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Youngstown State University ETDs

Mostrando recursos 1 - 20 de 204

  1. Substance P Receptor Activation and Desensitization as Monitored By M Current Inhibition

    Meadows, Rena Marie
    Substance P (SP) is a neuropeptide that plays a variety of roles in the human body, including inflammation, nociception, and smooth muscle regulation. In the central and peripheral nervous systems, SP indirectly acts as an excitatory neurotransmitter by inhibiting the M-current, (IM), a time- and voltage-dependent outward potassium current. Activation of IM produces an outward (hyperpolarizing) current which acts to resist neuronal depolarization and action potential production. By inhibiting IM, SP has the ability to modulate neuronal excitability. Since activation of the SP receptor results in IM inhibition, IM amplitude was utilized in the present study as an indirect measure...

  2. Synthesis and Reactions of bis(2,2,2-Trifluoroethyl)-β-Ketophosphonates

    White, Kevin Michael
    The research contained herein is focused on a previously unreported synthesis of bis(2,2,2-trifluoroethoxy)-β-ketophosphonates via the hydration of the corresponding bis(2,2,2-trifluoroethoxy) alkynylphosphonates. The first step was to prepare all starting materials, namely the bis(2,2,2-trifluoroethyl) alkynylphosphonates from the corresponding commercially available terminal alkynes and bis(2,2,2-trifluoethoxy) phosphorochloridate. The hydration of the bis(2,2,2-trifluoroethoxy) alkynylphosphonates to yield the desired products was accomplished using mercury sulfate and 10% sulfuric acid. 2,2,2-Trifluoethanol was used as the solvent. The use of these β-keto phosphonates in the Horner-Wadsworth-Emmons reaction was also examined.

  3. Visualizing Epistemic Structures of Interrogative Domain Models

    Hughes, Tracey D.
    In this paper, we explore the concept of epistemic visualization in interrogative domains. Epistemic visualization is the process and result of developing visual models that capture the structure, content, justification and acquisition of knowledge obtained by a software agent in a knowledge-based system. The knowledge is the foundation in which the agent can respond to queries against a corpus containing questions and answers. The visualizations are therefore used to examine the quality of the software agent's knowledge. The visual models will include justification and commitment artifacts as well as knowledge acquisition flow. The visualization will demarcate the a priori and...

  4. Towards the Synthesis of N-Acetyl-2-amino-2-deoxy-D-mannopyranose uronic acid (D-ManNAcA) and Derivatives

    Cox, Glen Adam
    The following details attempts at a stereoselective synthesis of deoxygenated D-mannose uronic acid derivatives from D-glucurono-6,3-lactone. These derivatives will be tested as potential inhibitors of enzymes used by Staphylococcus aureus to form its polysaccharide microcapsule, which functions as a protective barrier against destruction by the host. Two serotypes (types 5 and 8) comprise the majority of S. aureus bacteria and also the most virulent strains of this bacterium. The goal of this research project is to synthesize glycomimetics of D-ManNAcA that may act as potential inhibitors of the enzymes such as UDP-GlcNAc 2-epimerase. Since infections caused by S. aureus are an increasing...

  5. Chamber Symphony No.1(Evick)/ Symmetrical and Structural Features in Sonata No.2, Mvt.1, violin and piano.(Béla Bartók)

    Evick, Jason W.
    This thesis examines the musical language of the first movement of Béla Bartók's Sonata no. 2, for violin and piano (1922). Exploring the use of inversional symmetry, interval cycles, octatonic harmony and the use of Z-cells. It shows how Bartók used symmetry to function analogously to tonal procedures; and examines the form of the movement, its shape, melodic/harmonic content, and climatic structure. Analytic methods are based primarily on the research of Elliott Antokoletz and the theory of twelve tone tonality. The movement's structure and various developmental procedures are presented. Detailed analysis is provided, showing Bartók's use of symmetry, and Z-cell...

  6. Applied Fuzzy Logic Controls for Improving Dynamic Response of Induction Machines

    Syed, Altaf Ahmad
    This thesis presents a novel approach in control systems for improving the dynamic response of the induction machine. This approach leads to a better and improved control of the torque and current response of the induction machine when compared to the classical proportional-integral (PI) type controller with de-coupling terms. Mismatches in the actual parameters and the estimated parameters of the induction machine occur for several reasons such as: incorrect parameter estimation, changes in stator and rotor inductance due to saturation, stator and rotor resistance varying with temperature, etc. Under the classical approach, the de-coupling errors resulting from the parameter mismatches...

  7. “One-Pot” Synthesis of Organic Azides from Alcohols and Protected Sugars

    Hartranft, Charles Alan
    This thesis deals with a novel “one-pot” synthesis of organic azides from simple alcohols as well as protected sugars. Experimentation led to the successful azidation of both classes of compounds while providing for the isolation and characterization of unexpected byproducts and side reactions. All findings were strongly supported by previous literature while yields of azide products isolated in this research were more than adequate.

  8. Land Cover Classification Using Linear Support Vector Machines

    Shakeel, Mohammad Danish
    GIS has been an effective tool in identifying and recognizing urban patterns. Various techniques like Support Vector Machines, artificial neural networks have been used with GIS to classify the patterns for urban analysis. Liblinear has emerged as another effective tool which produces results in much lesser time without compromising the accuracy. In this thesis the datasets used were extracted using GIS. The datasets were from the Ohio state counties namely the Delaware, Holmes, Mahoning and Medina counties. Each had over a million records and contained seven independent variables related to urban development and a class label which denotes the urban...

  9. Hydride Generation and Laser Spectroscopy Techniques for Trace Analytical Measurements of Antimony and Selenium

    Chari, Sangeetha
    Hydride generation (HG) sample introduction increases the sensitivity for certain metal species by converting them to their gaseous forms for measurement by atomic spectrometry techniques. In this work, measurement methods have been developed for the trace analysis of antimony (Sb) and selenium (Se) using HG coupled to Laser Induced Fluorescence (LIF) or Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) detection techniques. In the LIF studies, aqueous samples of Sb are subjected to HG and the Sb hydride is carried to the flame which acts as an atomization source. The wavelengths of absorption and fluorescence emission for Sb were found to be 212.7...

  10. Carbenoid Insertion Chemistry on Furanose Platforms as a Route to Natural Product Frameworks

    Patton, Jennie L.
    The following describes a successful synthetic pathway to create an analog of the natural product (+)-dihydrocanadensolide from the inexpensive and readily available D-xylose. The pathway will describe protecting group chemistry, an esterification, a diazo transfer reaction, and the key step being a metal-catalyzed intramolecular insertion reaction. The metal catalyst used in this step is rhodium(II) acetate and it will be shown to catalyze the decomposition of a diazoester, thus creating a new carbon-carbon bond by carbenoid insertion chemistry. The end result is a bicyclic compound with a fused furan ring system common to many important and useful natural products.

  11. Assessing the Impact of Developmental Mathematics on College Students

    Harris, Miles J.
    A study was performed to assess the effectiveness of the developmental mathematics program at Youngstown State University. For this study, two cohort groups of developmental mathematics students were selected, and the success rate of both groups in their developmental and subsequent college-level courses was tracked. The results of the cohort study was compared to the success rates found in a population study, to check if the developmental students performed as well in their college-level courses as the population. For every college-level course tracked in this study, there was no statistically significant difference in the passing rate of the cohort groups...

  12. Synthesis and Structural Analysis of Novel Bis(triazole) UDP Analogs as Potential Glycosyl Transferase Inhibitors

    Knapp, Steven E.
    The following details the synthesis of a novel bis(1,2,3-triazole), which is a potential glycosyltransferase inhibitor. A glycosyltransferase is an enzyme that is involved in the synthesis of polysaccharides, for example the capsule that protects Staphylococcus aureus. Bis(1,2,3-triazoles) may mimic the UDP conjugates of aminosugars (D-ManNAcA, D-FucNAc, and L-FucNAc) found in the capsular polysaccharide of S. aureus, and may prevent the formation of the capsular polysaccharide leaving the bacteria open to attack by phagocytosis or antibiotics. Bis(1,2,3-triazole) groups will be used to replace the phosphate linkages in the UDP-parent aminosugars. Bis(1,2,3-triazoles) may mimic the diphosphate linkage in binding to a transferase...

  13. Laser Spectroscopy Sensors for Measurement of Trace Gaseous Formaldehyde

    Boddeti, Ravi K.
    A sensitive and direct method to determine atmospheric formaldehyde (HCHO) using laser induced fluorescence spectroscopy (LIF) is described. This technique overcomes the tedious sample collections, water extraction and chemical reactions that are often required in conventional methods. In this LIF approach, the third harmonic of a nontunable Nd:YAG laser at 355 nm is used as a selective excitation wavelength for formaldehyde. Studies at alternative excitation wavelengths have also been performed using 341 nm and 309 nm, which are obtained by Stimulated Raman Scattering of nontunable Nd:YAG laser radiation at 266 nm and 355 nm, respectively. The calibration response is linear...

  14. The Impact on Student Achievement of the Pennsylvania System of School Assessment (PSSA) Prep Program

    Wyllie, John A., Jr.
    As public school accountability for student achievement has continued to increase, prior to and as a result of the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001, schools have sought ways of bringing new instructional services to their students to raise their levels of achievement. This doctoral study investigated the effects of one such attempt in a large school district in Western Pennsylvania, the PSSA Prep Program. Data were collected on one class of students who participated for one year in the program as juniors and compared with students who were not participants. Similar comparisons between participants and non-participants were made within...

  15. An Evaluator's Perspective on Youngstown's Northside Weed and Seed Strategy, Year One

    Stein, Stacey M.
    The paper is an evaluation of the Youngstown Northside Weed and Seed Strategy in its first year. The purpose of the study is to determine if crime has decreased within the target area during the strategy's first year, determine how many crime prevention/community programs are in action and investigate collaboration among Steering Committee members. The methodology consists of content analysis, secondary analysis and a focus group. The analysis compares the number of crimes for 2005, 2006, and 2007. The future of the Weed and Seed strategy depends on the dedication and commitment of Steering Committee members; it is imperative for...

  16. Carbon Dioxide Capture from Power Plant Flue Gas using Regenerable Activated Carbon Powder Impregnated with Potassium Carbonate

    Ebune, Guilbert Ebune
    Adsorption is considered one of the more promising technologies for capturing CO2 from flue gases. This research shows an efficient chemical adsorption method capable of capturing carbon dioxide under moist conditions from flue gases of coal-fired power plants. Carbon dioxide was chemically adsorbed by the reaction K2CO3*1.5H2O + CO2 ↔ 2KHCO3 + 0.5H2O + heat. Moisture however, plays a significant role in the chemical adsorption process, which readily facilitates the adsorption process. Moisture usually contained as high as 8-17% in flue gases, badly affects the capacity of conventional adsorbents such as zeolites, but the present technology has no concern with...

  17. Application of Proteomics in the Investigation of Morphogenesis in Wangiella Dermatitidis

    Breidenbaugh, Caralisa
    Wangiella dermatitidis is a melanized, pathogenic, polymorphic fungus that in vitro grows primarily in a yeast form, but is capable of morphological changes resulting in growth as either hyphae (filaments) or swollen, multicellular bodies. The latter morphology strongly resembles the in vivo form of tissues infected with W. dermatitidis and other closely-related fungi. Each of these three morphologies can be readily induced through varying growth conditions of the wild-type strain or by culture of developmental mutants. Of particular interest is the conversion of the yeast phase to the multicellular growth form, which is the focus of the present study. Whole-cell,...

  18. Fabrication and Characterization of Substrate Materials for Trace Analytical Measurements by Surface Enhanced Raman Scattering (SERS) Spectroscopy Technique

    Vabbilisetty, Pratima
    The detection of various compounds using Surface enhanced Raman Scattering (SERS) from colloidal suspensions of silver and gold colloids has been attempted. Different substrates have been utilized and SERS spectra for R6G, creatinine, imidazole and benzoic acid have been evaluated as a function of time. SERS investigations have been performed using model compounds to allow comparison between the substrates. Different concentrations of R6G have been used for the valuation of the analytical capabilities. Silver and gold colloids have been prepared and used for SERS measurements and for the fabrication of substrates having a layer of immobilized metal nanoparticles.

  19. Personal and Institutional Factors Affecting School Administrators' Career Advancement Decisions

    Jeffords, Charles W.
    The purpose of this research was to identify personal and institutional factors utilized by school administrators to make career advancement decisions. A survey of 639 masters' of educational administration, licensure, and doctoral students that attended Youngstown State University from 2002 to 2007 was conducted in the spring of 2008. Responses yielded sufficient data from which to identify factors and draw conclusions regarding the issue of school administrator shortages across the country. Current literature provided substantial evidence that several states have encountered school administrator shortages. However, their efforts have not yielded specific factors contributing to the shortages nor have effective solutions been...

  20. Laser Spectroscopy Sensor for Measurements of Trace Gaseous Sulfur Dioxide (SO2)

    Matta, Anand
    Laser Induced Fluorescence (LIF) using non tunable laser sources is a method which has been studied for the measurement of atmospheric sulfur dioxide (SO2). As this approach is direct, there is no need of sample collection or sample concentration and the air sample can be used directly for analysis. In the approach used in these studies, a Nd:YAG laser operating at 266 nm, which is the fourth harmonic of this non-tunable laser, is used as an excitation source. Other wavelengths of excitation at 199 nm, 217 nm and 223 nm can also be used and are produced by Stimulated Raman...

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