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PubMed Central (PMC3 - NLM DTD) (2,840,862 recursos)
Archive of life sciences journal literature at the U.S. National Institutes of Health (NIH), developed and managed by NIH's National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) in the National Library of Medicine (NLM).

American Journal of Physiology - Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology

Mostrando recursos 121 - 140 de 877

121. Enteric nervous system development: migration, differentiation, and disease - Lake, Jonathan I.; Heuckeroth, Robert O.
The enteric nervous system (ENS) provides the intrinsic innervation of the bowel and is the most neurochemically diverse branch of the peripheral nervous system, consisting of two layers of ganglia and fibers encircling the gastrointestinal tract. The ENS is vital for life and is capable of autonomous regulation of motility and secretion. Developmental studies in model organisms and genetic studies of the most common congenital disease of the ENS, Hirschsprung disease, have provided a detailed understanding of ENS development. The ENS originates in the neural crest, mostly from the vagal levels of the neuraxis, which invades, proliferates, and migrates within...

122. Gastroesophageal reflux activates the NF-κB pathway and impairs esophageal barrier function in mice - Fang, Yu; Chen, Hao; Hu, Yuhui; Djukic, Zorka; Tevebaugh, Whitney; Shaheen, Nicholas J.; Orlando, Roy C.; Hu, Jianguo; Chen, Xiaoxin
The barrier function of the esophageal epithelium is a major defense against gastroesophageal reflux disease. Previous studies have shown that reflux damage is reflected in a decrease in transepithelial electrical resistance associated with tight junction alterations in the esophageal epithelium. To develop novel therapies, it is critical to understand the molecular mechanisms whereby contact with a refluxate impairs esophageal barrier function. In this study, surgical models of duodenal and mixed reflux were developed in mice. Mouse esophageal epithelium was analyzed by gene microarray. Gene set enrichment analysis showed upregulation of inflammation-related gene sets and the NF-κB pathway due to reflux....

123. Hepatocytes produce TNF-α following hypoxia-reoxygenation and liver ischemia-reperfusion in a NADPH oxidase- and c-Src-dependent manner - Spencer, Netanya Y.; Zhou, Weihong; Li, Qiang; Zhang, Yulong; Luo, Meihui; Yan, Ziying; Lynch, Thomas J.; Abbott, Duane; Banfi, Botond; Engelhardt, John F.
Cell line studies have previously demonstrated that hypoxia-reoxygenation (H/R) leads to the production of NADPH oxidase 1 and 2 (NOX1 and NOX2)-dependent reactive oxygen species (ROS) required for the activation of c-Src and NF-κB. We now extend these studies into mouse models to evaluate the contribution of hepatocytes to the NOX- and c-Src-dependent TNF-α production that follows H/R in primary hepatocytes and liver ischemia-reperfusion (I/R). In vitro, c-Src-deficient primary hepatocytes produced less ROS and TNF-α following H/R compared with controls. In vivo, c-Src-KO mice also had impaired TNF-α and NF-κB responses following partial lobar liver I/R. Studies in NOX1 and...

124. A disintegrin and metalloproteinase 17 regulates TNF and TNFR1 levels in inflammation and liver regeneration in mice - McMahan, Ryan S.; Riehle, Kimberly J.; Fausto, Nelson; Campbell, Jean S.
A disintegrin and metalloproteinase 17 (ADAM17), or tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α-converting enzyme, is a key metalloproteinase and physiological convertase for a number of putative targets that play critical roles in cytokine and growth factor signaling. These interdependent pathways are essential components of the signaling network that links liver function with the compensatory growth that occurs during liver regeneration following 2/3 partial hepatectomy (PH) or chemically induced hepatotoxicity. Despite identification of many soluble factors needed for efficient liver regeneration, very little is known about how such ligands are regulated in the liver. To directly study the role of ADAM17 in the...

125. TRPM5-dependent amiloride- and benzamil-insensitive NaCl chorda tympani taste nerve response - Ren, ZuoJun; Rhyu, Mee-Ra; Phan, Tam-Hao T.; Mummalaneni, Shobha; Murthy, Karnam S.; Grider, John R.; DeSimone, John A.; Lyall, Vijay
Transient receptor potential (TRP) subfamily M member 5 (TRPM5) cation channel is involved in sensing sweet, bitter, umami, and fat taste stimuli, complex-tasting divalent salts, and temperature-induced changes in sweet taste. To investigate if the amiloride- and benzamil (Bz)-insensitive NaCl chorda tympani (CT) taste nerve response is also regulated in part by TRPM5, CT responses to 100 mM NaCl + 5 μM Bz (NaCl + Bz) were monitored in Sprague-Dawley rats, wild-type (WT) mice, and TRP vanilloid subfamily member 1 (TRPV1) and TRPM5 knockout (KO) mice in the presence of resiniferatoxin (RTX), a TRPV1 agonist. In rats, NaCl + Bz...

126. Inflammation increases cells expressing ZSCAN4 and progenitor cell markers in the adult pancreas - Ko, Shigeru B. H.; Azuma, Sakiko; Yokoyama, Yukihiro; Yamamoto, Akiko; Kyokane, Kazuhiro; Niida, Shumpei; Ishiguro, Hiroshi; Ko, Minoru S. H.
We have recently identified the zinc finger and SCAN domain containing 4 (Zscan4), which is transiently expressed and regulates telomere elongation and genome stability in mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells. The aim of this study was to examine the expression of ZSCAN4 in the adult pancreas and elucidate the role of ZSCAN4 in tissue inflammation and subsequent regeneration. The expression of ZSCAN4 and other progenitor or differentiated cell markers in the human pancreas was immunohistochemically examined. Pancreas sections of alcoholic or autoimmune pancreatitis patients before and under maintenance corticosteroid treatment were used in this study. In the adult human pancreas...

127. Glucose metabolism in the Belgrade rat, a model of iron-loading anemia - Jia, Xuming; Kim, Jonghan; Veuthey, Tania; Lee, Chih-Hao; Wessling-Resnick, Marianne
The iron-diabetes hypothesis proposes an association between iron overload and glucose metabolism that is supported by a number of epidemiological studies. The prevalence of type 2 diabetes in patients with hereditary hemochromatosis and iron-loading thalassemia supports this hypothesis. The Belgrade rat carries a mutation in the iron transporter divalent metal transporter 1 (DMT1) resulting in iron-loading anemia. In this study, we characterized the glycometabolic status of the Belgrade rat. Belgrade rats displayed normal glycemic control. Insulin signaling and secretion were not impaired, and pancreatic tissue did not incur damage despite high levels of nonheme iron. These findings suggest that loss...

128. Glyoxalate reductase/hydroxypyruvate reductase interacts with the sodium-dependent vitamin C transporter-1 to regulate cellular vitamin C homeostasis - Subramanian, Veedamali S.; Nabokina, Svetlana M.; Patton, Joseph R.; Marchant, Jonathan S.; Moradi, Hamid; Said, Hamid M.
The human sodium-dependent vitamin C transporter 1 (hSVCT1) contributes to cellular uptake of ascorbic acid (AA). Although different aspects of hSVCT1 cell biology have been extensively studied, nothing is currently known about the broader hSVCT1 interactome that modulates its role in cellular physiology. Here, we identify the enzyme human glyoxalate reductase/hydroxypyruvate reductase (hGR/HPR) as an hSVCT1 associated protein by yeast two-hybrid (Y2H) screening of a human liver cDNA library. The interaction between hSVCT1 and hGR/HPR was further confirmed by in vitro GST pull-down assay, in vivo coimmunoprecipitation and mammalian two-hybrid firefly luciferase assays. This interaction had functional significance as coexpression...

129. Pathogenic role of mast cells in experimental eosinophilic esophagitis - Niranjan, Rituraj; Mavi, Parm; Rayapudi, Madhavi; Dynda, Scott; Mishra, Anil
Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is a chronic allergic disease characterized by esophageal intraepithelial eosinophils, extracellular eosinophil granule deposition, induced mast cell accumulation, and epithelial cell hyperplasia. However, the processes involved in the development of a number of these characteristics are largely unknown. Herein, we tested the hypothesis whether induced mast cell accumulation in the esophagus has a role in promoting EoE pathogenesis. Accordingly, we induced experimental EoE in wild-type mice, mast cell-deficient WWv mice, and mast cell-reconstituted WWv mice. We report that esophageal mast cell numbers increase in parallel with eosinophils in a dose- and time-dependent manner following the induction of...

130. Preterm human milk contains a large pool of latent TGF-β, which can be activated by exogenous neuraminidase - Namachivayam, Kopperuncholan; Blanco, Cynthia L.; Frost, Brandy L.; Reeves, Aaron A.; Jagadeeswaran, Ramasamy; MohanKumar, Krishnan; Safarulla, Azif; Mandal, Partha; Garzon, Steven A.; Raj, J. Usha; Maheshwari, Akhil
Human milk contains substantial amounts of transforming growth factor (TGF)-β, particularly the isoform TGF-β2. We previously showed in preclinical models that enterally administered TGF-β2 can protect against necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC), an inflammatory bowel necrosis of premature infants. In this study we hypothesized that premature infants remain at higher risk of NEC than full-term infants, even when they receive their own mother's milk, because preterm human milk contains less bioactive TGF-β than full-term milk. Our objective was to compare TGF-β bioactivity in preterm vs. full-term milk and identify factors that activate milk-borne TGF-β. Mothers who delivered between 23 0/7 and 31...

131. Is apolipoprotein A-IV rate limiting in the intestinal transport and absorption of triglyceride? - Kohan, Alison B.; Wang, Fei; Li, Xiaoming; Vandersall, Abbey E.; Huesman, Sarah; Xu, Min; Yang, Qing; Lou, Danwen; Tso, Patrick
Apolipoprotein A-IV (apoA-IV) is synthesized by the intestine and secreted when dietary fat is absorbed and transported into lymph associated with chylomicrons. We have recently demonstrated that loss of apoA-IV increases chylomicron size and delays its clearance from the blood. There is still uncertainty, however, about the precise role of apoA-IV on the transport of dietary fat from the intestine into the lymph. ApoA-IV knockout (KO) mice do not have a gross defect in dietary lipid absorption, as measured by oral fat tolerance and fecal fat measurements. Here, using the in vivo lymph fistula mouse model, we show that the...

132. Specific food structures supress appetite through reduced gastric emptying rate - Mackie, Alan R.; Rafiee, Hameed; Malcolm, Paul; Salt, Louise; van Aken, George
The aim of this study was to determine the extent to which gastric layering and retention of a meal could be used to reduce appetite using the same caloric load. Liquid (control) and semi-solid (active) meals were produced with the same protein, fat, carbohydrate, and mass. These were fed to 10 volunteers on separate days in a crossover study, and subjective appetite ratings, gastric contents, and plasma cholecystokinin (CCK) were assessed over a period of 3 h. The active meal showed food boluses in the stomach persisting for ∼45 min, slower emptying rates, and lower plasma CCK levels over the...

133. Transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 mediates chronic pancreatitis pain in mice - Cattaruzza, Fiore; Johnson, Cali; Leggit, Alan; Grady, Eileen; Schenk, A. Katrin; Cevikbas, Ferda; Cedron, Wendy; Bondada, Sandhya; Kirkwood, Rebekah; Malone, Brian; Steinhoff, Martin; Bunnett, Nigel; Kirkwood, Kimberly S.
Chronic pancreatitis (CP) is a devastating disease characterized by persistent and uncontrolled abdominal pain. Our lack of understanding is partially due to the lack of experimental models that mimic the human disease and also to the lack of validated behavioral measures of visceral pain. The ligand-gated cation channel transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 (TRPA1) mediates inflammation and pain in early experimental pancreatitis. It is unknown if TRPA1 causes fibrosis and sustained pancreatic pain. We induced CP by injecting the chemical agent trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS), which causes severe acute pancreatitis, into the pancreatic duct of C57BL/6 trpa1+/+ and trpa1-/- mice....

134. Ciliary subcellular localization of TGR5 determines the cholangiocyte functional response to bile acid signaling - Masyuk, Anatoliy I.; Huang, Bing Q.; Radtke, Brynn N.; Gajdos, Gabriella B.; Splinter, Patrick L.; Masyuk, Tatyana V.; Gradilone, Sergio A.; LaRusso, Nicholas F.
TGR5, the G protein-coupled bile acid receptor that transmits bile acid signaling into a cell functional response via the intracellular cAMP signaling pathway, is expressed in human and rodent cholangiocytes. However, detailed information on the localization and function of cholangiocyte TGR5 is limited. We demonstrated that in human (H69 cells) and rat cholangiocytes, TGR5 is localized to multiple, diverse subcellular compartments, with its strongest expression on the apical plasma, ciliary, and nuclear membranes. To evaluate the relationship between ciliary TGR5 and the cholangiocyte functional response to bile acid signaling, we used a model of ciliated and nonciliated H69 cells and...

135. Heme oxygenase-1 deficiency promotes the development of necrotizing enterocolitis-like intestinal injury in a newborn mouse model - Schulz, Stephanie; Wong, Ronald J.; Jang, Kyu Yun; Kalish, Flora; Chisholm, Karen M.; Zhao, Hui; Vreman, Hendrik J.; Sylvester, Karl G.; Stevenson, David K.
Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is typified by mucosal destruction, which subsequently can lead to intestinal necrosis. Prematurity, enteral feeding, and bacterial colonization are the main risk factors and, combined with other stressors, can cause increased intestinal permeability, injury, and an exaggerated inflammatory response. Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) mediates intestinal protection due to anti-inflammatory, antioxidative, and antiapoptotic effects of its products carbon monoxide, biliverdin, and bilirubin. This study investigates a possible role of HO-1 in the pathogenesis of NEC using a newborn mouse model. We induced NEC-like intestinal injury in 7-day-old HO-1 heterozygous (HO-1 Het, Hmox1+/-) and wild-type (Wt, Hmox1+/+) mice by gavage...

136. Emerging neuropeptide targets in inflammation: NPY and VIP - Chandrasekharan, Bindu; Nezami, Behtash Ghazi; Srinivasan, Shanthi
The enteric nervous system (ENS), referred to as the “second brain,” comprises a vast number of neurons that form an elegant network throughout the gastrointestinal tract. Neuropeptides produced by the ENS play a crucial role in the regulation of inflammatory processes via cross talk with the enteric immune system. In addition, neuropeptides have paracrine effects on epithelial secretion, thus regulating epithelial barrier functions and thereby susceptibility to inflammation. Ultimately the inflammatory response damages the enteric neurons themselves, resulting in deregulations in circuitry and gut motility. In this review, we have emphasized the concept of neurogenic inflammation and the interaction between...

137. Digestive and respiratory tract motor responses associated with eructation - Lang, Ivan M.; Medda, Bidyut K.; Shaker, Reza
We studied the digestive and respiratory tract motor responses in 10 chronically instrumented dogs during eructation activated after feeding. Muscles were recorded from the cervical area, thorax, and abdomen. The striated muscles were recorded using EMG and the smooth muscles using strain gauges. We found eructation in three distinct functional phases that were composed of different sets of motor responses: gas escape, barrier elimination, and gas transport. The gas escape phase, activated by gastric distension, consists of relaxation of the lower esophageal sphincter and diaphragmatic hiatus and contraction of the longitudinal muscle of the thoracic esophagus and rectus abdominis. All...

138. Anti-melanin-concentrating hormone treatment attenuates chronic experimental colitis and fibrosis - Ziogas, Dimitrios C.; Gras-Miralles, Beatriz; Mustafa, Sarah; Geiger, Brenda M.; Najarian, Robert M.; Nagel, Jutta M.; Flier, Sarah N.; Popov, Yury; Tseng, Yu-Hua; Kokkotou, Efi
Fibrosis represents a major complication of several chronic diseases, including inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Treatment of IBD remains a clinical challenge despite several recent therapeutic advances. Melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH) is a hypothalamic neuropeptide shown to regulate appetite and energy balance. However, accumulating evidence suggests that MCH has additional biological effects, including modulation of inflammation. In the present study, we examined the efficacy of an MCH-blocking antibody in treating established, dextran sodium sulfate-induced experimental colitis. Histological and molecular analysis of mouse tissues revealed that mice receiving anti-MCH had accelerated mucosal restitution and lower colonic expression of several proinflammatory cytokines, as well...

139. Milk osteopontin, a nutritional approach to prevent alcohol-induced liver injury - Ge, Xiaodong; Lu, Yongke; Leung, Tung-Ming; Sørensen, Esben S.; Nieto, Natalia
Alcohol consumption is a leading cause of liver disease worldwide; thus, there is an urgent need to develop novel therapeutic interventions. Key events for the onset and progression of alcoholic liver disease result in part from the gut-to-liver interaction. Osteopontin is a cytokine present at high concentration in human milk, umbilical cord, and infants' plasma with beneficial potential. We hypothesized that dietary administration of milk osteopontin could prevent alcohol-induced liver injury perhaps by maintaining gut integrity and averting hepatic inflammation and steatosis. Wild-type mice were fed either the control or the ethanol Lieber-DeCarli diets alone or in combination with milk...

140. Mast cell expression of the serotonin1A receptor in guinea pig and human intestine - Wang, Guo-Du; Wang, Xi-Yu; Zou, Fei; Qu, Meihua; Liu, Sumei; Fei, Guijun; Xia, Yun; Needleman, Bradley J.; Mikami, Dean J.; Wood, Jackie D.
Serotonin [5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT)] is released from enterochromaffin cells in the mucosa of the small intestine. We tested a hypothesis that elevation of 5-HT in the environment of enteric mast cells might degranulate the mast cells and release mediators that become paracrine signals to the enteric nervous system, spinal afferents, and secretory glands. Western blotting, immunofluorescence, ELISA, and pharmacological analysis were used to study expression of 5-HT receptors by mast cells in the small intestine and action of 5-HT to degranulate the mast cells and release histamine in guinea pig small intestine and segments of human jejunum discarded during Roux-en-Y gastric...

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