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Intrinsic Motivation in the Labor Market: Not Too Much, Thank You - Barigozzi, Francesca; Burani, Nadia
We study the screening problem of a firm that needs to hire a worker to produce output and that can not observe either the productive ability or the intrinsic motivation of the worker applying for the job. We completely characterize the set of optimal contracts and we show that it is always in the firm’s interest to hire all types of worker, even the worst ones, and to offer different contracts to different types of employees. Interestingly, the smallest distortions arise when motivation is high but not as much as to become more significant than productive ability. Moreover, when motivation...
Migration Costs and Networks: household optimal investment in migration - Gentili, Andrea
International migration is an expensive form of investment, that only households relatively better off can afford. However poorer households have the higher incentive to migrate. Migration decision is conditional on the entry cost, expected returns and risks of migration. This paper, using data from Mexican rural and urban areas, examines the relation between household and community networks and costs and risks of migration focusing on the optimal investment in migration. To investigate an household optimal number of migrants this paper introduces a Three Step procedure to solve simultaneously for the endogeneity of network size and possible selection of migrants. The...
Cumulative Causation at Work: Intergenerational Transfers and Social Capital in a Spatially Varied Economy - Gentili, Andrea; Ferretti, Luca
This paper models the dynamic of migration with a particular focus on the cumulative process that causes a variation in the distribution of income in sending communities and therefore a variation in the distribution of skills across different cohorts. The model provides a theoretical framework to Cumulative Causation theory of migration and specifically a theoretical rationale behind the use of migration prevalence ratio to study migration flows. Moreover the model shows how brain drain (in sending communities) and negative cohort effect in terms of education (in receiving communities) are the result of a positive selection of migrants in terms of...
Dynamics of Investment and Firm Performance: Comparative evidence from manufacturing industries - Grazzi, Marco; Jacoby, Nadia; Treibich, Tania
If the relation between investment and economic growth is well established in the macroeconomic literature, the existence of a similar link at the level of the firm has been challenged by empirical work. This paper investigates the channels linking investment and firm performance in the French and Italian manufacturing industries. It does so by putting forth a novel methodology to identify investment spikes that corrects for size dependence. While maintaining the desired properties of a spike measure, our chosen proxy retrieves the expected relation between investment and firm performance. Ex-ante, more efficient and fast growing firms display a higher probability...
Paying not to sell - Bacchiega, Emanuele; Bonroy, Olivier; Mabrouk, Rania
In this paper we show that, in the presence of buyer and seller power, a monopolist can enter into a costly contractual relationship with a low-quality supplier with the sole intention of improving its bargaining position relative to a high-quality supplier, without ever selling the good produced by that firm.
Rules of Thumb for Banking Crises in Emerging Markets - Manasse, Paolo; Savona, Roberto; Vezzoli, Marika
This paper employs a recent statistical algorithm (CRAGGING) in order to build an early warning model for banking crises in emerging markets. We perturb our data set many times and create “artificial” samples from which we estimated our model, so that, by construction, it is flexible enough to be applied to new data for out-of-sample prediction. We find that, out of a large number (540) of candidate explanatory variables, from macroeconomic to balance sheet indicators of the countries’ financial sector, we can accurately predict banking crises by just a handful of variables. Using data over the period from 1980 to...
Obesity and smoking: can we catch two birds with one tax? - Dragone, Davide; Manaresi, Francesco; Savorelli, Luca
The debate on tobacco taxes and fat taxes often treats smoking and eating as independent behaviors. However, since there exists medical and sociological evidence about
the interdependence between eating and smoking choices, antismoking policies may also affect the obesity prevalence and fat taxes could influence smoking behavior. We address
this issue from a theoretical standpoint and propose a dynamic rational model where eating and smoking are simultaneous choices that jointly affect body weight and addiction to smoking. Focusing on direct and cross price effects, we compare tobacco taxes and fat taxes and we show that a single policy tool can reduce both...
Dalla "critica della trascendenza" alla "fenomenologia della vita". Alle radici del percorso teoretico di Michel Henry - Formisano, Roberto
Nella grandiosa elaborazione di "L'Essence de la manifestation" (1965), Michel Henry ha di fatto definitivamente posto in evidenza i princìpi fondamentali della sua "phénoménologie de la vie". In ragione della sua radicale "critica della trascendenza" - non senza un decisivo contrasto con le analisi heideggeriane di "Sein und Zeit" - Henry ha da sempre rivendicato e difeso l'irriducibile eterogeneità della "verità originaria" rispetto alla ek-staticità del mondo. Questo studio offre una ricostruzione "dall'interno" del percorso teoretico compiuto da Michel Henry: criticamente segue lo sviluppo argomentativo di "L'Essence de la manifestation" per mezzo del quale sono determinati i caratteri fenomenologici costitutivi...
Multidimensional micro-level competitiveness measurement: a SEM-based approach - Bernardini Papalia, Rosa; Donno, Annalisa
The concept of competitiveness, for a long time considered as strictly connected to economic and financial performances, evolved, above all in recent years, toward new, wider interpretations disclosing its multidimensional nature. The shift to a multidimensional view of the phenomenon has excited an intense debate involving theoretical reflections on the features characterizing it, as well as methodological considerations on its assessment and measurement. The present research has a twofold objective: going in depth with the study of tangible and intangible aspect characterizing multidimensional competitive phenomena by assuming a micro-level point of view, and measuring competitiveness through a model-based approach. Specifically,...
Being nice with the experimenter? - Giannetti, Caterina; Orsini, Raimondello
This paper investigates the determinants of reciprocity towards the experimenters in the lab under a flat-wage scheme. We find that personality attributes – such as agreeableness – help predict the behaviour of the subjects. We additionally propose and assess a general measure of reciprocity.
Innovation diffusion, technological convergence and economic growth - Andergassen, Rainer; Nardini, Franco; Ricottilli, Massimo
The paper investigates the mechanics through which novel technological principles are developed and diffused throughout an economy consisting of a technologically heterogeneous ensemble of firms. In the model entrepreneurs invest in the discovery and in the diffusion of a technological principle and their profit flow depends on how many firms adopt the innovation and on how long it takes other entrepreneurs to improve it. We show that technological convergence emerges from the competition among entrepreneurs for the profit flow and characterize the economy's growth rate.
Bergson e la filosofia tedesca. 1907-1932 - Zanfi, Caterina
Questo saggio racconta una storia in gran parte dimenticata: quella dei rapporti di Bergson con la filosofia tedesca del suo tempo. Da L’evoluzione creatrice (1907) a Le due fonti della morale e della religione (1932) Bergson ridefinisce profondamente la propria filosofia, arricchendola di nuovi temi antropologici nei quali sono riconoscibili gli echi del dibattito tedesco sulla filosofia della vita. Attraverso l’analisi delle polemiche «tedesche» che in quegli anni riguardarono o coinvolsero Bergson, viene qui studiata non soltanto la ricezione dell’opera bergsoniana in Germania ma anche l’impatto durevole di questo intenso dialogo, sia sulla filosofia del pensatore francese (Le due fonti)...
SMART-M3 v.0.9: A semantic event processing engine supporting information level interoperability in ambient intelligence - Morandi, Francesco; Vergari, Fabio; D'Elia, Alfredo; Roffia, Luca; Salmon Cinotti, Tullio
This tutorial is addressed to all students in Electronic Engineering and Information Engineering at the Scuola di Ingegneria e Architettura of the University of Bologna attending the following courses: Laboratory of Interoperability of Embedded Systems, "Calcolatori Elettronici M" and "Attività Progettuale di Calcolatori Elettronici M".
This tutorial includes the guidelines to build distributed applications where clients may interact with physical space. Inter-client interaction occurs through a semantic event processing engine. Information interoperability is based on a shared knowledge representation model named ontology. This tutorial is focused on client design and on the SPARQL primitives that provide the means for client-event processing...
Eureka! L'ultima Stagione del Living Theatre - Cutugno, Carmela
Il Living Theatre è, con buona probabilità, la Compagnia che più di ogni altra ha determinato il sorgere e l’evolversi di quella fase del secondo Novecento che viene generalmente definita “Nuovo Teatro”. Ereditando il prezioso contributo degli studi condotti sugli anni iniziali e centrali del Living, questo lavoro si propone invece di spingersi cronologicamente un pò oltre, prendendo in esame l’ultima stagione dell’ensemble newyorkese. Risultato di successive fasi di un progetto di ricerca sul campo, queste pagine raccontano infatti, tramite le voci e le testimonianze dirette dei suoi protagonisti, l’apertura, nell’aprile del 2007, del nuovo spazio teatrale del Living Theatre...
Testing the Internal Validity of Compulsory School Reforms as
Instrument for Years of Schooling - Brunello, Giorgio; Fort, Margherita; Weber, Guglielmo; Weiss, Christoph
In the large empirical literature that investigates the causal effects of education on outcomes such as health,
wages and crime, it is customary to measure education with years of schooling, and to identify these effects using the exogenous variation provided by school reforms increasing compulsory education and minimum school leaving age. If these reforms are correlated to changes in school quality, and school quality is an omitted variable, this identification strategy may fail. We test whether this is the case by using the information provided by two distinct test scores on mathematics and reading and find that we cannot reject the...
Varying coefficient models as Mixed Models : reparametrization methods and bayesian estimation - Freni Sterrantino, Anna
Non-linear relationships are accommodated in a regression model using smoothing functions. Interaction may occurs between continuous variable, in this case interaction between nonlinear and linear covariate leads to varying coefficent model (VCM), a subclass of generalized additive model. Additive models can be estimated as generalized linear mixed models, after being reparametrized. In this article we show three different type of matrix design for mixed model for VCM, by applying b-spline smoothing functions. An application on real data is provided and model estimates re computed with a Bayesian approach.
Mortality Salience, Self-esteem and Status Seeking - Giannetti, Caterina; Orsini, Raimondello
According to the Terror Management Theory, the fear of death may induce anxiety and threaten individual self-esteem. To remove this fear, individuals need to obtain and sustain self-esteem, for example by competing in rank order tournaments, or by focusing on status seeking. Within an experimental setting, this paper investigates the effect of Mortality Salience on individual productivity, manipulating the information on subjects’ relative performance in a real-effort task where the economic incentive is to not perform: in a first treatment subjects receive only private feedback, which may have effects on productivity via individual self-esteem, while in a second treatment subjects...
Determinants and Effects of Innovative Activities in Vietnam.
A Firm-level Analysis - Tran, Hien Thu; Santarelli, Enrico
This paper investigates the determinants of innovative activities and the innovation-performance relationship for the firm population in Vietnam in
three consecutive stages: decision – investment – outcome. Cragg’s two-tiered dynamic type-2 Tobit model and instrumental variable GMM method are applied to
control for the selectivity and endogeneity of R&D and innovation. After controlling for ownership types, industry and regional fixed-effects, key findings
include: (i) R&D and innovation activities not only stimulate firms’ profitability and growth of sales, but also increase their survival propensity; (ii)
private innovative firms significantly outperform their peers whereas the combination of young, small, and innovative characteristics...