitis

    Hu, Youtian; Liu, Zhenyu; Yu, Xiaoyun; Pasricha, Pankaj J.; Undem, Bradley J.; Yu, Shaoyong
    Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is characterized with eosinophils and mast cells predominated allergic inflammation in the esophagus and present with esophageal dysfunctions such as dysphagia, food impaction, and heartburn. However, the underlying mechanism of esophageal dysfunctions is unclear. This study aims to determine whether neurons in the vagal sensory ganglia are modulated in a guinea pig model of EoE. Animals were actively sensitized by ovalbumin (OVA) and then challenged with aerosol OVA inhalation for 2 wk. This results in a mild esophagitis with increases in mast cells and eosinophils in the esophageal wall. Vagal nodose and jugular neurons were disassociated, and...

  2. H1-antihistamines exacerbate high-fat diet-induced hepatic steatosis in wild-type but not in apolipoprotein E knockout mice

    Raveendran, Vineesh V.; Kassel, Karen M.; Smith, Donald D.; Luyendyk, James P.; Williams, Kurt J.; Cherian, Rachel; Reed, Gregory A.; Flynn, Colleen A.; Csanaky, Iván L.; Lickteig, Andrew L.; Pratt-Hyatt, Matthew J.; Klaassen, Curtis D.; Dileepan, Kottarappat N.
    We examined the effects of two over-the-counter H1-antihistamines on the progression of fatty liver disease in male C57Bl/6 wild-type and apolipoprotein E (ApoE)−/− mice. Mice were fed a high-fat diet (HFD) for 3 mo, together with administration of either cetirizine (4 mg/kg body wt) or fexofenadine (40 mg/kg body wt) in drinking water. Antihistamine treatments increased body weight gain, gonadal fat deposition, liver weight, and hepatic steatosis in wild-type mice but not in ApoE−/− mice. Lobular inflammation, acute inflammation, and necrosis were not affected by H1-antihistamines in either genotype. Serum biomarkers of liver injury tended to increase in antihistamine-treated wild-type...

  3. Esophageal reflexes modulate frontoparietal response in neonates: Novel application of concurrent NIRS and provocative esophageal manometry

    Jadcherla, Sudarshan R.; Pakiraih, Joanna F.; Hasenstab, Kathryn A.; Dar, Irfaan; Gao, Xiaoyu; Bates, D. Gregory; Kashou, Nasser H.
    Central and peripheral neural regulation of swallowing and aerodigestive reflexes is unclear in human neonates. Functional near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) is a noninvasive method to measure changes in oxyhemoglobin (HbO) and deoxyhemoglobin (HbD). Pharyngoesophageal manometry permits evaluation of aerodigestive reflexes. Modalities were combined to investigate feasibility and to test neonatal frontoparietal cortical changes during pharyngoesophageal (visceral) stimulation and/or swallowing. Ten neonates (45.6 ± 3.0 wk postmenstrual age, 4.1 ± 0.5 kg) underwent novel pharyngoesophageal manometry concurrent with NIRS. To examine esophagus-brain interactions, we analyzed cortical hemodynamic response (HDR) latency and durations during aerodigestive provocation and esophageal reflexes. Data are presented...

  4. Chemoprevention in Gastrointestinal Physiology and Disease. Natural products and microbiome

    Greiner, Allen K.; Papineni, Rao V. L.; Umar, Shahid
    The human intestinal tract harbors a complex ecosystem of commensal bacteria that play a fundamental role in the well-being of their host. There is a general consensus that diet rich in plant-based foods has many advantages in relation to the health and well-being of an individual. In adults, diets that have a high proportion of fruit and vegetables and a low consumption of meat are associated with a highly diverse microbiota and are defined by a greater abundance of Prevotella compared with Bacteroides, whereas the reverse is associated with a diet that contains a low proportion of plant-based foods. In...

  5. Mitochondrial calcium handling within the interstitial cells of Cajal

    Means, Shawn A.; Cheng, Leo K.
    The interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC) drive rhythmic pacemaking contractions in the gastrointestinal system. The ICC generate pacemaking signals by membrane depolarizations associated with the release of intracellular calcium (Ca2+) in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) through inositol-trisphosphate (IP3) receptors (IP3R) and uptake by mitochondria (MT). This Ca2+ dynamic is hypothesized to generate pacemaking signals by calibrating ER Ca2+ store depletions and membrane depolarization with ER store-operated Ca2+ entry mechanisms. Using a biophysically based spatio-temporal model of integrated Ca2+ transport in the ICC, we determined the feasibility of ER depletion timescale correspondence with experimentally observed pacemaking frequencies while considering the impact...

  6. Inducible loss of one Apc allele in Lrig1-expressing progenitor cells results in multiple distal colonic tumors with features of familial adenomatous polyposis

    Powell, Anne E.; Vlacich, Gregory; Zhao, Zhen-Yang; McKinley, Eliot T.; Washington, M. Kay; Manning, H. Charles; Coffey, Robert J.
    Individuals with familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) harbor a germline mutation in adenomatous polyposis coli (APC). The major clinical manifestation is development of multiple colonic tumors at a young age due to stochastic loss of the remaining APC allele. Extracolonic features, including periampullary tumors, gastric abnormalities, and congenital hypertrophy of the retinal pigment epithelium, may occur. The objective of this study was to develop a mouse model that simulates these features of FAP. We combined our Lrig1-CreERT2/+ mice with Apcfl/+ mice, eliminated one copy of Apc in leucine-rich repeats and immunoglobulin-like domains protein 1 (Lrig1)-positive (Lrig1+) progenitor cells with tamoxifen injection,...

  7. The inhibitory effect of ethanol on Sestrin3 in the pathogenesis of ethanol-induced liver injury

    Kang, Xinqin; Petyaykina, Kateryna; Tao, Rongya; Xiong, Xiwen; Dong, X. Charlie; Liangpunsakul, Suthat
    Sestrins (Sesns) are a family of stress-sensitive genes that have been suggested to regulate lipid metabolism. Chronic ethanol feeding is known to cause lipid accumulation in hepatocytes. This study was designed to investigate the role of Sesn3 in the pathogenesis of alcohol-induced hepatic steatosis. We demonstrated that ethanol inhibited the expression of Sesn3 in VL-17A cells. Overexpression of Sesn3 ameliorated triglyceride accumulation; downregulation using short hairpin RNA significantly deteriorated triglyceride accumulation in these cells. The expression of Sesn3 was also reduced in mice fed with ethanol for 4 wk. Overexpression of Sesn3 prevented hepatic steatosis, whereas knockdown of Sesn3 worsened...

  8. Low pH enhances connexin32 degradation in the pancreatic acinar cell

    Reed, Anamika M.; Kolodecik, Thomas; Husain, Sohail Z.; Gorelick, Fred S.
    Decreased extracellular pH is observed in a number of clinical conditions and can sensitize to the development and worsen the severity of acute pancreatitis. Because intercellular communication through gap junctions is pH-sensitive and modulates pancreatitis responses, we evaluated the effects of low pH on gap junctions in the rat pancreatic acinar cell. Decreasing extracellular pH from 7.4 to 7.0 significantly inhibited gap junctional intracellular communication. Acidic pH also significantly reduced levels of connexin32, the predominant gap junction protein in acinar cells, and altered its localization. Increased degradation through the proteasomal, lysosomal, and autophagic pathways mediated the decrease in connexin32 under...

  9. Metabolic profiling reveals that PNPLA3 induces widespread effects on metabolism beyond triacylglycerol remodeling in Huh-7 hepatoma cells

    Min, Hae-Ki; Sookoian, Silvia; Pirola, Carlos J.; Cheng, Jianfeng; Mirshahi, Faridoddin; Sanyal, Arun J.
    PNPLA3 was recently associated with the susceptibility to nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, a common cause of chronic liver disease characterized by abnormal triglyceride accumulation. Although it is established that PNPLA3 has both triacylglycerol lipase and acylglycerol O-acyltransferase activities, is still unknown whether the gene has any additional role in the modulation of the human liver metabolome. To uncover the functional role of PNPLA3 on liver metabolism, we performed high-throughput metabolic profiling of PNPLA3 siRNA-silencing and overexpression of wild-type and mutant Ile148Met variants (isoleucine/methionine substitution at codon 148) in Huh-7 cells. Metabolomic analysis was performed by using GC/MS and LC/MS platforms....

  10. Mesenchymal stem cells induce epithelial proliferation within the inflamed stomach

    Donnelly, Jessica M.; Engevik, Amy; Feng, Rui; Xiao, Chang; Boivin, Gregory P.; Li, Jing; Houghton, JeanMarie; Zavros, Yana
    Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) sustain cancer cells by creating a microenvironment favorable for tumor growth. In particular, MSCs have been implicated in gastric cancer development. There is extensive evidence suggesting that Hedgehog signaling regulates tumor growth. However, very little is known regarding the precise roles of Hedgehog signaling and MSCs in tumor development within the stomach. The current study tests that hypothesis that Sonic Hedgehog (Shh), secreted from MSCs, provides a proliferative stimulus for the gastric epithelium in the presence of inflammation. Red fluorescent protein-expressing MSCs transformed in vitro (stMSCs) were transduced with lentiviral constructs containing a vector...

  11. Hyperosmolarity in the small intestine contributes to postprandial ghrelin suppression

    Overduin, Joost; Tylee, Tracy S.; Frayo, R. Scott; Cummings, David E.
    Plasma levels of the orexigenic hormone ghrelin are suppressed by meals with an efficacy dependent on their macronutrient composition. We hypothesized that heterogeneity in osmolarity among macronutrient classes contributes to these differences. In three studies, the impact of small intestinal hyperosmolarity was examined in Sprague-Dawley rats. In study 1, isotonic, 2.5×, and 5× hypertonic solutions of several agents with diverse absorption and metabolism properties were infused duodenally at a physiological rate (3 ml/10 min). Jugular vein blood was sampled before and at 30, 60, 90, 120, 180, 240, and 300 min after infusion. Plasma ghrelin was suppressed dose dependently and...

  12. RNA sequencing shows transcriptomic changes in rectosigmoid mucosa in patients with irritable bowel syndrome-diarrhea: a pilot case-control study

    Camilleri, Michael; Carlson, Paula; Acosta, Andres; Busciglio, Irene; Nair, Asha A.; Gibbons, Simon J.; Farrugia, Gianrico; Klee, Eric W.
    Our aim was to conduct a pilot case-control study of RNA expression profile using RNA sequencing of rectosigmoid mucosa of nine females with -diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome (IBS-D) with accelerated colonic transit and nine female healthy controls. Mucosal total RNA was isolated and purified, and next-generation pair-end sequencing was performed using Illumina TruSeq. Analysis was carried out using a targeted approach toward 12 genes previously associated with IBS and a hypothesis-generating approach. Of the 12 targeted genes tested, patients with IBS-D had decreased mRNA expression of TNFSF15 (fold change controls to IBS-D: 1.53, P = 0.01). Overall, up- and downregulated...

  13. Ron receptor signaling is protective against DSS-induced colitis in mice

    Kulkarni, Rishikesh M.; Stuart, William D.; Gurusamy, Devikala; Waltz, Susan E.
    Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) are chronic inflammatory disorders of the intestine that result in painful and debilitating complications. Currently no cure exists for IBD, and treatments are primarily aimed at reducing inflammation to alleviate symptoms. Genome-wide linkage studies have identified the Ron receptor tyrosine kinase (TK) and its ligand, hepatocyte growth factor-like protein (HGFL), as genes highly associated with IBD. However, only scant information exists on the role of Ron or HGFL in IBD. Based on the linkage of Ron to IBD, we directly examined the biological role of Ron in colitis. Wild-type mice and mice lacking the TK signaling...

  14. Colonic inflammation and secondary bile acids in alcoholic cirrhosis

    Kakiyama, Genta; Hylemon, Phillip B.; Zhou, Huiping; Pandak, William M.; Heuman, Douglas M.; Kang, Dae Joong; Takei, Hajime; Nittono, Hiroshi; Ridlon, Jason M.; Fuchs, Michael; Gurley, Emily C.; Wang, Yun; Liu, Runping; Sanyal, Arun J.; Gillevet, Patrick M.; Bajaj, Jasmohan S.
    Alcohol abuse with/without cirrhosis is associated with an impaired gut barrier and inflammation. Gut microbiota can transform primary bile acids (BA) to secondary BAs, which can adversely impact the gut barrier. The purpose of this study was to define the effect of active alcohol intake on fecal BA levels and ileal and colonic inflammation in cirrhosis. Five age-matched groups {two noncirrhotic (control and drinkers) and three cirrhotic [nondrinkers/nonalcoholics (NAlc), abstinent alcoholic for >3 mo (AbsAlc), currently drinking (CurrAlc)]} were included. Fecal and serum BA analysis, serum endotoxin, and stool microbiota using pyrosequencing were performed. A subgroup of controls, NAlc, and...

  15. Disruption of epithelial barrier by quorum-sensing N-3-(oxododecanoyl)-homoserine lactone is mediated by matrix metalloproteinases

    Eum, Sung Yong; Jaraki, Dima; Bertrand, Luc; András, Ibolya E.; Toborek, Michal
    The intestinal epithelium forms a selective barrier maintained by tight junctions (TJs) and separating the luminal environment from the submucosal tissues. N-acylhomoserine lactone (AHL) quorum-sensing molecules produced by gram-negative bacteria in the gut can influence homeostasis of the host intestinal epithelium. In the present study, we evaluated the regulatory mechanisms affecting the impact of two representative long- and short-chain AHLs, N-3-(oxododecanoyl)-homoserine lactone (C12-HSL) and N-butyryl homoserine lactone (C4-HSL), on barrier function of human intestinal epithelial Caco-2 cells. Treatment with C12-HSL, but not with C4-HSL, perturbed Caco-2 barrier function; the effect was associated with decreased levels of the TJ proteins occludin...

  16. Acute murine colitis reduces colonic 5-aminosalicylic acid metabolism by regulation of N-acetyltransferase-2

    Ramírez-Alcántara, Verónica; Montrose, Marshall H.
    Pharmacotherapy based on 5-aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA) is a preferred treatment for ulcerative colitis, but variable patient response to this therapy is observed. Inflammation can affect therapeutic outcomes by regulating the expression and activity of drug-metabolizing enzymes; its effect on 5-ASA metabolism by the colonic arylamine N-acetyltransferase (NAT) enzyme isoforms is not firmly established. We examined if inflammation affects the capacity for colonic 5-ASA metabolism and NAT enzyme expression. 5-ASA metabolism by colonic mucosal homogenates was directly measured with a novel fluorimetric rate assay. 5-ASA metabolism reported by the assay was dependent on Ac-CoA, inhibited by alternative NAT substrates (isoniazid, p-aminobenzoylglutamate),...

  17. Pharmacological ceramide reduction alleviates alcohol-induced steatosis and hepatomegaly in adiponectin knockout mice

    Correnti, Jason M.; Juskeviciute, Egle; Swarup, Aditi; Hoek, Jan B.
    Hepatosteatosis, the ectopic accumulation of lipid in the liver, is one of the earliest clinical signs of alcoholic liver disease (ALD). Alcohol-dependent deregulation of liver ceramide levels as well as inhibition of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPAR-α) activity are thought to contribute to hepatosteatosis development. Adiponectin can regulate lipid handling in the liver and has been shown to reduce ceramide levels and activate AMPK and PPAR-α. However, the mechanisms by which adiponectin prevents alcoholic hepatosteatosis remain incompletely characterized. To address this question, we assessed ALD progression in wild-type (WT) and adiponectin knockout (KO) mice fed...

  18. Lactobacillus rhamnosus HN001 decreases the severity of necrotizing enterocolitis in neonatal mice and preterm piglets: evidence in mice for a role of TLR9

    Good, Misty; Sodhi, Chhinder P.; Ozolek, John A.; Buck, Rachael H.; Goehring, Karen C.; Thomas, Debra L.; Vikram, Amit; Bibby, Kyle; Morowitz, Michael J.; Firek, Brian; Lu, Peng; Hackam, David J.
    Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is the leading cause of death from gastrointestinal disease in premature infants and develops partly from an exaggerated intestinal epithelial immune response to indigenous microbes. There has been interest in administering probiotic bacteria to reduce NEC severity, yet concerns exist regarding infection risk. Mechanisms of probiotic activity in NEC are unknown although activation of the microbial DNA receptor Toll-like receptor-9 (TLR9) has been postulated. We now hypothesize that the Gram-positive bacterium Lactobacillus rhamnosus HN001 can attenuate NEC in small and large animal models, that its microbial DNA is sufficient for its protective effects, and that protection requires...

  19. Differential eosinophil and mast cell regulation: Mast cell viability and accumulation in inflammatory tissue are independent of proton-sensing receptor GPR65

    Zhu, Xiang; Mose, Eucabeth; Hogan, Simon P.; Zimmermann, Nives
    Extracellular acidification has been observed in allergic inflammatory diseases. Recently, we demonstrated that the proton-sensing receptor G protein-coupled receptor 65 (GPR65) regulates eosinophil survival in an acidic environment in vitro and eosinophil accumulation in an allergic lung inflammation model. For mast cells, another inflammatory cell type critical for allergic responses, it remains unknown whether GPR65 is expressed and/or regulates mast cell viability. Thus, in the present study, we employed in vitro experiments and an intestinal anaphylaxis model in which both mastocytosis and eosinophilia can be observed, particularly in the gastrointestinal tract, to enable us to directly compare the effect of...

  20. Cyclic stretch disrupts apical junctional complexes in Caco-2 cell monolayers by a JNK-2-, c-Src-, and MLCK-dependent mechanism

    Samak, Geetha; Gangwar, Ruchika; Crosby, Lynn M.; Desai, Leena P.; Wilhelm, Kristina; Waters, Christopher M.; Rao, RadhaKrishna
    The intestinal epithelium is subjected to various types of mechanical stress. In this study, we investigated the impact of cyclic stretch on tight junction and adherens junction integrity in Caco-2 cell monolayers. Stretch for 2 h resulted in a dramatic modulation of tight junction protein distribution from a linear organization into wavy structure. Continuation of cyclic stretch for 6 h led to redistribution of tight junction proteins from the intercellular junctions into the intracellular compartment. Disruption of tight junctions was associated with redistribution of adherens junction proteins, E-cadherin and β-catenin, and dissociation of the actin cytoskeleton at the actomyosin belt....

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