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PubMed Central (PMC3 - NLM DTD) (2,729,762 recursos)
Archive of life sciences journal literature at the U.S. National Institutes of Health (NIH), developed and managed by NIH's National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) in the National Library of Medicine (NLM).

American Journal of Physiology - Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology

Mostrando recursos 121 - 140 de 809

121. TRPV4 activation in mouse submandibular gland modulates Ca2+ influx and salivation - Zhang, Yan; Catalán, Marcelo A.; Melvin, James E.
Transient receptor potential vanilloid subtype 4 (TRPV4) is a ligand-gated nonselective cation channel that participates in the transduction of mechanical and osmotic stimuli in different tissues. TRPV4 is activated by endogenous arachidonic acid metabolites, 4α-phorbol-12,13 didecanoate, GSK1016790A, moderate heat, and mechanical stress. TRPV4 is expressed in the salivary glands, but its expression pattern and function are poorly understood. The aim of this study was to evaluate the functional role of TRPV4 channels in the mouse submandibular gland. Using RT-PCR and Western blot analysis, we detected expression of TRPV4 message and protein, respectively, in the submandibular gland. Immunolocalization studies showed that...

122. Butyrate increases IL-23 production by stimulated dendritic cells - Berndt, Bradford E.; Zhang, Min; Owyang, Stephanie Y.; Cole, Tyler S.; Wang, Teresa W.; Luther, Jay; Veniaminova, Natalia A.; Merchant, Juanita L.; Chen, Chun-Chia; Huffnagle, Gary B.; Kao, John Y.
The gut microbiota is essential for the maintenance of intestinal immune homeostasis and is responsible for breaking down dietary fiber into short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs). Butyrate, the most abundant bioactive SCFA in the gut, is a histone deacetylase inhibitor (HDACi), a class of drug that has potent immunomodulatory properties. This characteristic of butyrate, along with our previous discovery that conventional dendritic cells (DCs) are required for the development of experimental colitis, led us to speculate that butyrate may modulate DC function to regulate gut mucosal homeostasis. We found that butyrate, in addition to suppressing LPS-induced bone marrow-derived DC maturation and...

123. Hepatic microtubule acetylation and stability induced by chronic alcohol exposure impair nuclear translocation of STAT3 and STAT5B, but not Smad2/3 - Fernandez, David J.; Tuma, Dean J.; Tuma, Pamela L.
Although alcoholic liver disease is clinically well described, the molecular basis for alcohol-induced hepatotoxicity is not well understood. Previously, we found that alcohol exposure led to increased microtubule acetylation and stability in polarized, hepatic WIF-B cells and in livers from ethanol-fed rats. Because microtubules are known to regulate transcription factor nuclear translocation and dynamic microtubules are required for translocation of at least a subset of these factors, we examined whether alcohol-induced microtubule acetylation and stability impair nuclear translocation. We examined nuclear delivery of factors representing the two mechanisms by which microtubules regulate translocation. To represent factors that undergo directed delivery,...

124. Lactobacillus acidophilus upregulates intestinal NHE3 expression and function - Singh, Varsha; Raheja, Geetu; Borthakur, Alip; Kumar, Anoop; Gill, Ravinder K.; Alakkam, Anas; Malakooti, Jaleh; Dudeja, Pradeep K.
A major mechanism of electroneutral NaCl absorption in the human ileum and colon involves coupling of Na+/H+ and Cl−/HCO3− exchangers. Disturbances in these mechanisms have been implicated in diarrheal conditions. Probiotics such as Lactobacillus have been indicated to be beneficial in the management of gastrointestinal disorders, including diarrhea. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying antidiarrheal effects of probiotics have not been fully understood. We have previously demonstrated Lactobacillus acidophilus (LA) to stimulate Cl−/HCO3− exchange activity via an increase in the surface levels and expression of the Cl−/HCO3− exchanger DRA in vitro and in vivo. However, the effects of LA on NHE3,...

125. Vitamin D deficiency: protective against enteric infection? - Christakos, Sylvia

126. Association of HLA-DQ gene with bowel transit, barrier function, and inflammation in irritable bowel syndrome with diarrhea - Vazquez-Roque, Maria I.; Camilleri, Michael; Smyrk, Thomas; Murray, Joseph A.; O'Neill, Jessica; Carlson, Paula; Lamsam, Jesse; Eckert, Deborah; Janzow, Denise; Burton, Duane; Ryks, Michael; Rhoten, Deborah; Zinsmeister, Alan R.
Patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) with diarrhea (IBS-D) carrying human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-DQ2/8 genotypes benefit from gluten withdrawal. Our objective was to compare gastrointestinal barrier function, mucosal inflammation, and transit in nonceliac IBS-D patients and assess association with HLA-DQ2/8 status. In 45 IBS-D patients who were naive to prior exclusion of dietary gluten, we measured small bowel (SB) and colonic mucosal permeability by cumulative urinary lactulose and mannitol excretion (0–2 h for SB and 8–24 h for colon), inflammation on duodenal and rectosigmoid mucosal biopsies (obtained in 28 of 45 patients), tight junction (TJ) protein mRNA and protein expression...

127. Downregulation of nuclear receptor FXR is associated with multiple malignant clinicopathological characteristics in human hepatocellular carcinoma - Su, Hongying; Ma, Chuang; Liu, Jingfeng; Li, Ningbo; Gao, Meiqin; Huang, Aimin; Wang, Xichun; Huang, Wendong; Huang, Xiongfei
The nuclear receptor farnesoid X receptor (FXR) acts as a liver protector by regulating normal liver homeostasis. Spontaneously developed liver tumors have been found in FXR-null mice. However, the role of FXR in the tumorigenesis of human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is still poorly understood. In this study, we measured the expression of FXR and its primary target gene, small heterodimer partner, and analyzed the clinical significance of FXR expression in HCC patients. A lentiviral vector that selectively overexpresses FXR was used to investigate the function of FXR in HCC cell proliferation both in vitro and in vivo. Our data showed...

128. The novel growth factor, progranulin, stimulates mouse cholangiocyte proliferation via sirtuin-1-mediated inactivation of FOXO1 - Frampton, Gabriel; Ueno, Yoshiyuki; Quinn, Matthew; McMillin, Matthew; Pae, Hae Yong; Galindo, Cheryl; Leyva-Illades, Dinorah; DeMorrow, Sharon
Progranulin (PGRN), a secreted growth factor, regulates the proliferation of various epithelial cells. Its mechanism of action is largely unknown. Sirtuin 1 (Sirt1) is a protein deacetylase that is known to regulate the transcriptional activity of the forkhead receptor FOXO1, thereby modulating the balance between proapoptotic and cell cycle-arresting genes. We have shown that PGRN is overexpressed in cholangiocarcinoma and stimulates proliferation. However, its effects on hyperplastic cholangiocyte proliferation are unknown. In the present study, the expression of PGRN and its downstream targets was determined after bile duct ligation (BDL) in mice and in a mouse cholangiocyte cell line after...

129. BMP4 is a novel paracrine inhibitor of liver regeneration - Do, Nhue; Zhao, Rong; Ray, Kevin; Ho, Karen; Dib, Martin; Ren, Xianghui; Kuzontkoski, Paula; Terwilliger, Ernest; Karp, Seth J.
Transforming growth factor (TGF)-β family members exert strong effects on restoration of liver mass after injury. Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) are members of the TGF-β family and are found in the liver, suggesting that these proteins may play a role in liver regeneration. We examined BMP signaling in the liver during hepatectomy. We found that BMP4 is constitutively expressed in the peribiliary stroma and endothelial cells of the liver and that expression is decreased after hepatectomy. Mice driven to maintain BMP4 expression in the liver display inhibited hepatocyte proliferation and restoration of liver mass after hepatectomy, suggesting that reduced BMP4...

130. Tissue remodeling in eosinophilic esophagitis - Cheng, Edaire; Souza, Rhonda F.; Spechler, Stuart J.
Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is a recently recognized, immune-mediated disease characterized clinically by symptoms of esophageal dysfunction and histologically by eosinophil-predominant inflammation. The chronic esophageal eosinophilia of EoE is associated with tissue remodeling that includes epithelial hyperplasia, subepithelial fibrosis, and hypertrophy of esophageal smooth muscle. This remodeling causes the esophageal rings and strictures that frequently complicate EoE and underlies the mucosal fragility that predisposes to painful mucosal tears in the EoE esophagus. The pathogenesis of tissue remodeling in EoE is not completely understood, but emerging studies suggest that secretory products of eosinophils and mast cells, as well as cytokines produced by...

131. Maternofetal and neonatal copper requirements revealed by enterocyte-specific deletion of the Menkes disease protein - Wang, Yanfang; Zhu, Sha; Hodgkinson, Victoria; Prohaska, Joseph R.; Weisman, Gary A.; Gitlin, Jonathan D.; Petris, Michael J.
The essential requirement for copper in early development is dramatically illustrated by Menkes disease, a fatal neurodegenerative disorder of early childhood caused by loss-of-function mutations in the gene encoding the copper transporting ATPase ATP7A. In this study, we generated mice with enterocyte-specific knockout of the murine ATP7A gene (Atp7a) to test its importance in dietary copper acquisition. Although mice lacking Atp7a protein within intestinal enterocytes appeared normal at birth, they exhibited profound growth impairment and neurological deterioration as a consequence of copper deficiency, resulting in excessive mortality prior to weaning. Copper supplementation of lactating females or parenteral copper injection of...

132. Terminating motor events for TLESR are influenced by the presence and distribution of refluxate - Kuribayashi, Shiko; Massey, Benson T.; Hafeezullah, Muhammad; Perera, Lilani; Hussaini, Syed Q.; Tatro, Linda; Darling, Ronald J.; Franco, Rose; Shaker, Reza
Transient lower esophageal sphincter relaxation (TLESR) is frequently associated with reflux events and terminates with a primary or secondary peristaltic wave. However, it is unclear whether the presence and properties of the refluxate affect TLESR-termination events. The aims of this study were to determine the pattern of terminating esophageal motor activity after TLESR in healthy subjects and factors affecting the type of terminating motor event. Fifteen healthy subjects (7 men, age 18–56) were studied. High-resolution manometry and impedance/pH monitoring were performed simultaneously in supine position for 2 h after subjects took a 1,000-kcal meal (Awake Study). This procedure was repeated...

133. Role of lysophosphatidylcholine in brush-border intestinal alkaline phosphatase release and restoration - Nakano, Takanari; Inoue, Ikuo; Alpers, David H.; Akiba, Yasutada; Katayama, Shigehiro; Shinozaki, Rina; Kaunitz, Jonathan D.; Ohshima, Susumu; Akita, Masumi; Takahashi, Seiichiro; Koyama, Iwao; Matsushita, Makoto; Komoda, Tsugikazu
Intestinal alkaline phosphatase (IAP) is a brush-border membrane ectoenzyme (BBM-IAP) that is released into the lumen (L-IAP) after a high-fat diet. We examined the effects of oil feeding and the addition of mixed-lipid micelles on the formation of L-IAP in oil-fed rat intestine, Caco-2 cell monolayers, and mouse intestinal loops. We localized IAP in the duodenum of rats fed corn oil using fluorescence microscopy with enzyme-labeled fluorescence-97 as substrate. Four hours after oil feeding, L-IAP increased ∼10-fold accompanied by the loss of BBM-IAP, consistent with BBM-IAP release. Rat IAP isozyme mRNAs progressively increased 4–6 h after oil feeding, followed by...

134. Consistent activation of the β-catenin pathway by Salmonella type-three secretion effector protein AvrA in chronically infected intestine - Lu, Rong; Liu, Xingyin; Wu, Shaoping; Xia, Yinglin; Zhang, Yong-guo; Petrof, Elaine O.; Claud, Erika C.; Sun, Jun
Salmonella infection is a common public health problem that can become chronic and increase the risk of cancer. Live, mutated Salmonella is used to target cancer cells. However, few studies have addressed chronic Salmonella infection in vivo. AvrA is a Salmonella type-three secretion effector that is multifunctional, inhibiting intestinal inflammation and enhancing proliferation. β-catenin is a key player in intestinal renewal, inflammation, and tumorigenesis. We hypothesize that in Salmonella-infected intestine, AvrA chronically activates the β-catenin pathway and increases cell proliferation, thus deregulating the intestinal responses to bacterial infection. We followed mice with Salmonella infection for 27 wk and investigated the...

135. Influence of defunctionalization and mechanical forces on intestinal epithelial wound healing - Kovalenko, Pavlo L.; Flanigan, Thomas L.; Chaturvedi, Lakshmi; Basson, Marc D.
The influence on mucosal healing of luminal nutrient flow and the forces it creates are poorly understood. We hypothesized that altered deformation and extracellular pressure mediate, in part, the effects of defunctionalization on mucosal healing. We created patent or partially obstructing defunctionalizing jejunal Roux-en-Y anastomoses in rats to investigate mucosal healing in the absence or presence of luminal nutrient flow and measured luminal pressures to document partial obstruction. We used serosal acetic acid to induce ulcers in the proximal, distal, and defunctionalized intestinal segments. After 3 days, we assessed ulcer area, proliferation, and phosphorylated ERK. In vitro, we measured proliferation...

136. A novel nutrient sensing mechanism underlies substrate-induced regulation of monocarboxylate transporter-1 - Borthakur, Alip; Priyamvada, Shubha; Kumar, Anoop; Natarajan, Arivarasu A.; Gill, Ravinder K.; Alrefai, Waddah A.; Dudeja, Pradeep K.
Monocarboxylate transporter isoform-1 (MCT1) plays an important role in the absorption of short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) in the colon. Butyrate, a major SCFA, serves as the primary energy source for the colonic mucosa, maintains epithelial integrity, and ameliorates intestinal inflammation. Previous studies have shown substrate (butyrate)-induced upregulation of MCT1 expression and function via transcriptional mechanisms. The present studies provide evidence that short-term MCT1 regulation by substrates could be mediated via a novel nutrient sensing mechanism. Short-term regulation of MCT1 by butyrate was examined in vitro in human intestinal C2BBe1 and rat intestinal IEC-6 cells and ex vivo in rat intestinal...

137. A quantitative analysis of electrolyte exchange in the salivary duct - Patterson, Kate; Catalán, Marcelo A.; Melvin, James E.; Yule, David I.; Crampin, Edmund J.; Sneyd, James
A healthy salivary gland secretes saliva in two stages. First, acinar cells generate primary saliva, a plasma-like, isotonic fluid high in Na+ and Cl−. In the second stage, the ducts exchange Na+ and Cl− for K+ and HCO3−, producing a hypotonic final saliva with no apparent loss in volume. We have developed a tool that aims to understand how the ducts achieve this electrolyte exchange while maintaining the same volume. This tool is part of a larger multiscale model of the salivary gland and can be used at the duct or gland level to investigate the effects of genetic and...

138. Linking tumor-associated macrophages, inflammation, and intestinal tumorigenesis: role of MCP-1 - McClellan, Jamie L.; Davis, J. Mark; Steiner, Jennifer L.; Enos, Reilly T.; Jung, Seung H.; Carson, James A.; Pena, Maria M.; Carnevale, Kevin A.; Berger, Franklin G.; Murphy, E. Angela
Tumor-associated macrophages are associated with poor prognosis in certain cancers. Monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP-1) is thought to be the most important chemokine for recruitment of macrophages to the tumor microenvironment. However, its role on tumorigenesis in a genetic mouse model of colon cancer has not been explored. We examined the role of MCP-1 on tumor-associated macrophages, inflammation, and intestinal tumorigenesis. Male ApcMin/+, ApcMin/+/MCP-1−/− or wild-type mice were euthanized at 18 wk of age and intestines were analyzed for polyp burden, apoptosis, proliferation, β-catenin, macrophage number and phenotype, markers for cytotoxic T lymphocytes and regulatory T cells, and inflammatory mediators....

139. Preservation of hepatic blood flow by direct peritoneal resuscitation improves survival and prevents hepatic inflammation following hemorrhagic shock - Hurt, Ryan T.; Matheson, Paul J.; Smith, Jason W.; Zakaria, El Rasheid; Shaheen, Saad P.; McClain, Craig J.; Garrison, R. Neal
Conventional resuscitation (CR) from hemorrhagic shock (HS) results in gut and liver hypoperfusion, organ and cellular edema, and vital organ injury. Adjunct direct peritoneal resuscitation (DPR) with dialysate prevents gut vasoconstriction, hypoperfusion, and injury. We hypothesized that DPR might also improve hepatocellular edema, inflammation, and injury. Anesthetized male SD rats were assigned to groups (n = 8/group): 1) sham (no HS); 2) HS (40% MAP/60 min) + intravenous fluid conventional resuscitation [CR; shed blood + 2 vol saline (SAL)/30 min]; 3) HS+CR+DPR (30 ml ip 2.5% glucose dialysate); or 4) HS+CR+SAL (30 ml ip saline). Histopathology showed lung and liver...

140. Colitis is associated with a loss of intestinofugal neurons - Linden, David R.
Intestinofugal neurons sense and receive information regarding mechanical distension of the bowel and transmit this information to postganglionic sympathetic neurons in the prevertebral ganglia. Previous studies have demonstrated that trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS)-induced colitis is associated with a loss of myenteric neurons that occurs within the first 12 h following the inflammatory insult. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that intestinofugal neurons are among the myenteric neurons lost during TNBS-induced colitis. The retrograde tracing dye Fast Blue was used to label intestinofugal neurons, and immunohistochemical staining for the RNA-binding proteins HuC/D was used to count all...

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